In: Science

Submitted By toly95

Words 305

Pages 2

Words 305

Pages 2

Purpose: To understand and verify the relationship of Centripetal Force, where m is mass, v is velocity and r is radius.

Procedure:

Part 1: Set up apparatus, which consists of a rotor mechanism containing a mass m attached to a spring. Tape on a piece of cardboard vertically onto one end of the rotor to trigger the photogate timer. Start the rotor and gradually increase speed until the metal pointer just flips up. Record the time (up). And then gradually decrease until the metal pointer just flips down. Record the time (down). Calculate the force on the rotating mass m.

Part 2: Rotate rotor from Part 1 so that mass m hangs straight down. Attach a short loop of fishing line at the bottom of the mass. Add weight (mass) onto loop and keep adding weight until the metal pointer just flips up. Record the mass (up). Then little by little, remove the weights until the metal pointer just flips down. Record the mass (down). Calculate Force=mg.

Data/Results:

The data and sample calculations are attached below. The typical relative uncertainty for Fc was 16%, while the typical relative uncertainty for Fg was 2%. Thus Fg is a more precise measurement than Fc. Both parts gave the similar Newton answers (about 21-22N). Some error in this lab may have been caused by air resistance/friction, slowing down mass and increasing period. Another error can be caused by time measurement/calibration, which can be reduced by timing a number of rev and finding the average. Another error can be made due to sloppiness in measurements and calculations. For example, in part 2, it was hard to keep the string of weights stable, which caused it to move around therefore causing uncertainty in the force needed to flip the needle…...

...Acceleration Due to Gravity Introduction In this lab you will measure the acceleration due to gravity near the earth’s surface with two experiments: first, by determining the time for a steel ball to fall a known vertical distance (free fall), and then second, by measuring the velocity of a cart at various points as it glides down a slightly inclined and nearly frictionless air track (slow fall). Equipment Part 1: Free-Fall • Free-fall apparatus (steel plate, drop mechanism) • Electronic Timer • Steel Ball Part 2: Slow-Fall • Air Track • Electronic Timer (may be different brand/model than in Part 1) • Gliding Car • Laser Photogate Background: Free Fall Acceleration Under the constant acceleration of gravity near the Earth’s surface, g, the vertical position, y, of a falling object is related to the time it has fallen by 1 y = y 0 + v 0 t " gt 2 2 where y0 and v0 are the initial position and velocity, respectively. The distance fallen after a time, t, has elapsed is: ! 1 y 0 " y = gt 2 " v 0 t 2 If you release the object from rest, v0 = 0, the equation simplifies to ! y0 " y = 1 2 gt 2 By varying the distance the ball drops and measuring the corresponding transit times, we can determine the acceleration of gravity from a best fit line to a linear graph of the experimental data. ! ! Procedure: Free-Fall Acceleration A diagram of the experimental apparatus is shown in Figure 1. When the ball loses contact with the release mechanism, the timer starts counting. It......

Words: 2143 - Pages: 9

...Sergio Hernandez Jose Roque Paul Zuniga October 7th, 2012 Laboratory Report: Acceleration on an Incline Purpose: 0 Use a Motion Detector to measure the speed and acceleration of a cart rolling down an incline. 1 Determine the mathematical relationship between the angle of an incline and the acceleration of the cart. 2 Determine the value of free fall acceleration, g, by extrapolating the acceleration vs. sine of track angle graph. 3 Determine if an extrapolation of the acceleration vs. sine of track angle is valid. Materials: * Computer * Vernier computer interface. * Logger Pro. * Vernier Motion Detector. * Dynamics cart. * Meter stick. * Ramp. * Books. Procedure: 1. Connect the Motion Detector to the DIG/SONIC 1 channel of the interface. 2. Place a single book under one end of a 1 – 3 m long board or track so that it forms a small angle with the horizontal. Adjust the points of contact of the two ends of the incline, so that the distance, x, in Figure 1 is between 1 and 3 m. 3. Place the Motion Detector at the top of an incline. Place it so the cart will never be closer than 0.4 m. 4. Open the file “04 g On An Incline” from the Physics with Vernier folder. 5. Hold the cart on the incline about 0.5 m from the Motion Detector. 6. Click to begin collecting data; release the cart after the Motion Detector starts to click. Get your hand out of the Motion Detector path quickly. You may have to adjust the......

Words: 874 - Pages: 4

...Lab Investigation Purpose: This lab will verify how the centripetal force on a rotating body is affected by the following variables: frequency, speed, mass, and radius of a rotating object. Available Materials: ● 2 rubber stoppers ● 28 steel washers ● reinforced ceramic tube ● 1.5 m of thread or string ● metre stick ● stop watch [pic] Lab Procedure: Remember that a proper scientific method requires identifying the following for each case of the investigation: → Independent Variable → Dependent Variable → Controlled Variables PART A - Centripetal Force vs Frequency 1. Set up apparatus as illustrated above. Measure 1.0 meter of string from the rubber stopper to the tube (held vertically) using the metre stick. Attach a piece of tape on the string about 1 cm below the bottom of the tube (see diagram pg. 152). This will act as a reference mark. 2. Place 12 washers on the end of the string (using the paper clip). 3. While holding the bottom stack of washers, whirl the rubber stopper in a horizontal circle above your head. Carefully adjust the speed of rotation until you feel very little tension on the string suspending the washers. Let go of the stack of washers and maintain the rotation rate so that the reference tape on the string remains stationary about 1 cm below the tube. Have a lab partner determine the time for 20 complete......

Words: 831 - Pages: 4

...P03: Acceleration on an Incline (Acceleration Sensor) |Concept |DataStudio |ScienceWorkshop (Mac) |ScienceWorkshop (Win) | |Linear motion |P03 Acceleration.ds |(See end of activity) |(See end of activity) | |Equipment Needed |Qty |Equipment Needed |Qty | |Acceleration Sensor (CI-6558) |1 |Dynamics Cart (inc. w/ Track) |1 | |Angle Indicator (inc. w/ Track) |1 |Meter stick |1 | |Base and Support Rod (ME-9355) |1 |1.2 m Track System (ME-9429A) |1 | What Do You Think? When a sled accelerates down a snow-covered hill, on what does its acceleration depend? You may want to consider the height of the hill, the slope of the hill and the mass of the sled. How does its acceleration depend on the variable(s) you selected? Take time to answer the ‘What Do You Think?’ question(s) in the Lab Report section. Background A cart on an incline will roll down the incline as it is pulled by gravity. The direction of the acceleration due to gravity is straight down as shown in the diagram. The component of the acceleration due......

Words: 1981 - Pages: 8

...confirmed? a. in ancient times b. in 1895 c. in 1932 d. in 1969 9. The proton contains which of the following combination of quarks? a. two up quarks and one down quark b. one up quark and two down quarks c. one top quark and two bottom quarks d. two top quarks and one bottom quark 1.3 Dimensional Analysis 10. Which formula is dimensionally consistent with an expression yielding a value for velocity? (a is acceleration, x is distance, and t is time) a. v/t2 b. vx2 c. v2/t d. at 11. Which expression is dimensionally consistent with an expression that would yield a value for time−1?(v is velocity, x is distance, and t is time) a. v/x b. v2/x c. x/t d. v2t 3 Chapter 1, Introduction 12. If the displacement of an object, x, is related to velocity, v, according to the relation x = Av, the constant, A, has the dimension of which of the following? a. acceleration b. length c. time d. area 13. The speed of a boat is often given in knots. If a speed of 5 knots were expressed in the SI system of units, the units would be: a. m. b. s. c. m/s. d. kg/s. 14. If a is acceleration, v is velocity, x is position, and t is time, then which equation is not dimensionally correct? a. t = x/v b. a = v2/x c. v = a/t d. t2 = 2x/a 15. Suppose an equation relating position, x, to time, t, is given by x = b t3 + c t4, where b and c are constants. The dimensions of b and c are respectively: a. T3, T4. b. 1/T3, 1/T4. c. L/T3, L/T4. d. L2⋅T3, L2⋅T4. 16. Areas always have dimensions ____ while......

Words: 66672 - Pages: 267

...Abstract: In performing the Simple Harmonic Motion Lab, our goal was to determine the period of motion for objects performing simple harmonic motion. We did five trials of measuring the time it took a pendulum to make 30 complete oscillations. We divided that time by 30 to get the period and then took the average of all 5 trials, getting an average period of 1.88 seconds. To compare our results, and see if they were correct, we used the given equation for the period of motion that includes the length of the pendulum to calculate the period for the same pendulum, resulting in 1.87 seconds, which agreed with our earlier results. This shows that period of oscillations can be determined by length and gravitational acceleration, and doesn’t depend on mass. In our other activity, we measured the period of an oscillating mass connected to a spring. We had a hanging spring, and hung mass to the bottom of it, each time measuring the change in length of the spring from the time before. To find the spring constant, we used the masses added to calculate each of their elastic forces, by multiplying each by gravitational acceleration, then plotting them with their corresponding spring deformation, and the slope of that graph was the spring constant, k, which was 8.22 N/m. Using this value, we calculated the period of motion for the mass of 0.1 kg using a different given equation than the one before, obtaining a period of 0.69 seconds. To verify our results, we used the......

Words: 628 - Pages: 3

...Acceleration 19. A steam catapult launches a jet aircraft from the aircraft carrier John C. Stennis, giving it a speed of 175 mi/h in 2.50 s. (a) Find the average acceleration of the plane. (b) Assuming that the acceleration is constant, find the distance the plane moves. 20. A car traveling in a straight line has a velocity of +5.0 m/s at some instant. After 4.0 s, its velocity is +8.0 m/s. What is the car’s average acceleration during the 4.0-s time interval? 26. A truck covers 40.0 m in 8.50 s while smoothly slowing down to a final speed of 2.80 m/s. (a) Find the truck’s original speed. (b) Find its acceleration. 27. A speedboat increases its speed uniformly from 20 m/s to 30 m/s in a distance of 200 m. Find (a) the magnitude of its acceleration and (b) the time it takes the boat to travel the 200-m distance. 28. Two cars are traveling along a straight line in the same direction, the lead car at 25.0 m/s and the other car at 30.0 m/s. At the moment the cars are 40.0 m apart, the lead driver applies the brakes, causing his car to have an acceleration of –2.00 m/s2. (a) How long does it take for the lead car to stop? (b) Assuming that the chasing car brakes at the same time as the lead car, what must be the chasing car’s minimum negative acceleration so as not to hit the lead car? (c) How long does it take for the chasing car to stop? 29. A Cessna aircraft has a lift-off speed of 120 km/h. (a) What minimum constant acceleration does the aircraft require if......

Words: 879 - Pages: 4

...Acceleration vs. Time * On the first graph, the man walks slowly to the house from the origin. On the Position-Time graph, the line is a positive consistent rise. This is because his position is going in a positive direction as well as the time is going in a consistent positive direction. On the Velocity-Time graph, the line is straight across at 2 m/s because the velocity does not change because of the consistent speed of the man walking to the house. Since the velocity is constant the acceleration is zero. On the Acceleration-Time graph, the line is flat and straight across at the 0 m/s line because the man does not accelerate. He just walks at a consistent pace to the house. This is called constant speed because there is no variation in his speed. * On the second example, the man is sleeping then wakes up and runs toward the house constantly speeding up as he goes. On the Position-Time graph, there is a positive upward curved line. This is because both are moving in a positive direction but because he is running, the position is rising faster than the time. This upward curve indicates an increase in velocity. On the Velocity-time graph, the line is a straight consistent rise. This is caused because the man is running so the velocity is rising throughout the graph, as is the position. A positive slope indicates a changing velocity which is a positive acceleration. On the Acceleration-Time graph, the line constantly rising because the man is running, constantly......

Words: 550 - Pages: 3

...Tissues The Integumentary System 35 43 The Cell: Transport Mechanisms and Permeability–Wet Lab Classification of Covering and Lining Membranes 49 Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages 53 The Axial Skeleton The Fetal Skeleton 59 67 81 87 93 103 77 The Appendicular Skeleton Articulations and Body Movements Microscopic Anatomy and Organization of Skeletal Muscle Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System Histology of Nervous Tissue 113 119 125 Exercise 16A Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Frogs and Human Subjects Exercise 18A Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses: Wet Lab Gross Anatomy of the Brain and Cranial Nerves Electroencephalography Human Reflex Physiology General Sensation 153 157 167 177 173 Special Senses: Vision 133 Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and the Autonomic Nervous System 145 137 Special Senses: Hearing and Equilibrium Special Senses: Olfaction and Taste Functional Anatomy of the Endocrine Glands iii Exercise 28A Role of Thyroid Hormone, Pituitary Hormone, Insulin, and Epinephrine: Wet Lab 183 Exercise 29A Blood Exercise 30 Exercise 31 Exercise 32 189 199 205 209 Anatomy of the Heart Conduction System of the Heart and Electrocardiography Anatomy of Blood Vessels Exercise 33A Human Cardiovascular Physiology: Blood Pressure and Pulse Determinations 217 Exercise 34A Frog Cardiovascular Physiology: Wet Lab Exercise 36 Exercise 38 Exercise 40 Exercise 42 Exercise 43 Exercise 44 Exercise 45 Exercise......

Words: 120457 - Pages: 482

...Lab #4: Kinematics - Velocity and Acceleration Introduction: The purpose of this lab is to discover and understand the relationships between position, velocity, and acceleration. Additionally, constant/uniform acceleration due to the force of gravity will be examined to find possible mathematical relationships to position and velocity. Velocity and acceleration are changes in position and velocity, respectively, with regards to time. This change can be shown mathematically in calculus derivatives: EQ 1. EQ 2. As dt decreases in value, the instantaneous velocity and acceleration can also be found. Furthermore, if constant acceleration is established, two basic relations between distance, velocity, and the constant acceleration can be found: EQ 3. EQ 4. In any environment near Earth, the acceleration in the vertical direction is constant at a value of g=9.8m/s2 towards the center of Earth or often written as g=-9.8m/s2. In such an environment there is no natural acceleration in the horizontal direction, thus the horizontal motion is analyzed independently of the vertical motion. Thus it can be established that the general form of a position curve for a projectile would follow an inverse parabola shape and the maximum height occurs when vertical velocity is zero. By calculus derivation, it can also be found that the velocity graph would display a linear line with a negative slope. Procedure: This lab consists of two separate but related......

Words: 1974 - Pages: 8

...Acceleration of a Cart Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to find the relationship between acceleration, force and mass using a cart system. Equipment: • Motion detector • Pasco GLX • Cart • String • Pulley • Hanging Weights & Metal Cubes • Ramp • Ruler Procedure: Experiment 1: 1. Weigh and record the mass of the cart (this will be kept constant for all trials) then the mass of the cart with all the hanging weights on top of it. 2. Take 1 hanging weight off the cart and attach it to the end of the string on the cart with the other hanging weights still on top. 3. Place the cart on the ramp in front of the motion detector. 4. Set the GLX using the correct units for the y and x axis for graphing. Then measure 20cm away from the motion detector, place the cart there and start the GLX and release the cart from 20cm at the same time. Stop the GLX and the cart few centimeters before the cart reaches to the end of the ramp for precise data. 5. Repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 by adding 1 hanging weight to the string of the cart with the previous hanging weight already on the string until all hanging weights are used and not left on top of the cart. Then record data. Experiment 2: 1. Weigh the hanging weight and record the mass (this will be left constant for all trials). 2. Add a metal cube on to the top of the cart and weigh and record the mass of the cart with metal cube. Then...

Words: 580 - Pages: 3

...THE DISBURSEMENT ACCELERATION PROGRAM MELISSA R. MARTIN MPAD 610 –PUBLIC MANAGEMENT AND SOCIAL CHANGE CONTENT * What is DAP? * Why was DAP introduced? * How did the DAP work? * How did DAP benefit the economy? * How did DAP support the budget reform agenda? * DAP Timeline * Constitutional and Legal Bases of DAP * SC Ruling on DAP * Why did the Aquino Administration terminate DAP? * SC modifies ruling on DAP What is DAP? The Disbursement Acceleration Program (DAP) is a spending reform measure to speed up public expenditure and catalyze economic growth. Why was DAP introduced? * Need to Clean House: Curb Corruption and Leakages * Freeing up operational bottlenecks * Inefficient implementation * Poor planning * Slow procurement * By the third quarter of 2011, it became clear that if we wanted public spending to accelerate enough for economic growth, we had to use idle funds. (Sec. Florencio Abad, DBM ) * The Aquino Administration therefore launched the DAP in 2011 KEY REFORMS (the DAP as Package of Reform Intervention) * Zero-based budgeting Implementation of zero-based budgeting to weed out inefficient, ineffective and leakage-ridden programs and projects * Early enactment of the budget Early preparation, submission and enactment of the annual National Budget including the adoption of the Online Submission of Budget Proposal * Disaggregation of lump sum......

Words: 2422 - Pages: 10

...100-552 Lab Part I: Scenario H Graph……………………………………………… 2 Scenario H Regions and Force Diagrams…………………………….3 Region and Force Diagram Information……………………………...4 Part II: Graph 6 ………………………………………………………….5 Step-By-Step Instruction………………………………………………..6 Regions and Force Diagrams……………………………………………7 Region Information……………………………………………………….8 Newton’s Laws…………………………………………………………… 9 Self-Assessment…………………………………………………..……..10 Scenario H You are stopped at a stop sign. Your friend pushes your car forward at an increasing velocity for two seconds. She then pushes your car for three more seconds at a constant velocity. Your friend stops pushing and you immediately apply the brakes for one second, but do not come to a stop. Regions and Force Diagrams Graph #6 Step-by-Step Instruction Regions and Force Diagrams Region Information Region A Region B Region C Region D Region E The cart remains still for 2.6 seconds 0.7 meters away from the sensor. Net force equals zero. All three graphs show the cart is stationary with a flat line across the 0.7 line. Acceleration graph begins sloping negatively once the force of hand is applied. After 2.6 seconds the cart is pushed towards the sensor until it reaches 0.2 meters. At this point the power of fan becomes greater than the power of the hand and the cart changes direction. Net force equals Fhand. All three graphs show this movement with a negative sloping and then a positive sloping in Acceleration halfway...

Words: 736 - Pages: 3

...University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Engineering 1stSem SY 2015-2016 Experiment No. 7A & 7B Centripetal Force on a Pendulum and Centripetal Force Section: 2-3 Date Performed: October 22, 2015 Group No.: 4 Date Submitted: October 29, 2015 Leader: Kristopher Flores Members: YnakiDizon Raine Go Bryan Infante WilverInteria Instructor: Engr. Rose Ann Tamolang Objective To study and apply Newton’s 2nd law of motion and identify the forces involved in uniform circular motion. Discussion of Related Physics Concept An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. This law is often called "the law of inertia". This means that there is a natural tendency of objects to keep on doing what they're doing. All objects resist changes in their state of motion. In the absence of an unbalanced force, an object in motion will maintain this state of motion. According to Newton's second law acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object). Everyone unconsiously knows the Second Law. Everyone knows that heavier objects require more force to move the same distance as lighter objects. Newton's second law was used to......

Words: 1291 - Pages: 6

...Physics Lab Report Sample Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 OBJECTIVE …………...……...………...............................3 | | CHAPTER 2 THEORY …………………………………………………...4 | | CHAPTER 3 PROCEDURE ……………………………………………...7 | | CHAPTER 4 4.1 DATA TABLE ………………………………………...9 | | 4.2 GRAPH ………………………………………………..10 | | CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS …………………………………………………15 | | CHAPTER 6 ANSWERS AND COMMENTS …………………………..19 | | CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION……………………….…………………….20 | | REFERENCES …………………………………………….21 | | LAB REPORT RUBRIC …………………………………..22 | | Chapter 1 Objective To determine the motion of the cart as it travels down the inverted ramp though the influence of gravitational attraction alone by plotting the velocity per unit-time graph. Chapter 2 Theory Motion: In physics, motion is a change in position of an object with respect to time. Motion is typically described in terms of velocity, acceleration, displacement, and time. Motion is observed by attaching a frame of reference to a body and measuring its change in position relative to another reference frame. A body which does not move is said to be at rest, motionless, immobile, stationary, or to have constant (time-invariant) position. An object's motion cannot change unless it is acted upon by a force, as described by Newton's first law. An object's momentum is directly related to the object's mass and velocity, and the total momentum of all objects......

Words: 2331 - Pages: 10