Cjs 230

In: Social Issues

Submitted By amanda12389
Words 454
Pages 2
Rehabilitation in prison is any program that makes people better or reduces criminal behavior (Foster, 2006). It can also include one religion, which is the biggest program in our prison today. Number two is recreation such as sports and groups. Number three would be arts and craft where artistic expressions are stressed (Foster, 2006). Number four is service groups which includes fund raisers and juvenile group homes (Foster, 2006). Number five would be self-help groups such as alcohol anonymous and narcotic anonymous (Foster, 2006). Number six would be prison work assignments which are inside jobs assigned to inmates (Foster, 2006). Number seven visitation which is by family members and non-family visits (Foster, 2006). In my opinion prisoner, rehabilitation is a method that helps the inmate processes their criminal activities trying to help them focus on things that will help them to be able to lead a normal life outside of prison; basically I feel it give the inmate some hope. Prisoner rehabilitation started in the era of the 1950s through the 1970s. Rehabilitation was never the only reason for imprisonment (Foster, 2006). There was no precise definition or mission statements available during that time (Foster, 2006). Instead, it was defined in an unclear method when being described by prison officials (Foster, 2006). Scientific penology played a key role in defining and conducting structured thoughts and scientific studies that were later utilized through rehabilitation (Foster, 2006). Prisons incorporated rehabilitation programs, these programs were intended to help inmates learn how to reduce criminal behavior and educational programs were intended to help inmates receive their high school diplomas or a GED. Vocational training programs could be divided into two types: generic and certified. Generic is where the inmate works under a staff member or a…...

Similar Documents

Cjs 230 Rehabilitation Paper

...CJS 230 Week 8 Assignment 4 Rehabilitation paper Professor Anthony Nici April 21, 2013 Rehabilitation is a word that is used often within the corrections, in the prison setting. It is an attempt to change an individual attitude and behavior. There are programs that are to prevent habitual offenders, help a criminal get to their normal state of mind and not to be punishing for their action that may cause the criminal to change and become an outstanding citizen that follows the rules instead of the individual getting out and committing another crime. Throughout the years there has been many processes created to form rehabilitation process of criminal justice. The process has helped many offenders by allowing him/her to return within their community as a changed individual. Rehabilitation is a specific program that is applied within a prison setting to bring the end of a criminal behavior called desistance, the meaning to cease and stop. It is supposed to be a formula of, prisoner classification X appropriate programming X positive participation= probability of desistance. An inmate getting into the right program would keep them long enough in order to complete the program successfully, once the program has been completed then the inmate can be put in the community so that their behavior would be tested as a non-criminal behavior. There are some facilities that offer rehab, religion, and anger management (Foster, 2006). In the twentieths century it was believed that......

Words: 394 - Pages: 2

Cjs/230 Week 2

...State and Federal Prison System Paper Student: Norman Staub Course: CJS/230 Introduction to Corrections Date: 8/31/2013 Instructor: Dr. Kim Henagan State and Federal Prison System Paper Example of a State Prison System: An example of a state prison system would be the State Correctional Facility of Pittsburgh, historically referred to as West Penitentiary, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This facility was established in 1826. Typical housing is low and medium security inmates. The facility was remodeled in 2005, to accommodate modern technology, and growing prisoner population. (Pittsburgh Post Gazette, 2011) Explaining the Growth of State Prisons: Truthfully I don’t believe that I alone can explain the growth in population of state prisons. I believe there are a number of reasons involved. The one reason is I truly see a growth is the economy. The people that are less fortunate, or even middle class citizens are desperate and strapped for money more often. When crime seems easy to commit people are more adept to attempt without getting caught. Crimes like insurance fraud, welfare fraud, SSI income fraud are done everyday. It also doesn't help that some internet sites provide information on the successful completion of a few of the crimes listed without getting caught. Opinionated way U.S. Corrections Professionals Solve the Problem of Exponential Growth in State Prison Systems: Exponential growth in the United States state prison system is a......

Words: 745 - Pages: 3

Cjs/230 Entire Course

...CJS 230 Entire Course Material http://homeworklance.com/downloads/cjs-230-entire-course-material/ CJS 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 2 Checkpoint Development of Corrections\ CJS 230 Week 2 Assignment Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison Paper CJS 230 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 4 Checkpoint History of State and Federal Prisons CJS 230 Week 4 Assignment State and Federal Prison Systems Paper CJS 230 Week 5 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 5 Checkpoint Objectives of Punishment CJS 230 Week 6 Checkpoint Prison Environment CJS 230 Week 6 Assignment Corrections Accreditation and Privatization Paper CJS 230 Week 7 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 7 Checkpoint Prisoners Worksheet CJS 230 Week 8 Checkpoint Parole and Mandatory Release CJS 230 Week 8 Assignment Rehabilitation Paper CJS 230 Week 9 Capstone Discussion Question CJS 230 Week 9 Final Project Community Corrections Paper CJS 230 Entire Course Material http://homeworklance.com/downloads/cjs-230-entire-course-material/ CJS 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 2 Checkpoint Development of Corrections\ CJS 230 Week 2 Assignment Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison Paper CJS 230 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 4 Checkpoint History of State and Federal Prisons CJS 230 Week 4 Assignment State and Federal Prison Systems Paper CJS 230 Week 5 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 5 Checkpoint Objectives of Punishment CJS 230 Week 6 Checkpoint Prison Environment CJS 230 Week 6 Assignment...

Words: 3925 - Pages: 16

Cjs 230 Entire Course Material

...CJS 230 Entire Course Material http://homeworklance.com/downloads/cjs-230-entire-course-material/ CJS 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 2 Checkpoint Development of Corrections\ CJS 230 Week 2 Assignment Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison Paper CJS 230 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 4 Checkpoint History of State and Federal Prisons CJS 230 Week 4 Assignment State and Federal Prison Systems Paper CJS 230 Week 5 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 5 Checkpoint Objectives of Punishment CJS 230 Week 6 Checkpoint Prison Environment CJS 230 Week 6 Assignment Corrections Accreditation and Privatization Paper CJS 230 Week 7 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 7 Checkpoint Prisoners Worksheet CJS 230 Week 8 Checkpoint Parole and Mandatory Release CJS 230 Week 8 Assignment Rehabilitation Paper CJS 230 Week 9 Capstone Discussion Question CJS 230 Week 9 Final Project Community Corrections Paper CJS 230 Entire Course Material http://homeworklance.com/downloads/cjs-230-entire-course-material/ CJS 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 2 Checkpoint Development of Corrections\ CJS 230 Week 2 Assignment Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison Paper CJS 230 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 4 Checkpoint History of State and Federal Prisons CJS 230 Week 4 Assignment State and Federal Prison Systems Paper CJS 230 Week 5 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 5 Checkpoint Objectives of Punishment CJS 230 Week 6 Checkpoint Prison Environment CJS 230 Week 6 Assignment...

Words: 1884 - Pages: 8

Cj 230

...The Principal Objectives of Punishment Esther Sanchez CJ 230 09-20-14 Steve Nance                                                       Abstract These writing analysis will cover the state and federal objectives of punishment. It will also cover the state and federal corrections systems. And it would cover the determinate and indeterminate sentencing. It would also cover the model that I feel it was more appropriate and will have some examples. Principal objectives of punishment within the U.S. corrections system: Everyday many people attend court because of some criminal act they did. Everyday judges have to review all cases before deciding any sentence. The punishment of a felony is incarceration of a year or more. Misdemeanors are a little shorter, it can be incarceration of a year a less. For repetitive offenders they have something called three strikes law. The judges have many sentencing categories from where to choose. They have economic sanction where the individuals pay a fine or do community service to pay for the crime they committed. There is probation where they are let out to society but are supervised 24/7, which is what most of the judges give to first time offenders. There is also intermediate sanctions that are either imprisonment or probation, it might depend on the crime or the judge. Short term confinement which is a year or less in jail and then there is imprisonment which is a year or......

Words: 1004 - Pages: 5

Cjs 230 Entire Course Material

...CJS 230 Entire Course Material http://homeworklance.com/downloads/cjs-230-entire-course-material/ CJS 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 2 Checkpoint Development of Corrections\ CJS 230 Week 2 Assignment Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison Paper CJS 230 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 4 Checkpoint History of State and Federal Prisons CJS 230 Week 4 Assignment State and Federal Prison Systems Paper CJS 230 Week 5 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 5 Checkpoint Objectives of Punishment CJS 230 Week 6 Checkpoint Prison Environment CJS 230 Week 6 Assignment Corrections Accreditation and Privatization Paper CJS 230 Week 7 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 7 Checkpoint Prisoners Worksheet CJS 230 Week 8 Checkpoint Parole and Mandatory Release CJS 230 Week 8 Assignment Rehabilitation Paper CJS 230 Week 9 Capstone Discussion Question CJS 230 Week 9 Final Project Community Corrections Paper CJS 230 Entire Course Material http://homeworklance.com/downloads/cjs-230-entire-course-material/ CJS 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 2 Checkpoint Development of Corrections\ CJS 230 Week 2 Assignment Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison Paper CJS 230 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 4 Checkpoint History of State and Federal Prisons CJS 230 Week 4 Assignment State and Federal Prison Systems Paper CJS 230 Week 5 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 5 Checkpoint Objectives of Punishment CJS 230 Week 6 Checkpoint Prison Environment CJS 230 Week 6 Assignment...

Words: 2512 - Pages: 11

Cjs 230 Entire Course Material

...CJS 230 Entire Course Material Follow Link Below To Get Tutorial http://homeworklance.com/downloads/cjs-230-entire-course-material/ Description: CJS 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 2 Checkpoint Development of Corrections\ CJS 230 Week 2 Assignment Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison Paper CJS 230 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 4 Checkpoint History of State and Federal Prisons CJS 230 Week 4 Assignment State and Federal Prison Systems Paper CJS 230 Week 5 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 5 Checkpoint Objectives of Punishment CJS 230 Week 6 Checkpoint Prison Environment CJS 230 Week 6 Assignment Corrections Accreditation and Privatization Paper CJS 230 Week 7 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 7 Checkpoint Prisoners Worksheet CJS 230 Week 8 Checkpoint Parole and Mandatory Release CJS 230 Week 8 Assignment Rehabilitation Paper CJS 230 Week 9 Capstone Discussion Question CJS 230 Week 9 Final Project Community Corrections Paper CJS 230 Entire Course Material Follow Link Below To Get Tutorial http://homeworklance.com/downloads/cjs-230-entire-course-material/ Description: CJS 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 2 Checkpoint Development of Corrections\ CJS 230 Week 2 Assignment Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison Paper CJS 230 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 4 Checkpoint History of State and Federal Prisons CJS 230 Week 4 Assignment State and Federal Prison Systems Paper CJS 230 Week 5 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week......

Words: 1148 - Pages: 5

Cjs 230 Entire Course Material

...CJS 230 Entire Course Material Follow Link Below To Get Tutorial http://homeworklance.com/downloads/cjs-230-entire-course-material/ Description: CJS 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 2 Checkpoint Development of Corrections\ CJS 230 Week 2 Assignment Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison Paper CJS 230 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 4 Checkpoint History of State and Federal Prisons CJS 230 Week 4 Assignment State and Federal Prison Systems Paper CJS 230 Week 5 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 5 Checkpoint Objectives of Punishment CJS 230 Week 6 Checkpoint Prison Environment CJS 230 Week 6 Assignment Corrections Accreditation and Privatization Paper CJS 230 Week 7 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 7 Checkpoint Prisoners Worksheet CJS 230 Week 8 Checkpoint Parole and Mandatory Release CJS 230 Week 8 Assignment Rehabilitation Paper CJS 230 Week 9 Capstone Discussion Question CJS 230 Week 9 Final Project Community Corrections Paper CJS 230 Entire Course Material Follow Link Below To Get Tutorial http://homeworklance.com/downloads/cjs-230-entire-course-material/ Description: CJS 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 2 Checkpoint Development of Corrections\ CJS 230 Week 2 Assignment Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison Paper CJS 230 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 4 Checkpoint History of State and Federal Prisons CJS 230 Week 4 Assignment State and Federal Prison Systems Paper CJS 230 Week 5 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week......

Words: 1312 - Pages: 6

Cjs 230 Entire Course Material

...CJS 230 Entire Course Material http://hwguiders.com/downloads/cjs-230-entire-course-material/ CJS 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 2 Checkpoint Development of Corrections\ CJS 230 Week 2 Assignment Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison Paper CJS 230 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 4 Checkpoint History of State and Federal Prisons CJS 230 Week 4 Assignment State and Federal Prison Systems Paper CJS 230 Week 5 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 5 Checkpoint Objectives of Punishment CJS 230 Week 6 Checkpoint Prison Environment CJS 230 Week 6 Assignment Corrections Accreditation and Privatization Paper CJS 230 Week 7 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 7 Checkpoint Prisoners Worksheet CJS 230 Week 8 Checkpoint Parole and Mandatory Release CJS 230 Week 8 Assignment Rehabilitation Paper CJS 230 Week 9 Capstone Discussion Question CJS 230 Week 9 Final Project Community Corrections Paper CJS 230 Entire Course Material http://hwguiders.com/downloads/cjs-230-entire-course-material/ CJS 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 2 Checkpoint Development of Corrections\ CJS 230 Week 2 Assignment Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison Paper CJS 230 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 4 Checkpoint History of State and Federal Prisons CJS 230 Week 4 Assignment State and Federal Prison Systems Paper CJS 230 Week 5 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 5 Checkpoint Objectives of Punishment CJS 230 Week 6 Checkpoint Prison Environment CJS 230 Week 6 Assignment......

Words: 3297 - Pages: 14

Cjs 230 Entire Course Material

...CJS 230 Entire Course Material Follow Link Below To Get Tutorial http://homeworklance.com/downloads/cjs-230-entire-course-material/ Description: CJS 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 2 Checkpoint Development of Corrections\ CJS 230 Week 2 Assignment Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison Paper CJS 230 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 4 Checkpoint History of State and Federal Prisons CJS 230 Week 4 Assignment State and Federal Prison Systems Paper CJS 230 Week 5 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 5 Checkpoint Objectives of Punishment CJS 230 Week 6 Checkpoint Prison Environment CJS 230 Week 6 Assignment Corrections Accreditation and Privatization Paper CJS 230 Week 7 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 7 Checkpoint Prisoners Worksheet CJS 230 Week 8 Checkpoint Parole and Mandatory Release CJS 230 Week 8 Assignment Rehabilitation Paper CJS 230 Week 9 Capstone Discussion Question CJS 230 Week 9 Final Project Community Corrections Paper CJS 230 Entire Course Material Follow Link Below To Get Tutorial http://homeworklance.com/downloads/cjs-230-entire-course-material/ Description: CJS 230 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 2 Checkpoint Development of Corrections\ CJS 230 Week 2 Assignment Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison Paper CJS 230 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week 4 Checkpoint History of State and Federal Prisons CJS 230 Week 4 Assignment State and Federal Prison Systems Paper CJS 230 Week 5 DQ 1 and DQ 2 CJS 230 Week......

Words: 2624 - Pages: 11

Cjs 230

... Future of Policing CJS/210 There are many trends that are currently affecting policing in today’s society. Police officers have to deal with different issues that come their way like human trafficking, drug trafficking, and many of gangs. The many trends that police are dealing with are getting worst by the minute. Trends that are currently affecting policing are human trafficking, gangs, illegal migrations and drug trafficking. Sex trafficking, labor trafficking, and unknown labor all fall under human trafficking. Federally funded human trafficking task forces opened a total of 2,515 suspected incidents of human trafficking for investigation between January 1, 2008, and June 30, 2010 (BJS, 2011). Out of the 2,515 of human trafficking sex trafficking had the most incident totaling at 2,065. Sex trafficking has become a trend that the police cannot stop. There are so many people out there kidnapping runaway victim to make money. They are having young runaway victim sell their body for their personal gain. In the street police officer like to call them pimps or madams. Pimp is a man who solicits for a prostitute or brothel and lives off the earnings. Madam is a woman who runs a brothel. Labor trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery in which individuals perform labor or services through the use of force, fraud, or coercion. Labor trafficking includes situations of debt bondage, forced labor, and involuntary child labor. 350 were labor trafficking case out of the 2,515....

Words: 1236 - Pages: 5

Cjs 230 Complete Class

...CJS 230 Complete Class Purchase here http://chosecourses.com/cjs-230-complete-class Description CJS 230 Week 1-Checkpoint - Twentieth-century Penitentiary System CJS 230 Week 2-Assignment - The Role of Sentencing in Corrections CJS 230 Week 2-Checkpoint - Sentencing Objectives CJS 230 Week 3-Appendix B - Population and Privatization CJS 230 Week 4-Appendix C – Jails CJS 230 Week 4-Assignment - Prison Systems CJS 230 Week 5-Checkpoint - Sociological Aspect of Prison Life CJS 230 Week 6-Assignment - Prisoner Rights CJS 230 Week 6-Checkpoint - Special Needs Prisoner I – . . CJS 230 Week 6-Checkpoint - Special Needs Prisoner I CJS 230 Week 6-Checkpoint - Special Needs Prisoner II CJS 230 Week 7-Checkpoint - Rehabilitation Programs CJS 230 Week 8-Assignment – Probation CJS 230 Week 8-Checkpoint - Intermediate Sanctions and Community Corrections CJS 230 Week 9-Final Project - A World Apart Item #: CJS 230 Complete Class CJS 230 Complete Class Purchase here http://chosecourses.com/cjs-230-complete-class Description CJS 230 Week 1-Checkpoint - Twentieth-century Penitentiary System CJS 230 Week 2-Assignment - The Role of Sentencing in Corrections CJS 230 Week 2-Checkpoint -......

Words: 290 - Pages: 2

Cjs 230 Complete Class

...CJS 230 Complete Class Purchase here http://chosecourses.com/cjs-230-complete-class Description CJS 230 Week 1-Checkpoint - Twentieth-century Penitentiary System CJS 230 Week 2-Assignment - The Role of Sentencing in Corrections CJS 230 Week 2-Checkpoint - Sentencing Objectives CJS 230 Week 3-Appendix B - Population and Privatization CJS 230 Week 4-Appendix C – Jails CJS 230 Week 4-Assignment - Prison Systems CJS 230 Week 5-Checkpoint - Sociological Aspect of Prison Life CJS 230 Week 6-Assignment - Prisoner Rights CJS 230 Week 6-Checkpoint - Special Needs Prisoner I – . . CJS 230 Week 6-Checkpoint - Special Needs Prisoner I CJS 230 Week 6-Checkpoint - Special Needs Prisoner II CJS 230 Week 7-Checkpoint - Rehabilitation Programs CJS 230 Week 8-Assignment – Probation CJS 230 Week 8-Checkpoint - Intermediate Sanctions and Community Corrections CJS 230 Week 9-Final Project - A World Apart Item #: CJS 230 Complete Class CJS 230 Complete Class Purchase here http://chosecourses.com/cjs-230-complete-class Description CJS 230 Week 1-Checkpoint - Twentieth-century Penitentiary System CJS 230 Week 2-Assignment - The Role of Sentencing in Corrections CJS 230 Week 2-Checkpoint -......

Words: 580 - Pages: 3

Cjs 230 Complete Class

...CJS 230 Complete Class Purchase here http://chosecourses.com/cjs-230-complete-class Description CJS 230 Week 1-Checkpoint - Twentieth-century Penitentiary System CJS 230 Week 2-Assignment - The Role of Sentencing in Corrections CJS 230 Week 2-Checkpoint - Sentencing Objectives CJS 230 Week 3-Appendix B - Population and Privatization CJS 230 Week 4-Appendix C – Jails CJS 230 Week 4-Assignment - Prison Systems CJS 230 Week 5-Checkpoint - Sociological Aspect of Prison Life CJS 230 Week 6-Assignment - Prisoner Rights CJS 230 Week 6-Checkpoint - Special Needs Prisoner I – . . CJS 230 Week 6-Checkpoint - Special Needs Prisoner I CJS 230 Week 6-Checkpoint - Special Needs Prisoner II CJS 230 Week 7-Checkpoint - Rehabilitation Programs CJS 230 Week 8-Assignment – Probation CJS 230 Week 8-Checkpoint - Intermediate Sanctions and Community Corrections CJS 230 Week 9-Final Project - A World Apart Item #: CJS 230 Complete Class CJS 230 Complete Class Purchase here http://chosecourses.com/cjs-230-complete-class Description CJS 230 Week 1-Checkpoint - Twentieth-century Penitentiary System CJS 230 Week 2-Assignment - The Role of Sentencing in Corrections CJS 230 Week 2-Checkpoint -......

Words: 870 - Pages: 4

Cjs 230

...caustic. Unfortunately, judges’ personalities may have influences on perceptions of justice and fairness in their courts. See Box 7.2 for one student’s observations regarding defendants’ interactions with two different judges, one “friendly” and one not. While the public may consider distant or hostile judges to be less competent than their amiable counterparts, this is not always true. Women and Minority Judges Demographically, judges tend to be cut from similar cloth. Judges, on the whole, tend to be white males (Feeley, 1979, p. 63; Flango and Ducat, 1979, p. 30; Myers and Talarico, 1988, p. 29), although increasing numbers of women and minorities are obtaining judgeships, especially at the lower court level (Emmert and Glick, 1987, p. 230; Glick and Emmert, 1986, p. 109; Graham, 1990, p. 30; Meyer and Jesilow, 1997, p. 49). This is not to say that the integration has been evenly applied throughout the country; black judges, for example, are much more likely to serve in predominately black communities, indicating their marginal acceptance in other districts (Cappell, 1990, p. 112). In fact, minority and women judges are much more likely to gain their positions through appointment rather than election (Graham, 1990, p. 32). The differential may be due, at least in part, to efforts by appointers to “bend over backward” to boost the numbers of underrepresented judges (e.g., Carbon, Houlden, and Berkson, 1982, p. 301), and to the advantage that incumbents often enjoy during......

Words: 21662 - Pages: 87

Captulo 57 de Dragon Ball S | Makan Daging Anjing Dengan Sayur Kol | A Star Is Born