An Investigation on Workpiece Reinforcement Percentage on Volume of Sic Particles on A356 Alloy

In: Science

Submitted By deepakdgl
Words 1713
Pages 7
An Investigation on workpiece reinforcement percentage on volume of SiC particles on A356 alloy

S.Madhavan1*, Deepak2, D.Hariprasad3, N.Muthukrishnan4

1,2,3,4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Venkateswara college of Engineering, Pennalur, Sriperumbudur – 602 105, Tamil Nadu, India

1*Corresponding author, Phone: 09543193510/ (044)26572970, e-mail:


Aluminum silicon carbide Metal Matrix Composites (Al-MMC) are widely used in aeronautical and automobile industries due to their excellent mechanical and physical properties. However machining this composites find difficult because of the reinforcement particles. Tools wear more quickly and reduce the life of the tool. This paper presents the experimental investigation on machining two different A356 matrix metal reinforced with 10 % and 20 % by weight of Silicon carbide (SiCp) particles is fabricated in house by stir casting method. Fabricated samples are turned on medium duty lathe with Poly crystalline Diamond (PCD) insert of 1600 grade at various cutting conditions. Parameters such as power consumed by main spindle, machined surface roughness and tool wear are studied and influence of SiC particles percentage on tool wear also discussed. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images support the result. It is evident that, tool wear is strongly dependent on reinforcement percentage.
Key words: A356 Alloy, PCD, Power consumed, Surface roughness, SiC percentage
1. Introduction

Metallic matrix composites have found considerable applications in aerospace, automotive and electronic industries [1] because of their improved strength, stiffness and increased wear resistance over unreinforced alloys [2]. However, the final conversion of these composites in to engineering products is always associated with machining, either by turning or by milling. A…...

Similar Documents

Industry Investigation common. They are all composed of matter which is defined as anything that takes up space and has mass. Matter is generally considered to be a substance (often a particle) that has rest mass and (usually) also volume. Mass and weight are not really the same. The mass of a body is a measure of its resistance to a change in its velocity. Weight refers to the force with which an object of a certain mass is attracted by gravity to the earth or other body that may be near such as moon. The volume is determined by the three-dimensional space it occupies, while the mass is defined by the usual ways that mass is measured. Matter is also a general term for the substance of which all observable physical objects consist Properties of Substances Physical (Properties and Changes) A physical property is one that is displayed without any change in composition. (Intensive or Extensive) 1. Intensive: A physical property that will be the same regardless of the amount of matter.  density: m/v • color: The pigment or shade  • conductivity: electricity to flow through the substance • malleability: if a substance can be flattened • luster: how shiny the substance looks  2. Extensive: A physical property that will change if the amount of matter changes. • mass: how much matter in the sample • volume: How much space the sample takes up • length: How long the sample is  Physical Change Change in which the matter's physical appearance is altered, but......

Words: 5205 - Pages: 21

Aluminum Matrix Composite

... * In order to provide high level of mechanical properties of the composite, good interfacial * bonding (wetting) between the dispersed phase and the liquid matrix should be obtained. * Wetting improvement may be achieved by coating the dispersed phase particles (fibers). Proper * coating not only reduces interfacial energy, but also prevents chemical interaction between the * dispersed phase and the matrix. * The simplest and the most cost effective method of liquid state fabrication is Stir Casting. * 26 * Stir Casting * Stir Casting is a liquid state method of composite materials fabrication, in which a dispersed * phase (ceramic particles, short fibers) is mixed with a molten matrix metal by means of * mechanical stirring. * The liquid composite material is then cast by conventional casting methods and may also be * processed by conventional Metal forming technologies. * Stir Casting is characterized by the following features: * Content of dispersed phase is limited (usually not more than 30 vol. %). * Distribution of dispersed phase throughout the matrix is not perfectly homogeneous: * 1. There are local clouds (clusters) of the dispersed particles (fibers); * 2. There may be gravity segregation of the dispersed phase due to a difference in * the densities of the dispersed and matrix phase. * The technology is relatively simple and low cost. * Distribution of dispersed phase may be......

Words: 3738 - Pages: 15

Fabrication of Aa6360/8vol. % (Ticp+B4Cp) Hybrid Surface Composite by Friction Stir Processing

...stir processing (FSP) has been applied by several researchers to produce surface modification of metallic materials. The feasibility to produce TiC and B4C particle reinforced aluminum (AA6360) hybrid matrix composites (AHMCs) were studied in this paper. The measured content of TiC and B4C powders were compacted into a groove of 0.5 mm X 5 mm. Double pass FSP was carried out using a FSW tool at rotational speed of 1600 rpm, processing speed of 60 mm/min and axial force of 8 kN. A tool made of HCHCr steel; oil hardened to 62 HRC, having cylindrical threaded profile was used in this study. Optical micrographs revealed a defect free FSP zone. TiC and B4C particles were uniformly distributed and well bonded with the matrix alloy. The hardness of the FSW zone increased to 25% higher than that of the matrix alloy. Key words: Surface composite, Friction stir processing, TiC, B4C. 1. Introduction Aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) reinforced with ceramic particles exhibit high strength, high elastic modulus, and improved resistance to wear, creep and fatigue compared with unreinforced metals which make them promising structural materials for aerospace and automobile industries. However, these composites also suffer from a great loss in ductility and toughness due to the incorporation of non-deformable ceramic reinforcements, which limits their wide applications to a certain extent [1]. The surface properties dictate the life span of components in several applications. A......

Words: 1812 - Pages: 8

Economic Investigation

...Dr. Stella Madueme. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(4), 2010, 610-617 Gas Flaring activities of major oil companies in Nigeria: An economic investigation. Dr. Stella Madueme Department of Economics University of Nigeria, Nsukka Enugu State, Nigeria Abstract This paper reveals the general trends in gas flaring in seven major oil companies in Nigeria from 2000 to 2008. It reveals which company’s flaring activities constitutes the greatest hazard. Data was collected through archival sources. Gas flaring activities was highest between 2000 to2002 but presently only about a quarter of all gas produced is flared. TEXACO and PAN OCEAN has been flaring more than 95% of its gas from 2000 to 2008. SHELL was discovered to maintain the best record in terms of the fact that its flaring activities has been decreasing consistently over the years. Some of the recommendations are planned targeted policies towards gas flaring reduction, increased government taxation on gas flaring and governmental reward packages to companies with lowest flaring activities are also necessitated. Keywords: Oil company. Gas. Flaring, economic, environmental, hazard Introduction and literature review Gas flaring has been recognised as an economic waste and a great environmental hazard. Various researchers have written extensively on various issues in the gas sector. Blasing, Hand and Kimberly (2007) worked on monthly carbon emissions from natural gas flaring and cement......

Words: 2578 - Pages: 11


...10%and help generate $55.5 million • AOL is a good medium to hit their target market and in general can help increase site visits, registrations, online orders and customer database o More than a third of visitors to the Alloy site used AOL as their internet service provider o More people are going online and using the internet, especially Generation Y o Will help Alloy increase sales as more and more competitors continue to enter the marketplace • Will help Alloy continue to build the 3Cs: Community, Content, and Commerce Cons • Would have to spend $2million o Money could be invested somewhere else that would help the company make more profit than they would partnering with AOL • Risks giving up a lot of control to AOL • High cost per thousand exposures on AOL • Online clothing industry is already oversaturated • There are many other advertisements on the web and internet users’ attentions are easily diverted QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS The contribution margin of each marketing strategy is calculated below based on 1000 customers. As an average sales between $65 (in spring) and $85 (in winter), we assume each response to generate $75. In addition, we assume cost of goods sold to be 50% of sales, roughly based on data from Exhibit 5 in the Alloy case. 1. Responses from past buyers 1000 names x 3% response rates = 30 orders 2. Responses from new names 1000 names x 1.5% response rates = 15 orders 3. Responses from swapped names 1000 names x 3% response......

Words: 582 - Pages: 3


...Percentages 1. Two numbers are greater than the third number by 25% and 20% respectively. What % of the first number is second number? 2. A batsman scored 110 runs which included 3 boundaries and 8 sixes. What percent of his total score did he make by running between the wickets? 3. Two students appeared at an examination. One of them secured 9 marks more than the other and his marks was 56% of the sum of their marks. The marks obtained by them are? 4. In a certain school, 20% of students are below 8 years of age. The number of students above 8 years of age is of the number of students of 8 years age which is 48. What is the total number of students in the school? 5. In an election between two candidates, one got 55% of the total valid votes, 20% of the votes were invalid. If the total number of votes was 7500, the number of valid votes that the other candidate got, was? 6. The daily wages of a worker increases by 20%, but the number of hours worked by him per week drops by 20%. If he was originally getting Rs.500 per week, how much will he get now? 7. Gauri went to the stationers and bought things worth Rs. 25, out of which 30 paisa went on sales tax on taxable purchases. If the tax rate was 6%, then what was the cost of the tax free items? 8. Rajeev buys good worth Rs. 6650. He gets a rebate of 6% on it. After getting the rebate, he pays sales tax @ 10%. Find the amount he will have to pay for the......

Words: 1370 - Pages: 6

Energy Impact Assessment of Sic

... Assessing the potential of renewable energy as a primary source for residential college campuses – Evidences from SIC1 PANKAJ CHOUDHARY1, MOHIT LAKHOTIA2, KRISHNAROOP DEY3 and VIRINDER GUPTA4 1Student, MBA, Symbiosis Centre for Management and human resource development (SCMHRD), 2Student, MBA, Symbiosis Centre for Management and human resource development (SCMHRD),, 3Student, MBA, Symbiosis Centre for Management and human resource development (SCMHRD),, 4Student, MBA, Symbiosis Centre for Management and human resource development (SCMHRD), ABSTRACT This exercise is being conducted at 1Symbiosis Infotech campus (SIC) located in Hinjewadi, Pune, India. The campus is pervaded by a sense of endless space and tranquillity, this picturesque campus is spread over five acres, boasts an academic block which is of international standards and separate hostels for boys and girls along with the accommodation for the faculty. The primary objective of this study is to understand the consumption patterns and identify potential areas for improvement in energy consumption within the residential campus. The study involves making a cost-benefit analysis of present energy sources with respect to renewable energy sources. This will include water electricity along with paper and gas consumption in the campus. This is to assess the potential of running a greener campus .The study......

Words: 1941 - Pages: 8

Particle Swarm Optimization

...Inertia-Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimizer for Improved Global Search Kaushik Suresh, Sayan Ghosh, Debarati Kundu, Abhirup Sen, Swagatam Das and * Ajith Abraham 1 Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India * Center of Excellence for Quantifiable Quality of Service, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Abstract This paper describes a method for improving the final accuracy and the convergence speed of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) by adapting its inertia factor in the velocity updating equation and also by adding a new coefficient to the position updating equation. These modifications do not impose any serious requirements on the basic algorithm in terms of the number of Function Evaluations (FEs). The new algorithm has been shown to be statistically significantly better than four recent variants of PSO on an eight-function test-suite for the following performance matrices: Quality of the final solution, time to find out the solution, frequency of hitting the optima, and scalability. 1. Introduction The concept of particle swarms, although initially introduced for simulating human social behavior, has become very popular these days as an efficient means of intelligent search and optimization. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) [1, 2], does not require any gradient information of the function to be optimized, uses only primitive......

Words: 4201 - Pages: 17

Hydrometer Particle Size Analysis

...Particle Size Analysis - Hydrometer CEE340-340L Engineering Geology and Lab Prepared for: Instructor: Kyungan (Karen) Min, Ph.D, P.E. Teaching Assistant: Casey Janisch Prepared by: Abdelrahman Mohsen Submitted On: 10/28/2014 Introduction: The particle size analysis is widely used in classification of soils. The data obtained from particle size distribution curves is used in the design of filters for dams and to determine the suitability of soil for road construction and air fields. Hydrometer test is used to determine what type of clay is predominant in a given soil to be later used by Civil Engineers in construction. Objective: To determine the particle-size distribution of a given soil sample for the fraction that is finer than No. 200 sieve size (0.075 mm). The lower limit of the particle-size determined by this procedure is about 0.001 mm. In hydrometer analysis, a soil specimen is dispersed in water. In a dispersed state in the water, the soil particles will settle at different velocities over time. The hydrometer will measure the specific gravity of the soil-water suspension. Hydrometer readings will be taken at specific time intervals to measure the percentage of soil still in suspension at time t. From this data the percentage of soil by weight finer and the diameters (D) of the soil particles at their respective time readings can be calculated. A graph of the diameter (D) vs. percent finer can be plotted to develop a particle-size......

Words: 1166 - Pages: 5


...PERCENTAGES: THE MOST USEFUL STATISTICS EVER INVENTED Thomas R. Knapp © 2010 "Eighty percent of success is showing up." - Woody Allen “Baseball is ninety percent mental and the other half is physical.” - Yogi Berra "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." - Thomas Edison Preface You know what a percentage is. 2 out of 4 is 50%. 3 is 25% of 12. Etc. But do you know enough about percentages? Is a percentage the same thing as a fraction or a proportion? Should we take the difference between two percentages or their ratio? If their ratio, which percentage goes in the numerator and which goes in the denominator? Does it matter? What do we mean by something being statistically significant at the 5% level? What is a 95% confidence interval? Those questions, and much more, are what this book is all about. In his fine article regarding nominal and ordinal bivariate statistics, Buchanan (1974) provided several criteria for a good statistic, and concluded: “The percentage is the most useful statistic ever invented…” (p. 629). I agree, and thus my choice for the title of this book. In the ten chapters that follow, I hope to convince you of the defensibility of that claim. The first chapter is on basic concepts (what a percentage is, how it differs from a fraction and a proportion, what sorts of percentage calculations are useful in......

Words: 24786 - Pages: 100

Porous Material Made Out of Al Scraps

...powder metallurgy is able to fabricate porous material and it has better ductility than pure copper and Al6061 Content ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................... ii 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................. 7 2. Literature Review ................................................................................................... 8 2.1 Aluminium alloy ..................................................................................................... 8 2.2 Aluminium 6063 ..................................................................................................... 9 2.3 Aluminium Scrap: ................................................................................................. 10 2.4 The role of alumina in Al scrap powder metallurgy ............................................. 11 2.5 The role for SiC in powder metallurgy ................................................................. 13 2.5.1 Increase of hardness ....................................................................................... 13 2.5.2 Increase of toughness ..................................................................................... 13 2.5.3 Decrease of dimensional expansion ............................................................... 16 2.6 Powder......

Words: 7001 - Pages: 29


...and removal of all reinforcements following an undesirable behaviour. For example, if a student in the class is highly mischievous and disturbs the class, he is probably asking for attention. If this attention is given to him, he will continue to exhibit that behaviour. However, if he is continuously ignored and not recognized, then such undesirable behaviour will vanish over a period of time. To such a student, attention is a positive reinforcement and when this reinforcement is withheld from him; his disturbing behaviour is expected to decrease in frequency and eventually will disappear. iv. Punishment: Punishment is the administration of negative consequences following an undesirable behaviour. The purpose is to decrease the odds of the undesirable behaviour being repeated. According to B.F. Skinner, punishment is still the most common technique of behavioural control in today’s life. When a child misbehaves, he is spanked. If a worker does not behave according to the way the organization wants him to behave, he is fired. If a person does not behave as the society or law wants him to behave, he is ridiculed or ignored or he is punished by arrest and jail. All religions threaten punishment in the life hereafter, if a person does not behave according to God’s will and religious guidelines. Which type of reinforcement is more appropriate to use? According to research conducted by Blanchard and Johnson, most managers prefer positive reinforcement rather than the......

Words: 305 - Pages: 2


...Of Health Care Reform ‘Volume to Value’ Abstract The White House and the current administration of President Obama made the passage of Health Care Reform a top priority and signed the bill into law March 23, 2010. There are two laws that make up the reform package; the first is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act. Critics both in support and opponents claim the bills do little to alter healthcare inflation or uneven delivery of care (Ferman, 2010). The goal of the bill is to change a volume based model in to a value based business model. A comment by Moody’s Investor services exclaimed that the reform will undoubtedly require healthcare leaders to focus even more on multi-year strategies to ensure long term financial stability (Kim, Majka, & Sussman, 2011). Leaders will have to establish a long range plan that includes financial projections and goals, long range capital expenditure requirements, debt capacity, capital position analysis, capital shortfall analysis and sensitivity and risk analysis (Kim, Majka, & Sussman, 2011). There will be substantial increases in the number of newly insured that will place a tremendous amount of stress and unknown consequences on an already burdened healthcare infrastructure (Tyson, 2010). The objective of this paper will attempt to examine the implications of reform on strategic planning of health care institutions transitioning from a volume based model to a......

Words: 3600 - Pages: 15

Noise and Vibration Damping of Fe-Cr-X Alloys

...DAMPING OF Fe-Cr-X ALLOYS D.Pulino-Sagradi, M.Sagradi and J.L.Martin Débora Pulino-Sagradi (Contacting author) Departamento de Materiais Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica Universidade Estadual de Campinas CEP 13083-970 , Campinas, S.P., Brazil Tel.: (019) 239-7966 * Fax: (019) 239-3722 Marcello Sagradi Département de Physique École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Switzerland Jean-Luc Martin Département de Physique École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Switzerland NOISE AND VIBRATION DAMPING OF Fe-Cr-X ALLOYS ABSTRACT The aim of the present work is to study the noise and vibration damping capacity of ferromagnetic Fe-16%Cr base alloys (before and after heat treatment) with different Al and Mo contents. The noise damping was evaluated by the level of sound emission after an impact. The vibration damping was studied using a cantilever device. In addition to these tests, the magnetic structure of the materials was also investigated by Kerr effect. It was verified that the materials can decrease noise level in the frequency range of human earring. The vibration damping is influenced by heat treatment and chemical composition of the alloy. The improvement of vibration damping after heat treatment is ascribed to the decrease of internal stresses in materials and changes in magnetic domain structures. Keywords: high damping alloys, smart......

Words: 3708 - Pages: 15


...[pic] • What is an alloy? An alloy is a mixture or metallic solid solution composed of two or more elements. Complete solid solution alloys give single solid phase microstructure, while partial solutions give two or more phases that may or may not be homogeneous in distribution, depending on thermal (heat treatment) history. Alloys usually have different properties from those of the component elements. Alloy constituents are usually measured by mass. Alloys are usually classified as substitutional or interstitial alloys, depending on the atomic arrangement that forms the alloy. They can be further classified as homogeneous, consisting of a single phase, heterogeneous, consisting of two or more phases, or intermetallic, where there is no distinct boundary between phases Examples: • Bronze (tin, aluminium or other element) • Aluminium bronze (aluminium) • Arsenical bronze • Florentine bronze (aluminium or tin) • Gunmetal (tin, zinc) • Glucydur • Phosphor bronze (tin and phosphorus) • Ormolu (Gilt Bronze) (zinc) • Speculum metal (tin) [pic] 1. Steel Composition: (Iron and other metals such as carbon) Properties: Hard, Less Ductile & have high Tensile Strength. Applications: Steel is used widely in the construction of roads, railways, other infrastructure, appliances, and buildings. Most large modern structures, such as stadiums and skyscrapers, bridges, and airports, are supported......

Words: 1286 - Pages: 6

Read more | Ryan Rottman | [ Zobacz cały opis... ]