Afm, Nanomaterial, Cellulose

In: Science

Submitted By LyndonZ
Words 2837
Pages 12
VoLUME 56, NUMBER

PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS

9

3 MAR. cH 1986

Atomic Force Microscope
G. Binnig"~

and C.

F. Quate'

Edward L Gi.nzton Laboratory, Stanford University,

'

Stanford, California 94305

and

Ch.

Gerber"

IBM San Jose Research Laboratory, San Jose, California 95193
I, Received 5 December
1985)
The scanning tunneling microscope is proposed as a method to measure forces as small as 10
N. As one application for this concept, we introduce a new type of microscope capable of investigating surfaces of insulators on an atomic scale. The atomic force microscope is a combination of the principles of the scanning tunneling microscope and the stylus profilometer. It incorporates a does not damage the surface. Our preliminary results in air demonstrate a lateral resoluprobe that 0
0
tion of 30 A and a vertical resolution less than 1 A.
PACS numbers:

68.35.Gy

%e are concerned

in this paper with the measurement of ultrasmall forces on particles as small as single atoms. %e propose to do this by monitoring the elastic deformation of various types of springs with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). ' It has been a

common practice to use the displacement of springs as a measure of force, and previous methods have relied on electrostatic fields, magnetostatic fields, optical waves, and x rays. Jones~ has reviewed the devices that use variable capacitances and he reports that displacements of 10 4 A can be measured. SQUIDs3 are superconducting elements that measure the expulsion of magnetic fields in variable-inductance devices. They are used in gravity gradiometers to measure displacements of 10 6 A. Tabor and co-workers in their work with van der Waals forces have used optical interference methods to measure displacements of 1 A.
With an x-ray interferometer constructed from a single crystal of…...

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