Bioterrorism

In: Science

Submitted By Georgem10
Words 2016
Pages 9
BIOTERRORISM
Name:

1. Introduction
Historically, infectious disease outbreaks brought about by microbial species against human beings have caused far more mortality rates than war itself. Numerous cases of disease outbreaks in the past have been a major concern to health authorities, although such concerns have been partially addressed in the recent past. Examples of disease outbreaks in the past include: the infamous Bubonic Plague of the 14th century in Europe that led to the death of approximately a quarter of the continent’s population (approximately 25 million people); the influenza pandemic of 1918 to 1919 that led to the death of 21 million people; and the death of 95% of Pre-Columbian Native American people by measles, plague, small pox, influenza, and typhoid (Magner, 2009). Although there has been some response to such epidemics in the recent past, naturally occurring infections still remain the Achilles’ heel of today’s health systems.
2. Terrorism Versus Bioterrorism
Despite the dark past in healthcare systems, current issues of the use of biological agents as means of mass destruction is alarming. Most of the countries across the globe are now faced with the daunting task of terrorism control, since this is one area where biological agents find a lot of use. According to Forst, terrorism may be defined as a “premeditated and unlawful use of violence [on] non-combatant populations having symbolic significance….” (Forst, 2009). Forst mentions that the premeditated and unlawful use of violence usually has an aim of inducing or influencing changes in existing political landscapes; this is normally done through intimidation as well as destabilization of the populations in question. Such populations are identified as enemies by perpetrators of this form of violence. Bioterrorism, then, refers to a form of terrorism where biological agents…...

Similar Documents

Nursing and Bioterrorism

...Overview of Bioterrorism This course has been awarded two (2.0) contact hours. This course expires on November 12, 2014. Copyright © 2008 by RN.com. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction and distribution of these materials are prohibited without the express written authorization of RN.com. First Published: Updated: November 12, 2008 Nov 12, 2011 IMPORTANT INFORMATION RN.com strives to keeps its content fair and unbiased. The author has no conflicts of interest to disclose. The planners of the educational activity have no conflicts of interest to disclose. (Conflict of Interest Definition: Circumstances create a conflict of interest when an individual has an opportunity to affect Education content about products or services of a commercial interest with which he/she has a financial relationship.) There is no commercial support being used for this course. Participants are advised that the accredited status of RN.com does not imply endorsement by the provider or ANCC of any products/therapeutics mentioned in this course. The information in the course is for educational purposes only. There is no “off label” usage of drugs or products discussed in this course. Acknowledgements RN.com acknowledges the valuable contributions of… Material protected by Copyright …The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (www.cdc.gov), the key government agency responsible for disseminating knowledge about various biological agents. …U.S. Medical Research Institute of Infectious......

Words: 6008 - Pages: 25

Anthrax

... the Department of Defense (DOD), in 1998, announced it would begin a systematic vaccination of all U.S. military personnel. (DOD, 1998) Anthrax infection occurs in three forms: cutaneous (skin), inhalation, and gastrointestinal. What are the basic functions of the federal, state, and local level during this bioterrorism event? Preparing for and or recovering from a bioterrorism event, it is the federal government's responsibilities to helping to ensure the preparedness of emergency response providers for terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies, Working with other federal and nonfederal agencies to build a comprehensive national incident management system, and developing comprehensive programs for developing interoperative communications technology and ensuring that emergency response providers acquire such technology. ( CIDRAP) In a bioterrorism event, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has special responsibilities, including detecting the disease, investigating the outbreak, and providing stockpiled drugs and emergency supplies in the large amounts needed. What public health resources are available to address this bioterrorism threat at the federal, state, and/or local level? Since the 1950s, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) grew substantially due to its Epidemic Intelligence Service and the promotion of epidemiologic 'surveillance.' Critics contend that the CDC's bio preparedness efforts during this period fed...

Words: 516 - Pages: 3

Bioterrorism Pamphlet

...crisis in 2001, bioterrorism is a real threat. * Tom Davis Delete text and place photo here. Bioterrorism bY SIMI GEORGE faq’s What To Do if You Suspect a Bioterrorist Disease? IMMEDIATELY NOTIFY: * Hospital Infection Control Isolation: Smallpox, plague, hemorrhagic fevers, * Laboratory Hospital Administration * Local Public Health Department What We Need To Prepare for Bioterrorism? * More trained epidemiologists to speed detection * Increased laboratory capacity * Request security drills in schools and other public departments. For more information about bioterrorism and its effects, please contact: Simi George, R.N. (469)347-4236 Simicg2011@yahoo.com Enter Contact Information Here | 1127 Lombard Blvd. San Francisco, CA 59802 | phone 555.555.5555 | fax 555.555.5555 In this educational session you will learn: * Bioterrorism and its effects * The causes of Bioterrorism * The procedures during a bioterrorist attack * The right way to react during a bioterrorist attack * The procedures to take care of a person who is ill from the attack. Bioterrorism is defined as “the use of microorganisms or toxins derived from living organisms to cause death or disease in humans, animals, or plants in civilian settings” (Huxsoll et al., 1987). Although the possible motivations behind an attack of this kind are numerous, the most important aspect of bioterrorism is to be able......

Words: 650 - Pages: 3

Bioterrorism Agents

...headache, cramps, nausea, vomiting, involuntary defecation and urination, convulsions, coma, respitory arrest. | | | | | Treatments | Treat skin lesions, Oral antibiotics like PCN, Tetracycline, Ethromycin, and Cirpo. | Treat symptoms as they appear. Many symptoms will not appear for days, weeks even years.Blood transfusions stem cell transplant, and cytokine therapy. | Treat symptoms as they appear. Give Atropine and Pralidozine (PAM) | Bioterrorism is a constant concern today. As seen in the news, bioterrorism has been used recently in Syria and the outcome has been horrific. With tensions running high throughout the middle east and terrorist, it is possible for a bioterrorism attack here in the United States. As a medical professional, the need to understand how each works, the symptoms, and treatment is a necessity. Healthcare institution hold disaster drills on a frequent basis but not a bioterrorism drills why? The chances of tornadoes, blizzards, earthquakes, and hurricanes are real and so should a bioterrorism attack. For example Anthrax. Anthrax is a bacterium that can be found in animals. Anthrax is still very popular in countries with no Public Health regulations. Animal hides used for drums have been shown to affect the makers of drums and the users with Anthrax. Inhalation of Anthrax is the most deadly. Spores are inhaled into the lungs where they spread to the lymph glands in the chest, where they proliferate, spread and produce......

Words: 757 - Pages: 4

Criminal Justice

...Adjusting to Terrorism University of Phoenix CJA/453 Criminal Justice Administration In today’s society there are many things this nation is up against and one of the main things is the war on terrorism. Terrorism is a high priority in the US for this is why we have so many agencies to track and prevent an attack. Unfortunately not all acts of terrorism is known, however what this paper will do is look at bioterrorism and examine what can make it better or worst in the efforts to combat it. Many believe that society may not be ready for a bioterrorism attack for this is why we have make some changes therefore making society feel like their nation is prepared in the event of a bioterrorist attack. One of the targets that would be on the front line in the event of an attack are the medical and health departments mainly emergency rooms, this is because with bioterrorism it is a chemical attack were antibiotics and medical attention would be needed immediately. This is what is purposed; first set a facility in place along with fully equipped doctors and medical emergency staff to handle any type of case in the event of a sudden attack. There also would be sets of individuals who will do research, put in time and effort to come up with several kinds of antibiotic in the event of an incident that there is no cure for. What this does is help supply a treatment until our teams of researchers can......

Words: 495 - Pages: 2

Team Question

...ways are they adequate or in what ways should they be improved? With the threat of bioterrorism the government has been implementing various methods to ensure the safety of the citizens in the country. After 2001, the government has been working efficiently to find resources on how to minimize this problem. One of these mechanisms is what the government calls biosurveillance. According to Gottron and Shea (2010), “The Bush Administration implemented a number of different detection approaches, including environmental detection, syndromic surveillance, and information sharing. Through these efforts, the federal government aims to identify bioterrorism events at various scales” (pg. 8). The goal of this mechanism is to provide laboratories with the resources necessaries, so they can handle and analyze any clinical samples related to a bioterrorism event. This mechanism is adequate for this threat because it can help the information needed for a possible attack. The individuals planning an attack must gather information, plan the attack, and have a date and time for execution. However, this can take some time. This is when a biosurveillance plan will be effective because it can help to gather as much information possible for the possible attack and stop it. The goal is to ensure the safety of the people. Reference Gotton. F. & Shea. D. A. (2010). Federal Efforts to Address the Threat of Bioterrorism: Selected Issues for Congress. Retrieved from......

Words: 250 - Pages: 1

Bioterrorism Coutermeasures

...Bioterrorism Countermeasures: Utilizing Intelligence Agencies over Biological Research ABSTRACT: The 21st century has seen a revolutionary biotechnology force, one that has led to developments in healthcare and other industries around the United States. Coupled with the growing development of biotechnology, however, is a force hoping to harness its power to create biological weapons. Presently, there are several nations pursuing biological weapons programs, making it easier for terrorist groups to gain access and attain advanced weaponry. Recently, terrorists have demonstrated their ability to execute acts of bio-terror without any moral repugnance or regret. Though these weapons have been taboo in past centuries, known for their sneakiness and deception, the use of biological weapons and the incidence of biological attack in the present century has –relatively speaking– dramatically increased. It is for this reason that congress and the federal government must intervene to prevent future bio-attack. The best method to stall further biological development within terrorist groups is by infiltration and detection via the Intelligence Community (IC). Unfortunately, we have diverted all our resources towards bio-terrorism research, without realizing that it is the further development and accessibility of biological weapons information that has promoted the spread of deadly knowledge within the terrorist community. Instead of trying to develop research plans for specific......

Words: 4378 - Pages: 18

Dual Use

...Research altering the structure of infective viruses poses a threat to man and should be banned. This threat is defined, as “Dual use”. Although, altering the structure of viruses does have beneficial purposes it is ultimately not worth the risk and outweighed by its dangers. Dual Use is beneficial in advancing science or improving public health but is often misused for malevolent ends such as bioterrorism. Bioterrorism is not a new threat, Pathogens and micro organisms have been used as weapons for hundreds of years, dating back to the fourteenth century when Tartars threw the corpses of plague victims over the city walls of Kaffa before its siege and in the eighteenth century when British soldiers distributed blankets used by smallpox victims to Native Americans with the objective of contaminating them (SERB). This history of vile behavior in regards to bioweapons has not seemed to stop as technology advanced, some would say it has even gotten worse. When discussing the issue of bioterrorism one must keep in mind that it doesn’t mean all dual use scientists are bioterrorist, legitimate scientists typically conduct a research that is in the dual use field for positive purposes. “Just because a research project may have dual use concerns, that doesn’t mean that it will be misused as a bioweapon or that the researchers conducting the research are bioweaponeers” (SERB). However as research continues and advances on dual use the greater we risk-assisting bioterrorist......

Words: 521 - Pages: 3

Biosecurity and Bioterrorsim

...BIOSECURITY AND BIOTERRORISM HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT ONE PROF. EDWARDS INSTRUCTIONS: Please answer the following in a complete, yet concise, manner using APA format for your citations and references. Single or double-spacing for your four or less page response (excluding references) may be used. A traditional font (e.g. Calibri, Arial, or Times Roman) in an 10 or 11 font size is preferred. Remember to clearly delineate quotations and paraphrasing through the use of quotation marks or other conventional methods. I. Based on the readings, the greatest deterrent in finding a universal definition of terrorism deals with each countries subjective views of legitimacy. The definition of terrorism seems to be culturally biased with some groups related the legitimacy of terrorism to the person who is carrying out the act and not the act itself. The interesting part is that the idea of moral is questionable to some countries. Prior to the attacks of 9/11, the major difference between the Us’s definition of terrorism was the absence of the term “weapons of mass destruction” which is now prvelant in our anti terror agenda. In the years following the attack on September 11 the idea of terrorism, primarily in the US, has been seen as based on a political agenda. I choose to look a the United States’ definition or terrorism as well as the Arab Convention for the Suppression of Terrorism’s definition of terrorism. In 1998, the Arab Convention for the Suppression...

Words: 1463 - Pages: 6

Hca 415 Ash Tutorial/Tutorialrank

...Emergency Preparedness and Response For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 3 Times, Rating: A Emergency Preparedness and Response. Your course text defines bioterrorism as “the threatened or intentional release of biologic agents for the purpose of influencing the conduct of government or intimidating or coercing a civilian population to further political or social objectives” (Turncock, 2012, p. 122). In this paper, you will evaluate the roles and responsibilities of local, state, and federal public health organizations in emergency preparedness and response during a bioterrorism event. First, select one of the following bioterrorism threats: a. Anthrax b. Small pox c. Food safety d. Water safety Next, answer the following questions: a. What are the basic functions of the federal, state, and local level during this bioterrorism event? b. What public health resources are available to address this bioterrorism threat at the federal, state, and/or local level? c. What role does communication play during an emergency response? Identify at least two strategies that can be used to improve effective communication. How do these strategies improve communication? d. In your opinion, is your city/state prepared to address this bioterrorism threat? Why or why not? Provide a concrete example that supports your......

Words: 1293 - Pages: 6

Hca 415 Learning Consultant / Tutorialrank.Com

...defines bioterrorism as “the threatened or intentional release of biologic agents for the purpose of influencing the conduct of government or intimidating or coercing a civilian population to further political or social objectives” (Turncock, 2012, p. 122). In this paper, you will evaluate the roles and responsibilities of local, state, and federal public health organizations in emergency preparedness and response during a bioterrorism event. First, select one of the following bioterrorism threats: a. Anthrax b. Small pox c. Food safety d. Water safety Next, answer the following questions: a. What are the basic functions of the federal, state, and local level during this bioterrorism event? b. What public health resources are available to address this bioterrorism threat at the federal, state, and/or local level? c. What role does communication play during an emergency response? Identify at least two strategies that can be used to improve effective communication. How do these strategies improve communication? d. In your opinion, is your city/state prepared to address this bioterrorism threat? Why or why not? Provide a concrete example that supports your opinion. The paper should be two to three pages in length, excluding title and reference pages, and must include a minimum of two scholarly sources formatted according to APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Emergency Preparedness and Response. Your course text defines bioterrorism as......

Words: 1245 - Pages: 5

Hca 415 Aid Learning for Leading/Hca415Aiddotcom

...------------------------------------------------------------- HCA 415 Week 3 Assignment Emergency Preparedness and Response FOR MORE CLASSES VISIT www.hca415aid.com Emergency Preparedness and Response. Your course text defines bioterrorism as “the threatened or intentional release of biologic agents for the purpose of influencing the conduct of government or intimidating or coercing a civilian population to further political or social objectives” (Turncock, 2012, p. 122). In this paper, you will evaluate the roles and responsibilities of local, state, and federal public health organizations in emergency preparedness and response during a bioterrorism event. First, select one of the following bioterrorism threats: a. Anthrax b. Small pox c. Food safety d. Water safety Next, answer the following questions: a. What are the basic functions of the federal, state, and local level during this bioterrorism event? b. What public health resources are available to address this bioterrorism threat at the federal, state, and/or local level? c. What role does communication play during an emergency response? Identify at least two strategies that can be used to improve effective communication. How do these strategies improve communication? d. In your opinion, is your city/state prepared to address this bioterrorism threat? Why or why not? Provide a concrete example that supports your opinion. The paper should be two to three pages in length, excluding title and......

Words: 1236 - Pages: 5

Hca 415 Course Career Path Begins / Tutorialrank.Com

...defines bioterrorism as “the threatened or intentional release of biologic agents for the purpose of influencing the conduct of government or intimidating or coercing a civilian population to further political or social objectives” (Turncock, 2012, p. 122). In this paper, you will evaluate the roles and responsibilities of local, state, and federal public health organizations in emergency preparedness and response during a bioterrorism event. First, select one of the following bioterrorism threats: a. Anthrax b. Small pox c. Food safety d. Water safety Next, answer the following questions: a. What are the basic functions of the federal, state, and local level during this bioterrorism event? b. What public health resources are available to address this bioterrorism threat at the federal, state, and/or local level? c. What role does communication play during an emergency response? Identify at least two strategies that can be used to improve effective communication. How do these strategies improve communication? d. In your opinion, is your city/state prepared to address this bioterrorism threat? Why or why not? Provide a concrete example that supports your opinion. The paper should be two to three pages in length, excluding title and reference pages, and must include a minimum of two scholarly sources formatted according to APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Emergency Preparedness and Response. Your course text defines bioterrorism as......

Words: 2559 - Pages: 11

Bioterrorism in the United States

...Bioterrorism in the United States of America Bioterrorism in the United States of America Since the events of September 11, 2001, the United States has made great strides in emergency response preparedness for terrorist attacks, however, one area that is still lacking is preparedness for a widespread biological terrorist attack. The threat of a bioterrorist attack in the United States is a very real and potentially convenient method of attack for numerous terrorist organizations. An attack of this type could go unnoticed in many public areas. Major transportation hubs throughout the United States are major targets for such an attack. An act of bioterrorism is a major threat to the United States that could occur unnoticed and must be dealt with immediately by providing a nationwide vaccination against all agents, better education programs for the general public, and most importantly, the prevention of such an act from happening. In October, 2001, the first confirmed case of inhalation anthrax was confirmed in Florida, which brought the word bioterrorism to mainstream America (Jernigan, 2001, p. 934). Throughout the fall of that year many people’s fears were stoked by this anthrax scare following shortly after the events of September 11, 2001. This anthrax scare highlighted that while the hospital system throughout the United States may not be completely prepared for a widespread bioterrorism attack, these hospitals could handle a small number of cases and brought......

Words: 2038 - Pages: 9

Disease in the News

...harms not only animals, but humans as well. There are several types of anthrax and many different types of treatments to help cure them. Although some who are infected with anthrax do not always survive. Anthrax is not common in the U.S. but it does sometimes occur. Anthrax is nationally discussed in most of today’s disease trends. Disease in the News Following the 1998 reports of a series of bioterrorist threats of anthrax exposure, the public health implications of these threats were investigated to assist in developing national public health guidelines for responding to bioterrorism. The U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed interim guidelines for managing anthrax in 2001. What follows is a summary of the investigational findings and subsequently published CDC guidelines for public health authorities regarding anthrax-related acts of bioterrorism (Matteucci, 2011). Anthrax is a life threatening infectious disease that normally affects animals, especially ruminants (such as goats, cattle, sheep, and horses. Anthrax can be transmitted to humans by contact with infected animals or their products. Anthrax is now rare in humans in the United States and developed countries. In recent years anthrax has received a great deal of attention as it has become clear that the infection can also be spread by a bioterrorist attack or by biological warfare. Anthrax does not spread from person to person (Fishbein, 1996-2012). ...

Words: 936 - Pages: 4

xXdonavan12Xx | The Walking Dead Season 2 Completed | 시사/다큐