Body Language

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Submitted By phili
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Je désignerai ainsi l'activité mimo-gestuelle qui est liée à la constitution de l'énoncé auquel elle s'intègre : en premier lieu par la gestualité deictique ou désignante ; comment donner sens à cette phrase " c'est celui-ci qui me plait le plus " si un geste de pointage n'est pas présent pour la contextualiser ?
À cette gestualité nécessaire, et prévue par la forme même de l'expression verbale, s'ajoute la gestualité illustrative qui mime l'action ou figure dans l'espace certaines caractéristiques de l'objet référent. Ce type de gestes est particulièrement abondant dans les descriptions de lieux; on ne peut guère évoquer l'espace sans s'appuyer sur des figurations corporelles (c'est le fameux "escalier en colimaçon" dont les enfants s'amusent à demander la définition aux adultes complaisants). Ces "spatiographiques " et les déictiques montrent à quel point le corps sert de repères spatio-temporels à l'organisation de la pensée, et de matrice à la formation du discours . Ces faits ont d'ailleurs servi à formuler la "loi de désignation du référent présent": la mention dans le discours d'un référent présent s'accompagne obligatoirement de sa désignation (soit par le pointage digital, soit au moins par le regard); par exemple : "Il était sans cravate " sera associé à un geste du parleur en direction de son propre col, "J'avais le coeur qui battait très fort" sera associé à la main posée sur la poitrine gauche, "si vous voulez mon opinion" le "mon" sera accompagné d'un geste auto-centré, etc...(cf. Cosnier et Vaysse,1992).
Enfin, il faut évidemment mentionner les gestes quasi-linguistiques qui sont des équivalents de paroles et sont parfaitement conventionnalisés selon les cultures . Ainsi le fameux "raz le bol" très spécifiquement français.
On sait que ces signes peuvent être élaborés en système assez complexe pour donner des langues avec leur répertoire et leur…...

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