Assess Right Realist Explanations of Both the Causes of Crime and the Solutions to Crime.

In: Social Issues

Submitted By LaurenGrace
Words 1073
Pages 5
Using material from Item A and elsewhere assess right realist explanations of both the causes of crime and the solutions to crime (21 marks)

As suggested in item A, right realists explain crime to be a social problem requiring practical solutions. Realists focus on crime which is at the centre of public concern, for example street crime, violence and burglary; they are concerned with increasing measures of crime control. Wilson and Hernstein put forward a biosocial theory explaining the causes of crime; they argue crime is an activity disproportionately committed by young men living in large cities, these young men are temperamentally aggressive as a result of biological factors which predisposes them to crime. The social aspect to their theory comes from the belief that young men are socialised in the family, school and wider community in a culture that emphasises immediate gratification, low impulse control and self-expression which has reduced the restraints on their behaviour in conforming to society’s norms and value, resulting in more crime.
A criticism of Wilson and Hernstein’s theory is their assumption that young males in inner cities are responsible for most crime. Right realists uses official statistics to base their theory on, thus, the assumption of young males could be based on an invalid picture presented by official statistics. The theory also ignores wider structural causes of crime, such as the increasing gap between the rich and the poor creating resentment and relative deprivation resulting in more crime. Right Realists focus on young males and street crime yet ignore the extent of white collar crimes, domestic crimes and corporate crimes.
Hirschi continues the right realist theory of causes of crime by proposing his ‘control theory’, in which he argues individuals are more likely to commit crime when social constraints on behaviour is…...

Similar Documents

Cause of Crime

...CAUSES OF CRIME In this modern era, there are a lot of crimes keep happening around the world. Crime is the breaking of rules or laws for which some governing authority can ultimately prescribe a conviction. Crimes that we usually found in newspaper are disappearance of children, serial murders, single homicides, serial rapes, extortions, threats, kidnappings and many more. All these crimes need to be control to ensure our country is in a peaceful condition. However, what are the causes of crimes? Firstly, one of the causes of crime is poor parenting. According to the research by Currie and Tekin (April 2006) which using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, it shows that the child maltreatment are having doubles the probability that an individual engages in many types of crime. According to Bloom (May 2011), parents serve as role models not only through direct interactions with their children but through the examples they set with their attitude and behavior within the family and in the outside world. Parents’ behaviors and attitudes usually will be imitated by their children. Therefore, family care and love are important to reduce the crimes rate Furthermore, lack of education may lead to the crimes. According to a paper from the University of Western Ontario and the University of California, Los Angeles, people that educated are probably less to involve themselves in crimes. They are more patience and also not likely to take risk to commit a......

Words: 833 - Pages: 4

Outline and Assess Solutions to the Problems of Crime

...perspective on the reduction to crime and solutions is the realist. They both believe that crime is a real problem and is rising therefore both left and right realist have their own individual solutions to how crime rates can be reduced. Left realist are focused on the on policies to deal with crime and deviance, they aim to reduce inequalities and have a more equal distribution of income and wealth. Realist look into the cause of crime in order to find solutions, Lea and young whom are both left realist stated that crime rates are higher within inner city areas because of relative deprivation and marginalisation. When one is feeling relatively deprived it means they do not feel as well off in comparison to another person they used examples of working class boys who feel relatively deprived to middle class boys. The problem with this is there can be no solution to this as it is impossible to get rid of it as there will always be someone who is richer. They also stated that working class males may feel marginalised as they feel powerless and nothing they can do can better their situation. These two combined are what cause working class males to form deviant subcultures. Left realist argue that urban crime is a response to a lack of legitimate opportunities and the powerlessness that deprived groups feel in terms of improving their situation. Left realist believe that economic and social reform acts need to be introduced by the government in order for crime rates to......

Words: 1857 - Pages: 8

Assess These Strengths and Weaknesses of Marxists Explanations of Crime

...Assess these strengths and weaknesses of Marxists explanations of crime Traditional Marxism is a structural theory which sees society as a structure in which the economic base determines the shape of the superstructure, which is made up of all the other social institutions, including the state, the law and the criminal justice system. Their function is to serve the ruling-class interests and maintain the capitalist society. Marxists agree that the law is enforced against powerless groups and that labelling often results in further deviance. They see crime and deviance as not coming from moral or biological defects but defects within social order and therefore crime is an inevitable part of capitalism as it stems from social inequality. For Marxists, crime is inevitable in capitalism because capitalism is criminogenic. Capitalism is based on the exploitation of the working class and therefore is particularly damaging to the working class which may give rise to crime. Alienation and the lack of control over their lives may lead to frustration and aggression, resulting in non-utilitarian crimes such as vandalism and violence. Crime may also be the only way they can obtain the consumer goods encouraged by capitalist advertising, resulting in utilitarian crimes such as theft. Therefore, it can be said a strength of the Marxist explanation of crime is that is it explains the causes of both utilitarian and non-utilitarian crime of the working class. However, one could argue that......

Words: 700 - Pages: 3

Assess the Value of the Right Realist Approach to Crime and Deviance. (21 Marks)

...Assess the value of the right realist approach to crime and deviance. (21 marks) Right realists argue that crime today is a very real and growing problem. Right Realists argue that crime threatens society’s work ethic, social cohesion and destroys communities in society. Unlike other theories, Right realism focuses on the solutions for crime alongside the explanation of what causes crime in society, this approach also criticise labelling and criminology theories for being too sympathetic to the offender or too hostile to those in power. Right realists, Wilson and Herrnstein argue the idea that crime is a result of biological differences in people. Some people are suggested to be more inclined to commit crime than others. For example, those with higher traits of aggression may have the increasing tendency to commit crime. In support of the previous point, Wilson and Murray argue that low intelligence can lead to the causes of crime, this being a biological trait shows that crime is because of biological differences. In contrast, Lilly found that differences in intelligence only accounted for a 3% difference in offenders. This implies that it is very unlikely that the causes of crime are biological differences. Clarke, a right realist, came up with the rational choice theory, suggesting that crime is a matter of choice which is made by the criminal who weighs up the costs and benefits of committing crimes. In today’s society, the costs of committing petty crimes are rather...

Words: 663 - Pages: 3

Marxist Explanations of Crime

...Outline Marxist explanations of crime (50) Marxists argue that crime is based on three elements; criminogenic capitalism, the state and law making and lastly selective enforcement. Marxists argue that capitalism by its very nature causes crime. They argue that low wages paid to the working class by the capitalist class, results in material deprivation. This deprivation then leads to frustration which results in utilitarian crimes such as theft. They claim that this is the reason why official statistics show that mainly the working class engage in criminal behaviour. However a weakness of this theory is that it is highly deterministic and ignores individual motivation and the notion of free will, as not all poor people commit crimes despite the pressures of poverty. Marxists argue that the media create the illusion that happiness can be bought for example through advertising and foster the values of materialism. For example all people share the same desire to purchase the latest phones for example the iphone 5, despite not being able to afford luxury items. This in itself causes crime as the lower classes resort to utilitarian crimes and use illegitimate means to gain the materialistic object. However crime is not confined to the working class as capitalism also encourages capilitists to commit corporate crimes such as fraud and insider trading. Marxists believe that the law and law enforcement only serve the interests of the ruling class. The law, crime and criminals......

Words: 610 - Pages: 3

Right Realism and Crime Explanations

...Right realism advocates ‘small’ government and considers the phenomenon of crime from the perspective of political conservatism. Right realism assumes it takes a more realistic view of the causes of crime and deviance. Right realists believe crime and deviance are a real social problem that requires practical solutions. It is said that right realism perpetuates moral panics as a means of swaying the public to agree with their views. For example, the media claims that elderly people are scared to be attacked when venturing out, when in actuality crimes against OAP’s are minimal. (0.3 against men 75+ and 0.2 against women aged the same). Right realists believe that official statistics often underreport crime. But right realists believe they are able to paint a more realistic picture of crime and deviance in the UK. Right realists believe that crime is a growing social problem and is largely committed by lower working class male juveniles, often black, in inner city areas. Right realists believe that there are six causes of crime: The breakdown in moral fabric of society; a growing underclass in the UK; a breakdown in social order; opportunity for crime and that some people commit crime as a deliberate and rational choice. As more crime is committed, society itself deteriorates and this in turn leads to more crime. Marsland in 1988 stated that crime and deviancy is linked to the breakdown in the moral fabric of society. Schools and religion have become less......

Words: 502 - Pages: 3

Outline and Assess Functionalist Explanations of Crime and Deviance (Just a Plan)

...OUTLINE AND ASSESS FUNCTIONALIST EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME AND DEVIANCE (50) INTRODUCTION * Structural theory * Believe that society is good and order is necessary * Therefore at first glance crime appears to be negative, but functionalists believe crime can be beneficial to social system PARAGRAPH 1 - DURKHEIM * Believed in consensus and need for social order + that crime was inevitable * He believed crime and deviance were product of lack of attachment to prevailing consensus over collective values * Durkheim believed the speed of change in modern societies was likely to generate deviance and crime as the modern world rapidly reinvents itself * Intro of new economic process and technology combined with social/geographical mobility leave people feeling unsure about their place in the world, so people lose a sense of what it is to be normal and develop sense of anomie (normlessness) * Crime and deviance are bound to increase now * After fall of Soviet Union crime increased rapidly in Russia as whole social fabric was transformed * Durkheim said crime was necessary for society and he notes 3 main benefits of crime: 1. Reaffirming the Boundaries – when someone is taken to court, the sanction and the publicity reaffirm existing values 2. Changing Values – sometimes when someone is charged with a crime, a degree of sympathy occurs for the person prosecuted leading to a change in values, which can lead to change in law to reflect...

Words: 913 - Pages: 4

Assess the Usefulness of Realist Approaches in Understanding Crime and Deviance

...Left and right wing sociologists have both attempted ‘realist’ approaches to crime and deviance, both offer practical solutions in dealing with the issue. However, the way these two approaches go about this is radically different, as right and left realism are from completely opposite ends of the political spectrum. Although like all sociological explanations, they have their limitations and flaws, both approaches have proven useful in understanding crime and deviance for a number of reasons. The origins of left realism lie in the desire to move away from “pure theory” to something which can be utilised and applied practically in order to solve the problem of crime in Britain. Left realism is particularly useful in understanding crime and deviance because it avoids the age old divisions between structure and action. Instead, left realism sets out an agenda which contains all levels of analysis. Young, Lea and Matthews for example, suggest that in order to truly understand and deal with crime, the interplay between macro and micro factors need to be considered alongside each other in what they call “the square of crime”. This means that when investigating the problem of crime, sociologists should consider the roles of the state (as they have the power to define what is criminal), the offender (i.e. what motivates them), the public (because they are an agent of informal social control, and fear of public stigmatisation is viewed as one of the most powerful determinants of......

Words: 1069 - Pages: 5

Functionalist Explanations of Crime and Deviance

...Functionalist Explanations of Crime and Deviance Functionalist’s believe that shared norms and values are the basis of social order and social solidarity. They see crime and deviance as dysfunctional to society. However, functionalist’s do see some crime as being ‘normal’. Merton took functionalist views further by saying that crime and deviance were a strain between the socially accepted goals of society and the socially approved means of achieving them - this strain then results in deviance. The American Dream states that anyone can make it to the top. However, emphasis is placed on material success so people feel pressure to deviate from accepted norms and values. People are tempted to reach the top even by illegal means, he explains this as ‘Anomie’. Anomie means normlessness - where norms no longer guide behaviour and instead anything goes. Merton identifies five possible responses of a strain to anomie. Conformity; people conform even if they are unlikely to achieve the goal. Innovation; accepting the goal of success but have little chance of achieving through normal means, turning to illegal means. Ritualism; abandoning the goal of success but stick to the rules (working in a dead end job). Retreatism; reject the goal of success and normal means to achieve it, drop out of school becoming tramps and drug addicts. Rebellion; reject the conventional goals and means of achieving them and replace them with alternative ways. Merton’s theory offered an explanation......

Words: 2582 - Pages: 11

Outline and Evaluate Realist Approaches to Crime (50 Marks)

...Outline and evaluate realist approaches to crime (50 marks) Right realism sees crime as a growing problem that destroys communities, undermines social cohesion and threatens society’s work ethic. Right realists take a harsh approach in the fact that they try to reduce crime by reinforcing control and punishment, rather than trying to rehabilitate offenders when they leave prison. They see prisoners as a lost cause therefore they do not wish to waste their time on them. They criticise other theories for being too soft on criminals, especially the left realists. Right realism tends to focus on the solutions to crime, rather than the causes. Right realists reject marxist views that crime is caused by poverty and exploitation of the working class. In 'thinking about crime' (1975) wilson argues that an individual will commit crime if the reward outweighs the punishment. Wilson also argues that harsher punishments and more visible policing would have a positive impact on crime rates. However, despite these efforts, there are still flaws in how crime is dealt with according to right realists. Providing alternative benefits, such as giving methadone to drug addicts proves to be pointless as the individual then becomes addicted to methadone and therefore still has a drug addiction. Wilson argues that we must keep communities strong so that the criminals will feel ashamed due to society being disgraced at them. Kelling and wilson 1982 argue a concept called the broken......

Words: 1333 - Pages: 6

Assess Realist Explanations of Crime and Deviance.

...and 80’s in changing politics. The realist view is that crime is not just a social construction, but is a real problem that needs to be tackled. Realists believe that there has been a significant rise in the crime rate and favours a tough approach against it, as they think that other theories have failed to offer a solution to crime. The left realists Lea and Young attempt to give an explanation to street crime, committed by young people in urban areas. These sociologists took a victim survey which suggested that working-class and black people, especially elderly women, have a fear of street crime, as they are often victims of crime. Their explanation of why crime is committed by revolves around three key concepts. Firstly, relative deprivation, which explains how one person feel sin relation to another, this leads into crime very easily as people can feel as if others are unfairly better off than they are, and this resentment can lead to crime. Lea and Young suggests that although in today’s society people are more affluent they are still aware of their relative deprivation because of the media and advertising, which increase everyone’s expectation on standards of living. This is linked to the idea of individualism, because this undermines the family and community values of mutual support, cooperation and selflessness, which results in anti-social behaviour. The second concept of why crime is committed is marginalisation. Left realists argue that people feel that they......

Words: 1106 - Pages: 5

Explanations of Crime

...Explanations of crime Biological: • There is now robust evidence demonstrating that both men and women with schizophrenia are at elevated risk when compared to the general population to be convicted of non-violent criminal offences, at higher risk to be convicted of violent criminal offences, and at even higher risk to be convicted of homicide (Wallace et al. 2004) - It all relates back to the schizophrenia gene passing onto an individual. Sociological: • Greater opportunities for crime in cities and towns (urban areas) than in villages (rural areas). More clubs, pubs, etc. in urban areas (including inner cities). Levels of burglary, vehicle-related thefts and violence in rural areas have been consistently lower than in non-rural areas. • Greater numbers of young males (14 – 21 the peak years for criminal activity) living in urban areas means greater likelihood ofcrimes being committed. • However, research by the Home Office (2000) shows that when offenders do travel to offend it is overwhelmingly local in nature and has connections with the offender’s home location e.g. a place the offender goes to shop Psychological: • Depression to blame for 32,000 violent crimes a year, says Oxford University. Depressed people are three times more likely to commit violent crimes than the general population, researchers have found • A huge study by Oxford University found that depressed people are three times more likely to commit a violent offence than the general population.......

Words: 268 - Pages: 2

Assess the Explanations for Gender and Crime

... Outline and assess sociological explanations of gender difference in patterns of crime. In this essay, I am going to assess the patterns of crime committed by males and females. Many general theories tend to neglect gender as a factor influencing criminality. There is a common assumption that males often commit more crime than women. The study of criminology have tended to be dominated by males, therefore the studies are done by men about men. The official statistics suggest that gender is perhaps the most significant single factor in whether an individual is convicted of crime. The official statistics often comply with the common assumption that men commit more crimes then women. According to official statistics, in 2005, 1.8 million offenders were guilty in which 79% were male and 7% of these were aged fewer than 18. The ratio of male offenders to female offenders is four to one. The highest rates of offending for the most serious crimes were 17 year olds for males and 15 year olds for females. Pollak (1950) argued that official statistics on gender and crime were highly misleading. He claimed that statistics underestimated the extent of female criminality. Pollack claimed to have identified crimes that are usually committed by women but which are likely to go unreported. According to him, nearly all offences of shoplifting and all criminal abortion were carried out by women. Many unreported crimes are committed by female domestic servants. Pollack accepted official......

Words: 2222 - Pages: 9

Assess the Value of the Left and Right Realist Approaches to Crime

...Assess the value of the left and right realist approaches to crime Realist approaches to crime don’t believe that crime is a social construction; instead they see it as a real problem to be tackled. Realist approaches are divided into right realists and left realists. Right realists tend to take a ‘get tough’ approach and use both biological and social explanations; they share the New Right or neo-conservative political outlook. Left realists are left-wing reformists who believe crime can be solved through social policy rather than through revolution. Both left realists and right realists argue that there has been a significant rise in the crime rate- especially in street crime burglary and assault. They are also concerned about the widespread fear of crime and about the impact on its victims and argue that other theories have failed to offer realistic solutions to the problem of crime and they propose what they regard as practical policies to reduce it. Left Realists believe that crime should be taken seriously and accuse other sociologists for not doing so. They believe that traditional Marxists gave concentrated on crimes of the powerful, such as corporate crime. Left realists agree that this is important, but they argue that it neglects working-class crime and its effects. They also believe that neo-Marxists romanticise working-class criminals as latter-day Robin Hoods, stealing from the rich as an act of political resistance to capitalism. Left Realists note that in......

Words: 1653 - Pages: 7

Outline and Assess Feminist Explanations for Crime and Deviance

...Crime is a behaviour/act that goes against a society’s law, and therefore has legal consequences attached if broken, e.g. prison sentence, penalty charge. Deviance is an act/behaviour that goes against a societies norms and values, however is not against the law and therefore not punishable by law. It is a relative term dependent on different societies and their norms and values; what is considered deviant also changes over times, for example it used to be considered deviant for women to smoke, whereas now that is accepted (western). There is a clear relationship between gender and crime according to official statistics. It has been revealed that men about six or seven times more likely to offend than women. In self-report studies the figures are not as large, however, men are still in the majority. Also when we look at victims of crime it appears that men are more likely to be victims of crime than women. Messerschmidt says young men want to conform to the dominant form of masculinity which he called ‘hegemonic masculinity’. It’s the idealised form which is ‘defined through work in the paid labour market, the subordination of women, heterosexist and the uncontrollable sexuality of men’, (It’s a form of masculinity that most men aim to accomplish and is prized and prestigious). Messerschmidt argues that different men use crime and deviance to accomplish prestigious hegemonic masculinity. Depending on their status and class position, different men attempt to accomplish this......

Words: 707 - Pages: 3

Fortune Quest OVA Episode 4 English Subbed | Watch movie | #114 - Chapter 114 01-19-2016