Chemistry Rates of Reaction

In: Science

Submitted By jakerano
Words 1624
Pages 7
Investigating Rates of Reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Magnesium


What is Rate of Reaction?

The reaction rate or rate of reaction for a reactant or product in a particular reaction is intuitively defined as how fast a reaction takes place. For example, the oxidation of iron under the atmosphere is a slow reaction which can take many years, but the combustion of butane in a fire is a reaction that takes place in fractions of a second. In this case how fast Magnesium reacts with Hydrochloric Acid.

The equation for the reaction is

magnesium + hydrochloric acid magnesium chloride + hydrogen Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

This is the equation for the reaction which will occur during my experiment

What am I investigating?

I am investigating the rate of reaction when the concentration of hydrochloric acid is increased with magnesium. What I am expecting is when the concentration increases so to will the speed of the reaction backing up the collision theory. This will be timed and put into seconds on how fast I gather an amount of gas and from my results a graph will show this data.


To measure how long it takes to gather the amount of gas I had to carefully measure out 50ml of Hydrochloric Acid in a measuring cylinder. I kept this the same throughout all of the experiments in order for a fair test. I then poured this into the conical flask. After this I folded the 10cm strip of Magnesium and dropped it into the conical flask with the Hydrochloric Acid. I also kept the size of the Magnesium strip the same too. I then placed the bung which was attached to the gas syringe on the conical flask and timed how long it took for 50cm³ of Hydrogen to collect. I then repeated this for each different concentration of acid, from 0.6 to 1.0 molar.

Variables I could…...

Similar Documents

Chemistry Reactions

...Buffer solutions and common ion effect A buffer solution resists (or buffers) a change in its pH. That is, we can add a small amount of an acid or base to a buffer solution and the pH will change very little. How to calculate pH of buffer solution containing both acid and conjugate base? Dissociation constant definition 1.1 can be rearranged into [pic] or [pic] (note that due to sign change [A-] was moved to nominator). This is so called Henderson-Hasselbalch equation (or buffer equation). It can be used for pH calculation of solution containing pair of acid and conjugate base - like HA/A-, HA-/A2- or B+/BOH. For solutions of weak bases sometimes it s more convenient to use equation in the form [pic]15.3 Two common types of buffer solutions are : (1) a weak acid together with a salt of the same acid with a strong base. These are called Acid buffers e.g. CH3COOH + CH3COONa. (2) a weak base and its salt with a strong acid. These are called Basic buffers. e.g.NH4OH + NH4Cl. Let us illustrate buffer action by taking example of a common buffer system consisting of solution of acetic acid and sodium acetate (CH3COOH/CH3COONa). CH3COOH --- H+ + CH3COO– CH3COONa ---- Na+ + CH3COO- since the salt is completely ionised, it provides the common ions CH3COO– in excess. The common ion effect suppresses the ionisation of acetic acid. This reduces the concentration of H+ ions which means that pH of the solution is raised. Thus, a 0.1 M acetic acid solution has a......

Words: 1091 - Pages: 5

Investigation of the Rates of Reaction

...Investigation of the Rates of Reaction By Gabriella Azanu 11A Introduction A chemical reaction is when a material is changed from a beginning mass to a resulting substance through the addition of one or more other substances. In a chemical reaction, at least one or more new substances are created and the beginning mass disappears in order to make the new mass. In a chemical reaction however, mass is neither lost nor gained so the resulting mass should still be the same as the beginning mass. A reaction can be perceived by either production of gas or a change in colour or properties. A rate of reaction is the measurement of how quickly a reaction occurs. This can be done through following the formation of a product or the consumption of a reactant. This is turn can measured by observing colour changes or a precipitate forming. There are four factors that can affect the rate of reaction, these are: the concentration, temperature, surface area and catalysts. The factors can be attributed to the collision theory and then each factor explained in more depth. In a reaction, molecules in substances can only react only if they collide into each other. The collision theory therefore states that as molecules collide, bonds between atoms can break whiles new ones form. This in turn creates new molecules. Because molecules are always moving in liquids and gases, there are millions of collisions between them every second. Very...

Words: 1259 - Pages: 6

Rate of Reaction

...Name: guillan Anthony saballa BSAT-1 P208 9:30 AM – 11:30AM Research: What are the different kinds of turbo charger? Axial-flow Turbocharger * Axial-flow turbochargers are defined by the manner in which the fuel flows through the turbine. With axial-flow turbochargers the fuel flow comes through the wheel in an axial direction. With this type of turbocharger expansion of the gas from the exhaust creates an output the helps the turbine to rotate the compressor. As the size of the vehicle is important in determining the vehicle's correct turbocharger, it is important to consider that axial-flow turbochargers are most commonly used with vehicles with a wheel diameter of 300mm and up and would not be suitable for smaller vehicles. Radial Flow Turbocharger * With a gas outflow that uses the same principles as the axial flow turbocharger, the radial-flow turbocharger is differentiated by the unique gas inflow structure. The centripetal gas inflow is directed from the outside in a radial direction and sets this turbocharger apart from the axial-flow model. Generally utilized on vehicles with a wheel diameter of 160mm or less, this kind of turbocharger can increase the power of a vehicle to up to 1,000 horsepower. Exhaust Gas Turbocharger * The benefits of turbochargers are many, from increased speed, power, and engine functionality, but there are environmental benefits, as well, such as decreased gas consumptions. Exhaust gas turbochargers have another added...

Words: 310 - Pages: 2


...NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS CURRICULUM SUPPORT Chemistry A Practical Guide Support Materials [REVISED ADVANCED HIGHER] [pic] The Scottish Qualifications Authority regularly reviews the arrangements for National Qualifications. Users of all NQ support materials, whether published by Education Scotland or others, are reminded that it is their responsibility to check that the support materials correspond to the requirements of the current arrangements. Acknowledgement © Crown copyright 2012. You may re-use this information (excluding logos) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the Open Government Licence. To view this licence, visit or e-mail: Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. Any enquiries regarding this document/publication should be sent to us at This document is also available from our website at Contents Introduction 5 Chemical analysis 6 Qualitative and quantitative analysis 6 Volumetric analysis 6 Gravimetric analysis 14 Colorimetric analysis 17 Organic......

Words: 4104 - Pages: 17

Rate of Reaction

...Rate of Reaction The rate of a reaction is the speed at which a chemical reaction happens. If a reaction has a low rate, that means the molecules combine at a slower speed than a reaction with a high rate. Some reactions take hundreds, maybe even thousands, of years while others can happen in less than one second. If you want to think of a very slow reaction, think about how long it takes plants and ancient fish to become fossils (carbonization). The rate of reaction also depends on the type of molecules that are combining. If there are low concentrations of an essential element or compound, the reaction will be slower.  There is another big idea for rates of reaction called collision theory. The collision theory says that as more collisions in a system occur, there will be more combinations of molecules bouncing into each other. If you have more possible combinations there is a higher chance that the molecules will complete the reaction. The reaction will happen faster which means the rate of that reaction will increase.  Think about how slowly molecules move in honey when compared to your soda even though they are both liquids. There are a lower number of collisions in the honey because of stronger intermolecular forces (forces between molecules). The greater forces mean that honey has a higher viscosity than the soda water.  Factors That Affect Rate Reactions happen - no matter what. Chemicals are always combining or breaking down. The reactions happen over......

Words: 1081 - Pages: 5

Rates of Reaction Chemistry Coursework

...Introduction. This is an experiment to investigate into the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) and dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl). The formula for this reaction is: Na2S2O3 (aq) + 2HCl (aq) 2NaCl (aq) + S(s) + SO2 (g) + H2O (l). This makes the products Sodium Chloride, Sulphur Dioxide, Sulphur and water Rate of reaction is the speed at which a chemical reaction takes place. Some reaction can take less than a second and other can take over millions of years. During a reaction, we can measure the rate of reaction. The rate of reactions depends on the types of molecules that are combining. There is another thing in rates of reaction called the collision theory. Substances in the liquid, aqueous and gaseous phase consist of particles in rapid and constant motion. The rate of a chemical reaction depends on three factors; the first is - Collision Frequency If a chemical reaction is to happen between two particles, they must first collide. The number of collisions between particles per unit time is known as the collision frequency of the system. This then can be altered by changing the concentration of reactants, total pressure, temperature or the size of the reacting particles. These are all the factors in general that have distinct effects on rates of reaction. The second factor in the collision theory is -Collision Energy Not all collisions result in chemical reactions. Most of the time the colliding particles just bounce off each other.......

Words: 1504 - Pages: 7


...Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Faculty of Science Session : Jan 2015 Subject : UDEC1134 Chemistry Laboratory I Course : Bachelor of Science (Hons) Chemistry Year/Sem : Year 1 T1, T2 & T3 Unit Coordinator : Dr Chee Swee Yong Lecturers : Ms Chang Chew Cheen, Dr Chee Swee Yong, Dr Lim Tuck Meng, Dr Sim Yoke Leng |Lab group |Lab A |Lab B | |Venue |D012A |D012B | |Monday @ 9.00 am – 11.30 am |P5 |P1 | |Monday @ 3.00 pm – 5.30 pm |P2 |P3 | |Wednesday @ 9.00 am – 11.30 am |P3 |P4 | |Wednesday @ 3.00 pm – 5.30 pm |P1 |P2 | |Thursday @ 3.00 pm – 5.30 pm |P4 |P5 | |Week |Experiment |Lab group |Lecturer | |1 |Briefing by HoD |Lab A/ Lab B |Dr Sim KM | | |Expt 1:......

Words: 463 - Pages: 2

Reaction (China May Lean More on Interest Rate Rises to Fight Inflation)

...China may lean more on interest rate rises to fight inflation Fighting inflation while keeping the domestic currency weak to stimulate exportation is a very prominent problem that most likely every policymaker would rather choose not to handle. It is known that an increase on interest rate would have various economic effects such as of the increase of government debt’s interest payments that would lead to higher taxes in the future, increase of incentive to save in a deposit account due to interest gained, increases the cost of borrowing that will lead to the fall of other areas of consumptions, increase in mortgage interest payments that will have a significant impact on personal disposable income, and most of all raised interest rate will increase the value of the domestic currency, which in case of China becomes unfavorable being an export-driven country. As being called by China “its most prominent problem”, the increase in interest rate was seen widely appealing to US policymakers who has been accusing China of maintaining low interest rates to keep yuan low and exports cheap. Though the said action is considered as Chinese authority’s way of balancing their economy it certainly may speculated that the US and China are in some sort of a deal. The move follows a clear need by the Chinese authorities to take out some of...

Words: 295 - Pages: 2

Chemistry Rates of Reaction Coursework

...GCSE Chemistry Coursework : Rates of Reaction Chemistry Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 Strand Sa 2 The Science 2 Variables 2 Temperature 2 Concentration 2 My Prediction 3 Strand Sb 3 Risk Assessment. 3 Preliminary Equipment 4 Preliminary Method 6 Strand C 7 Preliminary Data 7 Main Method 8 Main Results. 9 Strand Ea 9 Problems Encountered when collecting data. 9 Alternate Methods 10 Light Meter 10 Gas Collection 10 Strand Eb 11 Data Analysis 11 Graph Evaluation 11 Strand Ra 12 Secondary Data 1 12 Secondary Data 2 13 Secondary Data 3 14 Strand Rb 15 Conclusion 15 Bibliography 16 Strand Sa The Science In the experiment, I will be testing how increasing the concentration of the reactant affects the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulfate .Due to Max Trautz’s collision theory, which states that the higher the concentration of the reactant raises the number of collisions, I predict that the less dilute sodium thiosulfate solution will have a higher reaction rate than that of a lower concentration of sodium thiosulfate. The formula for the reaction is: HCl(aq) + Na2S2O3(aq) NaCl(aq) + SO2(g) + S(s) + H2O(l). The formula shows us that the sulphur precipitate is formed along with water, sodium chloride and sulphur dioxide. Sulphur dioxide is a poisonous gas and so extra care will be taken not to inhale any. Figure 1 [18] Variables The Variables that affect the reaction rate......

Words: 5307 - Pages: 22

How Concentration Affects Rate of Reaction

...Title: A study into how concentration affects rate of reaction Aim: We want to find out how concentration affects rate of reaction Hypothesis: We predict that the reaction will happen faster if we have a higher concentration Equipment: timer, conical flask, measuring cylinder, chemicals Method: 1. Gather all the apparatus required for the experiment 2. Next using a weight balance measure out 8g of sodium thiosulfate which we added to the 200cm3 of water , which we mixed until all the crystals were dissolved 3. Once this is done then you pour out 50c3,40cm3,30cm3,20cm3,10cm3 of the solution into five same conical flasks ,once this is done you then add water to the other conical flask in 50cm,make sure you label the flasks so that you know which one has so much concentration . 4. After this is done you must now take a beaker and add 35cm3 of concentration hydrochloric acid to 65cm3 of water to make a diluted solution 5. Now then take a piece of paper and draw a black cross on the paper , and the place one of the flasks on top of the paper , you must do one flask at a time using a measuring cylinder measure out 10cm3 of hydrochloric solution , and add this to the flask ,immediately stir the flask and start the stop watch. 6. Finally as soon as you can not see the cross anymore stop the stop watch and record the results in a table , repeat this with all the flasks The reaction Sodium + hydrochloric acid sulphur dioxide and sodium chloride......

Words: 639 - Pages: 3


...The chemistry of perming & rebonding Some of us have naturally curly hair but want it straightened; others have it naturally straight but want it curly. But whatever the style you like to wear, there's chemistry involved in it! The structure of hair Hair is made mostly of a protein called keratin, which is also present in nails. In hair, keratin molecules are arranged in straight bundles. These bundles are held together by disulphide bonds (-S-S-), which give strength to the hair. Disulphide bonds are made by the amino acid called cysteine. The cysteine of one keratin molecule forms a disulphide bond with the cysteine of the neighbouring keratin molecule. The more disulphide bonds there are in a strand of hair, the straighter it is. Ammonium thioglycolate: the perm salt Ammonium thioglycolate (HSCH2CO2NH4) is a compound that can break disulphide bonds. This is because it contains a thiol group (-SH). The thiol group replaces one of the sulphur atoms in the disulphide bond, like this: Keratin-S-S-keratin + 2HS-CH2CO2NH4 --> -HO2CH2CS-SCH2CO2H + 2NH3 + 2HS-keratin When the disulphide bond is broken, the keratin bundles come apart, and hair is weakened. Ammonium thioglycolate is therefore used widely in beauty parlours when customers want their hair re-styled. However, if you use too much of it, or if the reaction is left for too long, you could end up going bald. So do not, ever, try it at home! If you have watched the film Legally Blonde, you'll have seen Reese Witherspoon......

Words: 7009 - Pages: 29


...Centre for Foundation Studies, UTAR Chapter Scopes FHSC1124 Organic Chemistry Alkanes • IUPAC Nomenclature / naming of aliphatic alkanes and cycloalkanes • Physical properties • Combustion reactions • Free-radical substitution reactions & mechanism • Crude oil and “cracking” Chapter 2 Introduction to Alkanes IUPAC Nomenclature • Simplest member of hydrocarbon family • General formula of alkanes = CnH2n+2 • Alkanes = Paraffins (hydrocarbons with general formula CnH2n+2) • Aliphatic compounds: open chain / acyclic compounds • The names of alkanes end with suffix -ane. • Saturated hydrocarbon: only have C−C & C−H single bonds & contain the maximum possible number of H per C. 3 IUPAC Rules 1. Select the longest continuous C chain as parent chain (use root word for the no. of C) 2. Name each of the branch/substituents as an alkyl / aryl group 3. Number the C chain beginning from the end nearest to the branch ⇒ branch/substituents appear at the lowest no. possible FHSC1124 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY • IUPAC  International Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry • The IUPAC nomenclature system is a set of logical rules devised and used by organic chemists to name the organic compounds. Prefix − Parent − Suffix What are the How many What family? substituents? carbons? IUPAC Rules 4. Name each substituent according to its chemical identity & the no. of the C atom to which it is attached ⇒ For identical substituent, use the......

Words: 1212 - Pages: 5

Rates of Chemical Reaction

...Introduction It has been determined that the rates of chemical reactions are affected by temperature. This experiment is done to test the effect of five different temperatures on the rate of carbon dioxide production in yeast by measuring the fermentation rate. “The fermentation rate is measured in ml/min.” The purpose for performing this experiment is to understand the rate of fermentation of yeast cells which can be determined by measuring the amount of carbon dioxide produced at each temperature. Since there is no direct way to measure the carbon dioxide produced in the lab, an indirect method is used instead. The fermentation rate in this experiment is measured in ml/min which is the rate of carbon dioxide production that is measured over time spent in each water bath. Water will substitute for the carbon dioxide produced at the end of the experiment. The amount of water is measured in milliliters (by the graduated cylinder) will serve as an indirect method of fermentation rate because carbon dioxide is a gas which cannot be measured by means other than indirectly with this experiment. Carbon dioxide production was measured by measuring the volume of water at different temperature; 25°C, 35°C, 45°C, 55°C, and 65°C. The time was also recorded at which all the measurements were taken for the different temperatures. Materials and Method The materials used in this experiment was: Yeast culture (contains yeast and glucose in the form of molasses) Five fermentation......

Words: 1074 - Pages: 5

Rate of Reactions

...Laboratory Report The Rate of Reactions Abqari Afandi Grade 10 October 6th 2014 Purpose: To investigate the relationship between the temperatures of Hydrochloric acid with the duration of Magnesium ribbon to dissolve in the acid. Procedure: 1- Prepare four 400ml beaker: one for the hot bath, one for the room temperature, one for ice water bath and one for super hot bath. Fill all beakers half-full. Put one on a hot plate; the temperature of the water on the hot plate should not exceed 60C. Put another one on a hot plate; the temperature of water should not exceed 80C. Control the temperature of both hot plates to keep the temperature of water stays at 60C and 80C. 2- Using a graduated cylinder, add 20ml of 1M hydrochloric acid to each of the two test tubes, (all tubes should be the same size) 3- Place one test tube in the room temperature water, one test tube in the hot water bath, one in the ice water bath, and one in the super hot bath; allow the tubes to sit for approximately 5 minutes to reach thermal equilibrium. 4- Obtain a strip of magnesium ribbon (~16cm). Using scissors cut the ribbon into 4.0 strips. Be as precise as possible. 5- Wrap a piece of copper wire around a pencil to make a small ‘cage’ into which the magnesium ribbon will be inserted. The other end of the wire should be long enough so that the wire can hang over the side of the test tube with the cage submerged beneath the liquid level in the test tube. 6- Measure......

Words: 654 - Pages: 3

Rate of Reaction

...Practical 12 : Rate Of Reaction Name : AFNAN BIN ABDUL RAHMAN Class : M11J Research Question : How does the reaction between Zinc metal and 0.1M of Hydrochloric Acid using different sizes of Zinc metal (Powdered Zinc, Shredded Zinc strip and Zinc strips) can affect the volume of Hydrogen gas produced at the end of the experiment (after 10 minutes) under same temperature which is room temperature? Variables : Manipulated : Different sizes of Zinc Metal Responding : Volume of Hydrogen Gas produced after 10 minutes. Constant : Constant | Method to control | Possible Effect(s) | Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid | The concentration of Hydrochloric Acid was kept constant to be used in both experiments which is 0.1 Mole. | The difference in concentration might alter the results as the rate of reaction will also differ since the effective collision will occur more when the concentration increases. | Time taken for the reaction to occur | The period of reaction for each reaction was kept constant which is 10 minutes for each experiments. | Longer period of time will increase the possibilities of effective collision between the molecules and alter the final result. | Temperature of surrounding | Both experiments were conducted in a lab with room temperature. | The difference in temperature might cause the difference in kinetic energy of the molecules and will disturb the result of the rate of reaction between Zinc and Hydrochloric Acid. | Material and......

Words: 534 - Pages: 3

- Chapter 83 | Chap 111 2018-01-02 12:57:54 | Common Law