Bases of Power

In: Social Issues

Submitted By ssils01
Words 10452
Pages 42
Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 49, No. 4 , 1993. pp. 227-251

The Bases of Power: Origins and Recent Developments
Bertram H. Raven
University of California, Los Angeles

The history and background of the analysis of the basis of power is examined, beginning with its origins in the works of Kurt Lewin and his followers at the Research Center for Group Dynamics, particularly the early research by John R. P. French. The original French and Raven (1959) bases of power model posited six bases of power: reward, coercion, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational (or persuasion; Raven, 1965). Since then, as the result of considerable research, the model has gone through signiJicant developments. A more comprehensive model is presented here that reviews the following: various motivations of the influencing agent; an assessment of available power bases in terms of potential effectiveness, time perspective, personal preferences, values and norms; consideration of other strategies such as manipulation; utilization of various preparatory and stage-setting devices to strengthen olte’s power resources; implementation of the power strategies; assessment of effectiveness of influence attempt and its positive andl or negative aftereffects; use of various ameliorative devices; and review, reconsideration, and another round of influence strategies. The overall model is examined in terms of its applicability to various settings including hospital infection control, patient compliance with physicians’ recommendations, confrontations between political jgures, children’s influence on their peers, conflict resolution and negotiation, as well as supervisorlsubordinate relationships. More than 30 years have now elapsed since John R. P. French and I presented a typological analysis of the bases of power in interpersonal inThis article is based on a presentation made at the…...

Similar Documents

Power Bases

...Group Dynamics Writing Assignment 5 Power Bases 07/27/12 Mitt Romney started out as a Republican front runner in the 2012 presidential race. Winning Maine and Nevada early, he fell to Rick Santorum in Colorado, Missouri and Minnesota. Don’t let the fact that Mitt Romney won past CPAC Straw Polls, which are much more a beauty contest then the 3 caucuses last week that Santorum clobbered Romney in, with the Romney campaign referring to a couple of them as beauty contests themselves. With Romney’s money, busing in tons of college students and picking up the tab for their attendance AND STRAW POLL vote, and that is exactly what he did. Even Santorum jumped in on that and commented that he doesn’t rig straw polls. According to the article I read, Will Romney’s ‘Good Enough’ Strategy be Good Enough for Voters? By Chris Stirewalt, Published February 15, 2012, at, Romney and his Super-PAC can defeat Santorum in the Republican race because Romney has a stronger hold in the Republican base. They trust him more and feel he is the strongest of the candidates thus far. However, he has a problem with flip-flopping on the issues and is seen by many of his Republican base as a weak candidate. Nevertheless, if you are a Republican, the vibes are very bad. Mitt Romney has shown a discouraging inability to appeal to the party’s base, while the race has damaged both Romney and the party. Newt Gingrich, in particular, sacrificed the party to his own ego by launching left-wing......

Words: 553 - Pages: 3

5 Bases of Power

...In the given scenario it is evident that Employee 1 works for a manager who utilizes Reward Power. This employee works more than 40 hours per week because the manager reminds the team of the yearly bonus which is contingent on working more than the required 40 hours. Employee 1 comes into the office on the weekends and stays late to ensure that work is completed accurately. Employee 1 has plans for the reward and has emotionally tied himself to working towards the reward. The other powers that this manager demonstrates are Coercive Power and Legitimate Power. The way he reminds them of the annual performance review is coercive and threatening. Lastly because he is the manager he does have Legitimate Power and the team must respect and listen to his instruction. Employee 2 has Expert Power in the organization. Because he is the only CPA in the organization he has been given special permission to have a compressed work week and only has to work 4 days per week. This employee realizes that he has Expert Power and has taken advantage of this power especially since the entire company is dependent on only him to prepare the company’s financial statements. Employee 3 demonstrates Personal Power. Although he does not hold any official titles and has been at the company for a short period. This employee is well liked and respected among his peers. People are drawn to his personality and charisma. Because he is enthusiastic and positive he pitched a new idea that the team is......

Words: 416 - Pages: 2

Five Bases of Power

...Five Bases of Power Reward Power -the ability of a manager to give some sort of reward to employees Employee 1, work ethics shows that she is driven, loyal, focused and goal oriented. She understands the concept of reward power since she has worked there for 12 years and her hard work has earned her a yearly bonus. Coercive Power - the ability of a manager to force an employee to comply with an order (directly or inadvertently) through the threat of punishment or penalty. The Marketing Manager encourages employees to work more than forty hours per week. He reminds the employees that if they work more hours they could receive a superior evaluation and a yearly bonus. This is coercive behavior because in order for them to receive a bonus, they must have a superior evaluation, which requires them to work more than 40 hours per week. Since most Real Estate Agents are commissioned employees, many of them have second jobs or family commitments that will not allow them to work more than forty hours. In addition, some employees maybe more successful working 30 hours as opposed to another who works 50 hours a week, however, according to the Marketing Manager the employee who worked fewer than 40 hours wouldn’t receive a superior evaluation or a bonus. The Marketing Manager is utilizing coercive power by asking the employees to do more for the company in order to receive a bonus. Expertise Power - Ability to influence others based on expertise and knowledge As the CPA......

Words: 450 - Pages: 2

5 Bases of Power

...assignment, determine which Base of Power is being demonstrated, as well as provide my justifications for that determination. The 5 Bases of Power, described by social psychologists French and Raven, are as follows (Bases of Social Power - French Raven, including list below): 1. Reward Power - power given based on the perception that you can reward a person, or remove negative consequences 2. Coercive Power - power given based on the perception that you can punish a person 3. Legitimate Power - power given based on your appointment to the position, and the authority that grants you. 4. Referent Power - power given based upon perceived charm, charisma, and likability. 5. Expert Power - power given you based on recognition of your ability, skills, experience, etc. In scenario 1, the manager is demonstrating Reward Power. Per the assignment: " The marketing manager encourages employees to work beyond the requisite 40 hours a week by reminding them of the yearly bonus for receiving a superior rating on their next evaluation." Employees go the extra mile, and make sure work is accurate, based entirely upon the expectation of a bonus. There is no negative implication stated, so I do not think Coercive Power is being demonstrated. In addition, the manager is demonstrating legitimate power, in that his position is used to exercise control over employee's behavior based upon his appointment as the manager. In scenario 2, I believe that there are two bases of power being......

Words: 974 - Pages: 4

Bases of Power Paper

...Communication and Bases of Power Student Name BCOM/230 Date: September 9, 2013 Instructor Name Communication and Bases of Power Power influences our behavior and the way we communicate in the workplace. Power is defined as the affected behavior of one person from the influence of another person with higher authority. Depending on how the power is used, it may have a positive or negative effect in an organization. According to Robbins and Judge (2009), there are five bases of power that can influence individuals or groups in the workplace; they are coercive power, reward power, legitimate power, expert power, and referent power (p. 452). Coercive power is a formal kind of power that I believe is the most negative among the other forms of power. The person who uses this kind of power places fears to subordinates; therefore, I believe communication from group members to leaders is limited by electronic means, like email, because members are intimidated by the coercive power of the leader. If the individual does not comply with the company’s policies, norms or does not reach a goal desired by management, then the fear of being fired, demoted, or punished is in place. The person is intimidated by threads from management. I find that threads of been fired due to lack of compliance is a delicate approach to change the behaviors of others. In these cases, members may be displeased of the thread and may start looking for other positions outside of the company; hence......

Words: 938 - Pages: 4

Bases of Power Let 1

...11 Bases of Power According to Robbins & Judge (2007) power is defined as the “capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so B can act with A’s wishes.” There are five bases of power that are divided into two groups according to Robbins & Judge (2007). Formal Power The first group in the power in the power bases is formal. Formal power is based on the position held in organization (Robbins & Judge (2007). Formal Power is divided into three power bases: coercive power, reward power and legitimate power (Robbins & Judge, 2007). Coercive Power Coercive power is based on the fear of consequences when the person does not follow instructions of their leader. This type of fear can be a physical or mental pain discomfort based on the frustrations of the unknown. Conceive power can be displayed by threats of loosing job and privileges, being demoted and other types of consequential actions. Coercive power could also be used to conceal key information (Robbins & Judge, 2007). Employee 2 could possibly use conceive power based on how valuable he is his position to get more pay or even better schedule than the one he requested or other job advantages. Reward Power Reward power is power one has to reward another person. Some examples of rewards could be monetary, promotions, and recognitions. According to Robbins & Judge (2007) coercive power and reward power are counterparts of each other. Rewarding for good deeds is using reward power,......

Words: 841 - Pages: 4

Bases of Power

...Bases of Power There are five bases of power in the given organization. The first base of power is reward power. Reward power is defined as being the opposite of coercive power and that “people comply with the wishes or directives of another because doing so produces positive benefits” (Robbins & Judge, 2007, pg. 471.) Employee 1 in the scenario wants to receive the bonus that he/she will be granted upon the successful completion of his/her annual evaluation. To ensure his/her tasks are finished and that they are correct, Employee 1 oftentimes works over his/her scheduled 40 hour work week by working late and on weekends at the encouragement of the marketing manager. The marketing manager often reminds the Employee 1 and his/her peers of the yearly bonus. The employee complying with the wishes of the marketing manager for he/she to work late so he/she will receive a good performance evaluation, thus resulting in the receipt of the desired bonus is an example of Employee 1 being affected by reward power. The marketing manager uses the second base of power, which is legitimate power. Legitimate power is defined as “the formal authority to control and use organizational resources” (Robbins & Judge, 2007, pg. 472.) The marketing manager being the person responsible for the evaluation of the employees, thus affecting whether or not Employee 1 receives the bonus he/she really wants is a demonstration of this power. The distribution of a bonus to an employee is an example......

Words: 1000 - Pages: 4

Five Bases of Power

...Five Bases of Power Student Name LET1 (Task 3) WGU August 25, 2013 Course Mentor Name Abstract Power can be defined in many ways from various people. Some people may think power means success, some people may think power means corruption, and unfortunately some people may think power means nothing. Basically power pertains to the possession of influence and authority over others. The five bases of power are coercive, referent, legitimate, expert, and reward power (Abudi, 2011). To understand these five bases of power better in an organization a description with examples for each will be discussed. Five Bases of Power In 1960 John French and Bertram Raven conducted a study in leadership roles on bases of power Coercive, referent, legitimate, expert, and reward power were identified as the five bases of power. Through one or more of these bases, power can be manifested. Most interactions in an organization are established with trust and are constructed through some form of power. Depending on how power is used can result in negative or positive outcomes in an organization. The proper use of power among managers and employees can result in excellent social and interpersonal relationships (Abudi, 2011). In the given scenario, Corporation A is a business that creates marketing programs for the real estate industry. The employees with different job roles that work at Corporation...

Words: 1008 - Pages: 5

The Five Bases of Power

...The Five Bases of Power BCOM/230 The Five Bases of Power “Power refers to a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. This definition implies a potential that need not be actualized to be effective, and a dependency relationship.” (Robbins & Judge, 2009, "A Definition of Power"). In total, there are five bases of power. They are coercive power, reward power, legitimate power, expert power, and referent power. Each power is different in some way which makes it unique. “The coercive power base is dependent on fear. A person reacts to this power out of fear of the negative results that might occur if she failed to comply. It rests on the application, or the threat of application, of physical sanctions such as the infliction of pain, the generation of frustration through restriction of movement, or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs.” (Robbins & Judge, 2009, "Bases of Power"). Coercive power exists when people are frightened of what could happen to them if they do not give into the leader’s wishes. An extreme example of coercive power would be Hitler’s power in Germany when he ruled the country. He put true fear into people that did not agree with him, this made him gain followers whether those followers were really in agreement with him or not. “The opposite of coercive power is reward power. People comply with the wishes or directives of another because doing so produces......

Words: 1097 - Pages: 5

The Five Bases of Power

...The Five Bases of Power Julie Kisman BCOM/230 April 20, 2015 Gloria Davis The Five Bases of Power All too often, we are stuck in a working environment the majority of our day, years, and lives, of people who have different personalities and governing styles than we do. “Power means many different things to different people. For some, power is seen as corrupt. For others, the more power they have, the more successful they feel. For even others, power is of no interest at all (Abudi, 2013).” If we can learn to recognize our superiors leadership styles that will put us so much closer to developing a better working relationship with that person. Let’s review these forms of power with real working experience in each and be that much closer to identifying with our employer. Formal Power Coercive Power Coercive Power is a leadership style that is dependent on fear. Scheduling is a very real example of coercive power in my place of work. The law states, that if you fall below 20 hours in a working week, you will be removed from the schedule until you can prove your availability. Robots do not write schedules, or individual employees, but rather an actual human, with human emotions. Say you have a disagreement with a schedule writer, or hurt their feelings, they, unfortunately, have the power to reduce your hours, eventually having you removed from the schedule entirely. In this situation, the department head who is writing the schedule, is using their coercive......

Words: 807 - Pages: 4

Bases of Power

...BASES  OF  INDIVIDUAL   POWER   (1)LEGITIMATE  POWER   q Also  called  ‘Authority’,  it’s  derived  from  a  persons   posiLon  in  an  organizaLon   q OrganizaLons  judgment  about  who  is  formally   permiRed  to  influence  whom?   q Some  people  are  more  likely  to  invoke  than  others.   …”Look,  I  am  the  boss  here”.   q One  extreme  is  military.  Chain  of  command.  Other   extreme  could  be  universiLes.  Tend  to  downplay   differences  between  Dean,  prof,  lecturer  etc.   q When  authority  works,  it  o\en  does  so,  because   people  have  accepted  it.     (2)  Reward  Power   q Means  that  the  power  holder  can  influence  by   providing  a  posiLve  outcome.   q Reward  power  o\en  back  up  legiLmate  power.  I.e.   managers  are  given  the  chance  to  give  raises  etc.   q Of  course  any  organizaLonal  member  can  aRempt  to   exert  power  over  others  by  praise,  compliments  and   flaRery,  which  are  also  rewards.   (3)Coercive  Power   q Means  that  the  power  holder  can ......

Words: 328 - Pages: 2

Five Bases of Power the five bases of power. These bases of power were the foundation for many of the discussions involving power and authority in the late half of the 20th century. The five bases of power are coercive, legitimate, reward, referent, and expert. The bases can be utilized by themselves or combined with another base when demonstrating power in any situation. This article will explore each of the five bases and describe them more in depth, including formality and informality of the bases. Coercive power, one of the first bases of power, carries with it a manifestation of fear based on the possible negative outcomes of this power and if the subject did not comply with the orders given. Coercive power is the power that comes from a person's authority to punish. This formal base of power is effective in the short term only; and in contrast more often leads to rebellion against authority rather than respect and compliance based on respect. A manager could use coercive power in an instance where an employee was failing to perform his job correctly or efficiently, by threatening the employee with disciplinary action if the issue is not rectified. This base of power creates a general feeling of fear and uneasiness among employees and can be detrimental to the morale of the employees and the company. When employees share a general consensus that a manager or supervisor has a right to give out orders because of this job title and company position this formal base of power is......

Words: 872 - Pages: 4

The Five Bases of Power

...Power is defined as a capacity that one person (or group) has to influence the behavior of another person (or group) so that the second person acts according to how the first person wants. There are two general sources of power, formal and personal; those sources of power can be broken down into different bases of power. Formal power can be coercive power, reward power, or legitimate power; personal power can be expert power or referent power (Robbins & Judge, 2009). Each form of power will be discussed on an individual basis to determine how the power affects communications within an organization. Formal power is based on an individual’s position within an organization; the individual gains power through the ability to coerce or reward, or from formal authority. “Coercive power is dependent on fear, suppression of free will, or the use of punishment for existence” (“Coercive power,” 2012). Others in an organization also use coercive power by withholding important information; knowing this important information has others dependent on them. As an employee, I feared losing my job when I was not moving as fast as my manager wanted me to during lunch rush. My manager had told me previously that I was not fast enough at assembling sandwiches as others; I was told frequently that this was a cause to be fired if I did not improve my speed. I did not let that manager have coercive power over me for long; I had another employee help me learn ways to speed up my sandwich......

Words: 1094 - Pages: 5

Power Bases

...together disparate themes into a coherent narratives no other politician of his generation. As ever, Clinton is generous to his friends and ruthless toward his enemies. Legitimate Power: As we speak he is no longer the president of the United States and for the same reason he does not have a legitimate power, but when he was The President of the United States his power base was laid down by the Constitution and by the people that elected him as President, having at that moment Legitimate Power. Referent Power: Bill has the power of interpersonal attraction and today as we speak, the place to hear him think out loud is at the annual Clinton Global Initiative conference in New York on March 30 - April 1, 2012, so for being a good team leader, having charisma, being is fair, doing good in everything that he does and have the power to gather hundreds of heads of state, business man, nonprofit executives, academics, and even Hollywood stars, not just to talk about the world's problems but to do something about them, and base on this, I am confident to say that he has a Reference Power. Expert Power Base: Throughout the articles that I read there were some wise phrases that Bill Clinton said and that call my attention to share it, and from my point of view this make reference to the Expert Power Base, base on the knowledge that he achieved throughout his mandate at the presidency of the United State when he travel around the world. With his knowledge he express his......

Words: 446 - Pages: 2

Five Bases of Power

...Behavior & Leadership Five Bases of Power – Task 3 Tammy Lydeen Western Governors University January 21, 2011 Within an organization leaders and managers use their power in order for their employees to reach the organization’s goals. There are five bases of power which can be broken down into two groups: formal power and personal power. Along with the five bases of power there is also the power of dependency which states that Employee B depends on Employee A if Employee B has goals and needs that Employee A can fulfill. Dependency can be increased when the resources that are being controlled are important, scarce and non-substitutable. Formal Power A formal power is based on an employee’s position within the organization. v Coercive Power – A coercive power requires forcing an employee to do something that they do no want to do. This power can cause an unhealthy behavior and employee dissatisfaction in the workplace. The most common threat is the threat of being demoted or fired. Although the most common threats are being demoted or fired the marketing manager also uses a coercive power when they tell the employees that their yearly evaluation and bonus can be effected if they do not work over the required 40-hour work week. Employee 1 needs to work the extra hours so that they can achieve the yearly bonus and take a vacation that would not be affordable without the end of the year bonus. v Reward Power – A reward power is when the leader uses......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4

Nidji - Terusir Ost Tenggelamnya Kapal VDW | Xiaomi Smartmi純粋蒸発型加湿器2 [2018版] | Les plus belles destinations du monde - Voyages inoubliables