Capital Raising in Australia: Experiences and Lessons from the Global Financial Crisis

In: Business and Management

Submitted By clairedan
Words 10020
Pages 41
ASX Information Paper

Broker Trades
Message Specification

29 January 2010

Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................3
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................4
THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS ................................................................5
Credit and Debt Markets....................................................................................................5
Equity Markets ...................................................................................................................6

THE GFC AND EQUITY CAPITAL RAISING..................................................6
THE NATURE OF THE AUSTRALIAN EQUITY MARKET...........................10
THE STRUCTURE OF CAPITAL RAISING IN AUSTRALIA ........................12
Initial Equity Capital Raising...........................................................................................12
Secondary Equity Capital Raising..................................................................................15
Placements ................................................................................................................................. 21
Rights Issues .............................................................................................................................. 24
Share Purchase Plans ................................................................................................................ 29
Dividend Reinvestment Plans ..................................................................................................... 32
Comparing the Australian, UK and US Secondary Equity Capital Raising Systems .................. 33

Debt Capital Raising…...

Similar Documents

Global Financial Crisis

...GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS The Global Financial Crisis is considered to be the worst financial crisis to hit the global economy since the Great Depression. Around the world, stock markets fell, financial institutes collapsed or were bought out, banks stopped business with each other and governments had to bail out their banks and financial institutions. This in turn caused lots of unemployment and collapse of the real estate market, contributing to failure of businesses and industries, decline in consumer wealth and a decline in economic activity leading to the Global Recession. The Financial Crisis may have showed some traces in 2007 but it really hit on 15th September 2008 when the United States Government allowed Lehman Brothers to go bankrupt, resulting in all banks deemed to be risky. The immediate cause of the crisis was the bursting of the United States housing bubble which had peaked in 2006.By September 2008, housing prices in the United States began to decline after hitting their peak in 2006.Easy credit and a belief that house prices would continue to appreciate had encouraged many subprime borrowers to obtain adjustable rate mortgages. These mortgages enticed borrowers with a below market interest rate for some time, followed by market interest rates for the remainder of the mortgage’s term. Borrowers who could not make higher payments once the initial grace period ended tried to refinance their mortgages. Refinancing became more difficult, once......

Words: 1610 - Pages: 7

Global Financial Crisis

...Global Financial Crisis: impacts, solutions and predictions in GCC countries. Since the end of 2007 and the beginning of 2008, the world has been suffering from the global financial crisis. It is believed to be the worst financial crisis in 60 years at least since the Great Depression in 1930s, due to the speed, scope, and scale of its impact. The huge difference distinguishes the contemporary crisis from the others is that the other crises were concerned with economic inflation and the current one is concerned with economic deflation. The global financial crisis has started in America, then crossed the Atlantic before going global. It began in the mortgage markets of the United States and erupted through financial markets (Savona, Kirton, Oldani 3). Many factors have contributed to the economy's recession, where signs of housing bubble problem were seen at the end of 2007. Caused by low interest rates beginning on January 3, 2001, and ignored by regulatory agencies, Americans borrowed excessively for home mortgages and this phase lasted to 2004. After that, from June 30, 2004, interest rates started to rise which led to the mortgage being unbearable and eventually subprime. This phase was marked by the increasing foreclosures and it extended from 2005 to 2007. This lead us to the conclusion that global financial crisis occurred due to easy monetary policies along with tax cuts and to failure of regulatory arrangements (Desai 1-3). This was the origin of the global......

Words: 2243 - Pages: 9

Lesson from Asian Crisis

... The financial crisis which began in July 1997 in the East Asian countries, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and Korea, has had devastating effects on their economies. Growth rates in these countries which were in excess of five percent before 1997, turned sharply negative in 1998 and, at the time of this writing it is not yet clear when these economies will turn the corner and resume positive rates of growth. This paper examines why these countries, which were part of what has been termed "the Asian miracle" and were able to eradicate so much poverty, are now undergoing severe economic contractions, with such harmful effects on their populations. A breakdown of information in financial markets is the key factor that has driven this crisis. After laying out an asymmetric information view of the Asian financial crisis, this paper goes on to use this framework to explore lessons from this crisis. 1. An Asymmetric Information View of the Asian Crisis The financial system plays a critical role in the economy because, when it operates properly, it channels funds from those who have saved surplus funds to those who need these funds to engage in productive investment opportunities. The major barrier to the financial system performing this job properly is asymmetric information, the fact that one party to a financial contract does not have the same information as the other party, which results in moral hazard and adverse selection problems. An asymmetric information view of......

Words: 7371 - Pages: 30

How a Rigid Fiscal Policy Saved Australia from the Global Financial Crisis

...Macroeconomics Assignment How a rigid Fiscal Policy saved Australia from the Global Financial Crisis TABLE OF CONTENTS: |Item |Heading |Page Number | |1. |Introduction | | |2. |Theoretical Concepts: | | | | | | | |2.1 Economic Growth | | | |2.2 Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply | | | |2.3 Fiscal Policy | | | |2.4 Monetary Policy | | | |2.5 The Impact of Unemployment | | |3. |Related Policy Issues | | |4. ...

Words: 3759 - Pages: 16

Global Financial Crisis

...Positive and Negative Effects of the Global Financial Crisis Harlita H. Tomlinson Capella University BMGT8114: Accounting in the Global Era Dr. Wendy Achilles June 8,2014 Table of Contents Abstract 3 Positive and Negative Effects of the Global Financial Crisis 4 Background on the Global Financial Crisis 5 Global Financial Crisis and Its Negative Effects 9 Lack of Financial Sector Regulation and Oversights 9 Increase in the Number of Bankruptcies 11 Global Financial Crisis and Its Positive Effects 12 Designing Regulations to Monitor the Financial Sector 12 Global Governance as a Side Effect of the Global Financial Crisis 13 Lessons Learned 16 Domestic Lessons Learned 16 Global Lessons Learned 17 Lessons from Romania. 18 The Role of Financial Executives in GFC 19 Conclusions 21 References 24 Abstract The first financial crisis of the twenty-first century has not yet ended, according to Gorton and Metrick (2012), the wave of research on the crisis has already exceeded any single reader’s capacity, with the pace of new work only making this task harder. The Global Financial Crisis is considered by many economists to be the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. Global Financial Crisis resulted in the threat of the total collapse of large financial institutions, the bailout of banks by national governments, and market downturns around the world. In the aftermath of this crisis, the housing market declined significantly and has......

Words: 6647 - Pages: 27

Global Financial Crisis

...Bank liquidity risk is the risk of not having sufficient funds to meet payments such as those arising from unexpected changes in customers’ withdrawals or loan draw-downs (Gup, Avram, Beal, Lambert&Kolari, 2007). Liquidity risk can be measured using simple liquidity ratio or dynamic liquidity ratio. “Simple liquidity ratio is calculated by first identifying the bank’s liquid assets and then expressing this as a percentage of its total assets” (Gup et al., 2007, p.356). It only considers asset liquidity, and this measure is only one point in time. However, dynamic approach compares projected liquidity needs with projected available liquidity (from both asset and liability sources) for each time period. “This approach is superior to focusing on one or the other parts of the liquidity problem because it evaluates liquidity relative to bank needs” (Gup et al., 2007, p.356). APRA is proposing that banks in Australia hold more liquidity in the event of future crisis. The reason for this is “APRA noted that the financial crisis exposed the limitations of existing liquidity reporting rules when markets are under severe stress” (Baltazar, 2009, para.8). APRA (2009) said the financial crisis has highlighted the need for ADIs to have adequate levels of liquidity and robust liquidity risk management systems, and has provided considerable insights into better practice in this area. APRA supports the Basel Committee’s measures and agrees that greater international consistency in......

Words: 2362 - Pages: 10

Learn from Employment Policies During the Global Financial Crisis in Oecd Countries

...Essay Learn from employment policies during the global financial crisis in OECD countries Writing by Arthur DAGAN a. What has been the main impact of the global financial crisis on OECD countries? Why should governments be concerned about the impact, especially in the context of youth? Let us first understand the cause of global financial crisis, his main impact on OECD and then why governments should be concerned about the especially case of youth. The global financial and economic crisis, which erupted in the financial systems of developed countries in the autumn of 2008 by the wake of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, has affected quickly all economies throughout the world (Torres, 2011). In the OECD countries, which are the first affected by the crisis, the main impact was the high level of unemployment generate by job losses, enterprise bankruptcies and cuts in the incomes of millions of people. Indeed, in April 2013, 8% of the OECD labour force was unemployed representing over 48 million people, almost 16 million more than in 2007 (Scarpetta, 2013). Despite the economic recovery in some of OECD countries mainly the United States, this trend could not improve until mid- 2014 so that we can observe a decrease in unemployment again. The governments should be concerned about the impact the unemployment because in general, this phenomenon affect not just the person himself but also his/her family and in the long run the society where he lives, which in turn......

Words: 1281 - Pages: 6

Neoliberalism and the Global Financial Crisis

...Neoliberalism and the global financial Crisis Introduction The fusion of neoliberal beliefs and the western society started in the early 1970’s, it has incorporated in the society to such an extent that it can be portrayed as being impending. For more than forty years now neoliberalism has controlled governments, technology, housing and financial sector and has impacted our society in destructive ways. Neoliberalism reached a new height after the 2008 financial crisis leaving recession as an aftermath. Neoliberalism as explained by Harvey (2005) is a model of private enterprise which concentrates on the economy and its deregulation to empower a free market based monetary framework. Hillyard and Tombs (2004) see neoliberalism as a destruction breeding form of capitalism which they think makes a commanding dispute for, the state demanding to be considered in charge of methodically creating destruction. Neoliberalism as indicated by David Harvey is a "hypothesis of political monetary works on recommending that human prosperity can best be progressed by the augmentation of entrepreneurial opportunities inside of an institutional system portrayed by private property rights, individual freedom, unhampered markets, and free trade" (2005:2). The idea of neoliberalism in western social orders is connected with the Thatcher government in the UK and the Reagan government in the US which came to power in the late 1970s – mid 1980s henceforth presenting neoliberalism as a key......

Words: 3663 - Pages: 15

Global Financial Crisis and the Eu

...required to develop an essay addressing the issues described in the following statement: ‘Geopolitical crises and epidemics haven’t stopped the global economy from expanding by some 3 percent in 2014. However, the Eurozone will remain the world economy’s main problem, with growth in the single-currency bloc expected to be negligible. Problems in some of the Eurozone’s big economies are worrying analysts. The situation in Italy, for instance, is quite dramatic, with the economy stagnating. In France, high public deficits are a big worry; such a policy could not be continued for much longer. Underperforming fellow Eurozone nations could affect Germany’s own economic growth prospects, since they are the customers for most of Germany’s exports; it is expected that Germany’s gross domestic product will expand by just 1 percent in 2015. Despite the evident problems in Eurozone, Germany and France are determined to restore a confidence to the Euro.’ Discuss the statement, and use examples to justify your opinion. 1.0 Introduction The Global Financial Crisis or the ‘great recession’ as it is now known has been widely regarded as the worst global recession since the end of the Great Depression (Drezner, 2014). The events following the collapse of the US housing market and the subsequent financial meltdown has had consequences on a global scale, nowhere is this more evident than in the Eurozone (Allen & Ngai, 2012). The Eurozone, made up of 19 EU member states that......

Words: 5853 - Pages: 24

The Global Roots of the Current Financial Crisis and Its Implications for Regulation

...The Global Roots of the Current Financial Crisis and its Implications for Regulation Anil Kashyap (University of Chicago) Raghuram Rajan (University of Chicago) Jeremy Stein (Harvard University) Where did the current financial crisis come from? Who or what is to blame? How will it be resolved? How do we undertake reforms for the future? These are the questions this paper will seek to answer. The analysis will have three parts. The first is a rough and ready sketch of the global roots of this crisis. Second, we will focus in a more detailed way on why it hit the financial sector, especially banks. Finally, we will end with some suggestions for future regulation, especially capital regulation. I. A Rough Sketch. It is always useful to start with the macroeconomic environment. In a sense, this is a crisis borne out of previous crises. An important difference between the recent period of sustained growth and previous periods is the low level of long term real interest rates over the last 5 years, certainly relative to the last two decades. Long rates fell following the collapse in investment in both emerging markets and developed countries after the crises in 1998 and the ICT bubble in 2001. Emerging market governments became more circumspect and increased budgetary surpluses, even while cutting back on public investment. For instance, in Philippines, investment fell from 24% of GDP in 1996 to 17% in 2006, while its savings rose from 14% to 20%. From borrowing 10% of its...

Words: 14517 - Pages: 59

The Global Financial Crisis

...The Global Financial Crisis: Impact on Bangladesh A.K.M. Atiqur Rahman Professor Department of Economics North South University Overview I. Introduction: Genesis and Spread of the Crisis. II. Global Recession and LDCs III. Impact on Bangladesh IV. Recession and Export from Bangladesh V. Exchange Rate Movement VI. Remittance VII. Import and Tax Revenue VIII. Overall Impact IX. Policy Implications I. Introduction: Genesis and Spread of the Crisis. • Root: Mispricing in the Massive Credit Default Swap Market • Sub prime Mortgage: Bank transferred credit risk to third party through the process of securitization ( MDS, CDO) • Reckless growth of sub prime mortgage-lower yield in risky mortgage • Arbitrage drove the yields on all bonds & loans down • Expansion of consumer credit, housing price bubble Intriduction continued • Unsustainability of Credit default swap and subprime mortgages exposed • Housing bubble burst → mortgage default → foreclosures→ bank and insurance failure→ credit freeze • Spillover of financial crisis to real economy through virulent credit crunch →depressed aggregate demand • Sub prime mortgage default led to spillover effects around the world (Europe and emerging economies) via an elaborate network of derivatives Continued . Global consequence of the crisis includes: • Sharp rise in Unemployment in the US, Job loss in few other countries • Sharp fall in the stock market price around the globe,......

Words: 2083 - Pages: 9

Global Financial Crisis

...Global Financial Crisis: The 2007–2012 global financial crisis, also known as the Global Financial Crisis (GFC), late-2000s financial crisis or the second "Great Recession", is considered by many economists to be the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.[1] It resulted in the collapse of large financial institutions, the bailout of banks by national governments and downturns in stock markets around the world. In many areas, the housing market also suffered, resulting in numerous evictions, foreclosures and prolonged unemployment. It contributed to the failure of key businesses, declines in consumer wealth estimated in trillions of US dollars, and a significant decline in economic activity, leading to a severeglobal economic recession in 2008.[2] The financial crisis was triggered by a complex interplay of valuation and liquidity problems in the United States banking system in 2008.[3][4] The bursting of the U.S. housing bubble, which peaked in 2007, caused the values of securities tied to U.S. real estate pricing to plummet, damaging financial institutions globally.[5][6] Questions regarding bank solvency, declines in credit availability and damaged investor confidence had an impact on global stock markets, where securities suffered large losses during 2008 and early 2009. Economies worldwide slowed during this period, as credit tightened and international trade declined.[7] Governments and central banks responded with unprecedented fiscal stimulus...

Words: 12476 - Pages: 50

Global Financial Crisis

... Mitch Abramson GOVT 123-01 Global Financial Crisis A collapse of the US sub-prime mortgage market and the bursting of the housing bubble in 2007 have had a ripple effect on the global economy. Furthermore, other weaknesses in the global financial system have surfaced. Some financial products and instruments have become so complex and twisted, that as things start to unravel, trust in the whole system started to fail. In turn lack of confidence in the economy has led to what is commonly referred to as the “great recession”. The question left to ask is, where do we go from here? The public is looking for an answer from economists to what will happen next. Because of the lack of certainty in the global forecasts, people are starting to lose confidence in the system. For example, in November 2008, the World Bank predicted the growth of the 2009 GDP to be 0.9%, while the International Monetary Fund predicted a 2.2% growth rate. In January 2009, the IMF revised its forecast to a 0.5% growth rate; two months later, the IMF revised its growth rate again by raising its forecast to 1%. Federal Reserve chairman, Ben Bernanke put it plainly in a speech given to the House Budget Committee by saying, “The uncertainty surrounding the outlook is unusually large.” Some economists have resorted to using three letters of the Roman alphabet to represent the future of the GDP growth. Those scenarios are the “U”, the “L”, and the “W” recovery. In a “U” style economy, economic growth will......

Words: 892 - Pages: 4

Global Financial Crisis

...Introduction Global financial crisis started when sub prime mortgage market of United States collapsed. Since the global financial crisis took place, many developed and developing countries have been going through recession. It was believed that ongoing global financial crisis will not affect Bangladesh economy as badly as it can to other developed economy because economy of Bangladesh is not so dependent on international capital or foreign investment. But, still there are and will be some shocks of ongoing global financial crisis available for Bangladesh economy. So, Bangladesh economy will be affected by global financial crisis. Global financial crisis might reduce overseas job opportunities and export earnings. Global financial crisis may turn into a recession. Economy of developing countries including Bangladesh is already going through recession. Bangladesh is a low income country. If global financial crisis continuous then economy of Bangladesh will be suffering. Negative impacts of global financial crisis are beginning to show on the increasingly globalizing economy of Bangladesh. Export growth rate of Bangladesh has turned negative. Export of non-apparels items is being reduced. Depreciation of currencies by competing countries caused erosion of Bangladesh’s competitive strength in the global market. Remittance earnings could be badly affected in near future because number of job seekers going abroad halved as some countries either revoked or have stopped issuing...

Words: 1547 - Pages: 7

Global Financial Crisis

...EC-408E-INTL ECONOMICS-A-12/S3 DR. HAMID ZANGENEH The Global Financial Crisis & LIBOR London Interbank Offered Rate One Of The Largest Banking Scandals In History, An Emerging Controversy Over Whether Major Financial Institutions Have Been Manipulating The LIBOR, A Key Interest Rate Banks Use To Borrow Money From Each Other That Is ”Used As A Benchmark To Set Payments On About $800 Trillion Worth Of Financial Instruments.” MIT Professor Of Finance Andrew Lo Told CNN Money That The LIBOR-Manipulation Story “Dwarfs By Orders Of Magnitude Any Financial Scams In The History Of Markets” Anthony Bruno 7/21/2012 Abstract Following investigations into Barclays' manipulation of London Interbank Offered Rates (Libor), CFR's Sebastian Mallaby highlights three implications from the unfolding scandal: Conflicts of Interest Within Banks: Barclays' distorted reports on borrowing rates demonstrate the system's failure to prevent damage from conflicts of interest between banks and their traders. "Chinese walls don't work," Mallaby says. "It's a lesson we've learned over and over again in finance." The Role of Regulators: The alleged collusion between the Bank of England and Barclays indicates a critical challenge in the governance of financial markets: Regulators are forced to bend rules to protect banks, "not because they are bribed," says Mallaby, "but because they are blackmailed, in the sense that the banks, by threatening to go under and do untold damage to...

Words: 4736 - Pages: 19

هذا البيانو... | Bölüm 59: Bölüm 59 | Stephen Swartz