Classical Conditions

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By mboazman
Words 958
Pages 4
Classical conditions

The classical conditioning experiment conducted by Pavlov goes as follows: A dog is hooked to a mechanism that measures the amount that the dog salivates. A tone is sounded just before a dog is given meat powder. This occurs several times. Eventually, conditioning occurs in that the dog salivates just to the bell alone. Of course, the dog salivates instinctively in response to the food, but "learns" to salivate to the sound of the bell, much as you might find your mouth watering at the site, smell, or even memory of your favorite food. Pavlov used this relatively simple experiment as a model for describing much of the automatic/nonconscious learning that occurs in everyday life. In any case where you have “learned” to respond automatically to some sort of stimulus with fear, joy, excitement, or anticipation you have become classically conditioned.
Cited: Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons.

My classical condition started when I took my family to ride the incredible hulk roller coaster in universal studios, Orlando Florida amusement park. I had always wondered what it would be like to ride that roller coaster. You haven't truly lived until you've experienced The Incredible Hulk's wild and unique uphill launch. The effect is like being trapped inside an airplane that’s flying out of control. Quickly accelerating uphill defies logic, and feels both exhilarating and terrifying. It is not for the faint of heart, this coaster is both terrifying and exhilarating. It is located near the front entrance of the park. Every time I go there and enter the gates I begin to get a nervous but exhilarating feeling as I got closer to the ride, the anticipation to get strapped in and start the ride becomes unbearable. I could sense the fear as I wait in line to experience the thrill from the excitement of the ride. This…...

Similar Documents

Classical Theory

...              Question:  (i.)  Critically  evaluate  the  classical  theory  of  organization  and  management  in  the  light  of  contemporary business environmental changes facing managers in Nigeria    (ii.)  How  did  the  neoclassical  and  contingency  theories  improve  on  the  imperations  of  the  classical approach?                (i.)  Critically  evaluate  the  classical  theory  of  organization  and  management  in  the  light  of  contemporary   business environmental changes facing managers in Nigeria    Classical  organization  theories  (Taylor,  1947;  Weber,  1947;  Fayol,  1949)  deal  with  the  formal  organization  and  concepts  to  increase  management  efficiency.  Taylor  presented  scientific  management  concepts,  Weber  gave  the  bureaucratic  approach,  and  Fayol  developed  the  administrative theory of the organization. They all contributed significantly to the development  of classical organization theory.  Taylor's scientific management approach  The scientific management approach developed by Taylor is based on the concept of planning  of work to achieve efficiency, standardization, specialization and simplification. Acknowledging  that  the  approach  to  increased  productivity  was  through  mutual  trust  between  management  and workers, Taylor suggested that, to increase this level of trust,  • the  advantages  of  productivity  improvement  should  go  to  workers, • physical  stress  and  anxiety  should ......

Words: 2186 - Pages: 9

Classical Conditioning

...Classical Conditioning The comprehension of the classical conditioning concepts helps professionals identify various factors affecting this procedure. The four basic classical conditioning concepts become various stages of environmental stimulus. These environmental stimuli processed through sensation and perception converts the classical conditioning concepts into changed behavioral patterns. Classical conditioning concepts also introduce the repetitive exposure of different stimuli within any individual’s learning environment. The purpose of this paper is to explain, analyze, and evaluate classical conditioning and the factors that affect this process, such as the four phenomena, and awareness. The analysis of these factors helps professionals understand the application of classical conditioning in the learning process. Stimuli Processes Environmental stimuli become processed by sensation and perception converting the information into data used to modify learned behavioral patterns (Davis, 2004). This physical process of sensation shows in the use of the five senses responding to the stimulus. The sensory means of perception becomes the analysis of the stimulus. The brain continually sorts the information gathered to make decisions. This unique concept stores unnecessary information from the interpretation of the stimulus. The ability to decide on multiple options shows the subject responding to only the priming prompt (Davis, 2004). Classical Conditioning......

Words: 1570 - Pages: 7

Classical Conditioning

...Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is an influential process. Two unrelated stimuli when they are repeatedly paired lead to a situation where a response to the second stimulus can be achieved by initiating only the first stimulus. This theory involves learning a new behavior through the process of association. In this theory, we assume that the surrounding shapes behavior and also those mental or internal states of a human or animal like feelings or thoughts are not relevant in behavioral explanations. Part I For a classically conditioned learning process in my life, I always study and do my academic activities normally homework on my desk. After a long, hard semester; I realize that the sight of that desk or sitting on it depresses me. I always associate the desk with not only huge but also difficult academic tasks hence being at it, even if I am free after the semester, it reminds me of books to read or simply hard tasks to be done. This has a panic and fear effect on me because the desk is associated with strenuous tasks. A classically conditioned learning process has got several stages or steps which include: neural stimulus (NS), Unconditional stimulus (UCS), Unconditional response (UCR), Conditioned stimulus (CS) and Conditioned response (CR). Neural stimulus (NS) has no effect on behavior or person unless it is paired with the unconditioned stimuli. It can be a person, event, object etc. In my case, the neural stimulus is the study desk. This is because......

Words: 1039 - Pages: 5

Athens Classical

...Student’s Name Instructor Course Date Similarities and differences of ideal classical Athens and reality classical Athens Many domains of literature are usually interested in classical Athens. The Athens in reference is usually the Greek city-state of Athens that existed in the period 480 BC to 404 BC. After a collaboration of Greek city-states destroyed the Persian invasion in 478 BC, an alliance of these independent city-states created the Athenian empire. The inception of the Athenian empire introduced the Golden age of Athens which was characterized by economic, cultural, and political flourishing. This period of Greek dominance is often regarded as one of the primary sources of western values and standards. Many aspects of the modern society are modeled in the image of the “Golden Age” of classical Athens; from modern literature to modern architecture for example the US state capitols are modeled to imitate the Greek Parthenon and other Athens buildings. However, there were several similarities and differences on how Athens was realistically and the ideal in which Athenians wanted their city to be depicted. (Merry E. Weisne-Hanks, Andrew Evans, William Bruce Wheeler, Julius Ruff) The ideal classical Athens was a place of liberty and freedom incorporated with pleasure and abundant knowledge. One of the main demonstrators of classical Athens is the speech given by Pericles during the funeral of soldiers who fell victim to the Peloponnesian war. In the speech......

Words: 741 - Pages: 3

Classical

...CLASSICAL PRINCIPLES OF ARGUMEnt English 215 November 9, 2015 Scientists say that Arguments Intelligence in today’s society is changing in different forms of software such as machines, computers, and vision. Scientists express their opinion about the future technology, using ethos, pathos, and logos to get their audience attention. Steven B. Harris uses an authority voice and vision when addressing issues in his article. He expresses his tone to make improvement in technology in the world. Harris is a medical Doctor that's interested in medical resources. He's a part of the Biosphere II projects and the best known for discussing artificial intelligence research. He had major discussions thread on the internet. In his article, he explains how several authors express their opinion on a variety of technology. Harris ethos in this report, argues how the technology will change throughout the future. From his writing, he appears to have the knowledge about how a computer will become advance and how it will affect humankind in the future. Harris states how machines are used in moving making. He describes how a movie in 1950’s are made with the Krell machines and ultimate machines. By 1986, they were using microscopic construction-machines. Harris argues that software is now popular and is used in movies, whether than machines. Harris said that certain machine is still being used from time to time, but the computer has full control. In the article, Harris uses......

Words: 633 - Pages: 3

Classical Theory

...The Classical (Structural) Organizational Theory was introduced in the early 1900s, with an emphasis on the efficiency of the work process. Within this theory there are three schools of thought that include scientific management, bureaucratic management, and administrative management. Scientific Management looks at the best way to perform a job. Frederick Taylor is credited for the development of this principal. Taylor’s approach emphasized increasing productivity by focusing on the efficiency of the production process. Taylor believed that the only way to expand productivity was to raise the efficiency of the workers. He believed that doing this would create more work for more workers and increase production while shortening hours for workers. His theory states that jobs should be designed so that each worker has a well-specified, well-controlled task and specific procedures and methods for those jobs have to be strictly followed (Shafritz & Ott, 2001). This approach would keep workers mentally focused on the task at hand and eliminate the feeling of just putting in time. Production came first and works came second. Taylor developed four principals of scientific management: (1) discover the most efficient way to complete tasks, 2) designate workers to tasks which they are the most qualified to complete, 3) workers must be supervised and either rewarded or punished based on their performance, and 4) managements position consisted of planning and controlling (Shafritz......

Words: 1830 - Pages: 8

Classical Conditioning

...Classical conditioning is the process of learning through association. In our experiment, the teacher was able to classically condition a student without the student even realizing it. The experiment was to get to get the student to turn off the lights when exposed to a certain video slide. The unconditioned stimulus was the teacher student telling the student to turn off the lights. The unconditioned response was the student turning off the lights. The conditioned stimulus was the certain video slide that was presented. The conditioned response was the student turning off the lights to the video slide. The student ended up turning off the lights upon seeing the video slide. This is clear evidence of the student being classically conditioned. The teacher did not have to tell the student to turn off the lights. The sequence of events in order that occur are the unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response first. These are always introduced first in the experiment. The stimuli that got paired together were the teacher’s commands and the video slide. The result of the behavior was the student doing the action of turning the lights off without being told to do so. A great example of classical conditioning is the professor having the students to take attendance. At a certain time, the teacher would hand out the sign-in sheet for students to sign. He would at first have to tell the students it’s time to sign-in. This is the unconditioned stimulus. The conditioned stimulus is......

Words: 298 - Pages: 2

Classical Conditioning

...Classical conditioning is defined in Psychology as “a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings that response” (Feldman, 2010, p 163). Having to do with reactions and learning, the definition of classical conditioning can be abbreviated into the idea of involuntary behavior. The example of Pavlov’s dog illustrates this as the dog came to associate the sound of a bell with food, causing a reflective action of salivating even when the bell was not paired with food. Ivan Pavlov a Russian physiologist that never intended to do psychological research is best known for his intricate work with the drooling dog experiment that leads to his further research in conditioning. His experiment to demonstrate classical conditioning and how much a dog salivates when the animal thinks food is going to be given; Pavlov attached a tube on the dogs’ mouth to measure precisely salivation. What’s learned with Pavlov’s experiment is a conditioned stimulus to a condition response. From the moment we are born to the day we pass on, we are currently learning new things day by day. A person often learns through some form of conditioning in life. Some people associate learning with school or another kind of educational institutes, but we learn in different places and situations in our life. Learning is the result of the consequences of inappropriate behavior. Respect, discipline, and good manners are what we......

Words: 788 - Pages: 4

Classical Conditioning

...Classical Conditioning Paper PSY 390 September 19, 2011 Chelsea Hansen Classical Conditioning Paper The primary premise of psychology is the study of one’s behavior through mental research as well as physical experiments. Classical Conditioning is the study of one’s behavior through research and experiments and trying to identify the conditions one put themselves in or are put in to study their behavior. “Classical Conditioning is a technique used in behavioral training.” (http://psychology.about.com/od/cindex/g/classcond.htm) A Russian physiologist by the name of Ivan Pavlov is believed to be the igniter to classical conditioning though his intense research and experiments with dogs and his saliva theoretical presentations and experiments. Pavlov also believed that “classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.” (http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classcond.htm) Theory of Classical Conditioning and Scenario The theory of classical conditioning that was most famous by Ivan Pavlov was the digestive system where he then accidently had his attention drawn to “psychic reflexes.” (http://www.learning-theories.com/classical-conditioning-pavlov.html) The scenario that will be used in this paper will be how prisoners are classically conditioned with “chow time” (time to eat) in the prison system. In the prison systems inmates and their natural reflex of...

Words: 756 - Pages: 4

Classical

...Classical Conditioning Paper Nicole Young PSY/390 January 23,2012 Dr. Steve Lazarre Classical Conditioning Paper In the mind of B. F. Skinner learning is considered to be a relatively permanent change in an individual or animals behavior due to practice and experience. Classical condition is a type of learning generated by a response from one stimulus to another unlearned stimulus. This form of classical conditioning was founded by Ivan Pavlov and he is most famous for his experiment with dogs and the bell. In Pavlov’s experiment with classical conditioning it involved the salivary glands of canines. The scenario for this paper will teach a dog to not chew on furniture, using classical conditioning and, vinegar in a spray bottle. Classical conditioning was discovered accidentally by Ivan Pavlov, who was a Russian physiologist. Pavlov discovered this form of learning while researching digestion. Pavlov’s classical conditioning is a form of learning through acquired experiences. Classical conditioning is where an earlier or previously neutral stimulus causes a reaction or reflex to a physical response (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009). As he observed dogs beginning to drool when food was shown Pavlov could then begin to predict the other forms of stimulation. As Pavlov further researched the response from the canine, Pavlov found that when he presented a bell to the animal he could then reproduce the animals’ reaction to salivating with just the sound of the bell......

Words: 873 - Pages: 4

Classical Conditioning

...Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning, created by Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, is a theory based on experiments performed on dogs. Classical conditioning is a way to explain how some of a person’s behavior is learned. This theory also offers the possibility to change a previously learned behavior and modify that behavior. Classical conditioning also teaches new behaviors such as training a dog new tricks or potty training toddlers. Classical conditioning changed how science viewed behavior and that any behavior can be changed or modified. Classical Conditioning Theory Pavlov theory of classical conditioning began when he was studying the condition of reflex at the age of fifty (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009). During Pavlov’s reflex experements, he discovered that the dogs would begin salivating at the sight of food. Pavlov named this occurance the “psychic” relfex (Olson & Hergenhahn 2009). By using the dog’s response of salivating to the presentation of food, Pavlov created the classical conditioning theory. He noticed that when it was time for the dog to eat, he would begin salivating. Pavlov began a new experiment by introducing the sound of a bell before the dog was given his food. After some time, the dog began to salivate at the sound of the bell and not the sight or smell of the food. A conditioned response was formed when the dog began salivating at the sound of the bell. Before the conditioning, the dog would only salivate at the sight of food. The......

Words: 1167 - Pages: 5

Classical Conditoning

...Classical Conditioning Ashley Stringer-Franco PSY/390 Dr. Erin Hunt-Carter January 30, 2012 Classical Conditioning The thing that is defined in the world of psychology as a process by which a stimulus that previously did not elicit a response comees to elicit a response, in reflex-like fashion, after it is paired with one or more trials with a stimulus that already elicits a response is called classical conditioning (Gray, 1999). Classical conditioning is basically described as the idea of involuntary behavior since it has a lot to do with the reflexes. For example Pavlov’s did an experiment with his dogs where he showed that the dog came to associate food with the sound of a certain bell, which caused the dog to salivate as a reflex. At the end of the experiment Pavlov showed that the dogs would salivate even when they just heard the bell ring without seeing the food. That in a sense in how classical conditioning is best described. My Experience with Classical Conditioning My mom has this dog named Lacie Renee Stringer who she loves very much. They spend a lot of time with each other and they even sleep together on my mom’s bed. She is a very loving dog and she loves to lick people so much that they are covered in saliva. However when we first got her she was so scared of people that she stuck close to my mom. Her personality was that of a shy scared little puppy. When she was first brought home she would run and hide from everyone and she would not even go near...

Words: 744 - Pages: 3

Classical Conditioning

...Classical Conditioning PSY/390 November 2, 2011 Elizabeth Alexander-Bernard Classical Conditioning * Ivan Pavlov was born on September 14, 1849 in Russia. He was studying to become a priest, but then change his mind and study physiology for most of his life. His model was a behaviorist and the things involved with this model are response and stimuli. Ivan Pavlov is considered the father and founder of classical conditioning. He won the Nobel Prize in 1904 for physiology of the digestion. Pavlov discovered classical conditioning through studying the digestive tracts of a dog on accident. During the conditioning the dogs would salivate at the click of a metronome. This established the basis for condition reflexes and classical conditioning. This paper will describe the theory of classical conditioning. Pavlov study focus on observing the organism not by the mental thought process. I will explain a scenario in which you would apply classical conditioning theory. Describe my selected scenario and prepare a chart in which you illustrate how I would apply classical conditioning theory to the scenario. * The theory of classical conditioning as you can see in the picture below. Before conditioning if the dog is given food the response is that the dog starts to salivate this is considered an unconditioned stimulus with an unconditioned response this just happen naturally. With a neutral stimulus if the dog hears a bell the response is he does not salivate......

Words: 705 - Pages: 3

Classical Leisure

...Classical Leisure Classical leisure in ancient Greece was a health and knowledge based ideal that promoted virtuous choices and conduct, and in turn led to true happiness and fulfilment. This state of being, known to many as Aristotle’s ‘classical leisure ideal’, was not restricted by work or time and had no ulterior motives. The parallels in contemporary leisure pursuits that can be seen today include studying, poetry, music, games, travel and sport; and are crucial for the preservation of arts, culture and the history of leisure in the 21st century. The classical leisure ideal emerged in Greece in 400-500 BC, where Greek life was based on the city-state, and philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, Epicurus and especially Aristotle expressed leisure (schole) as the main goal in life (telos) (Lynch and Veal, 2006). ‘This state of being was contemplative and felicitous, with activity both giving intrinsic pleasure and being undertaken for self-development’, and was completely separate from ‘free time’ - ‘...anybody can have free time. Not everybody can have leisure’ (de Grazia, 1962 as cited in Lynch and Veal 2006 p. 8). Conditions that need to be met for classical leisure to exist include an awareness of the concept, ‘a breakdown in the universal ‘work ethic’’ and an ‘absence of the clock’ (p. 8). Consumerism and narcissism hinder these features and thus prevent some modern societies from adopting a system based on classical leisure. The ideas of freedom and......

Words: 543 - Pages: 3

Classical Conditions

...Concept of Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning was established and studied by Ivan Pavlov a Russian psychologist. According to Hockenbury & Hockenbury (2006), classical conditioning is the “basic learning process that involves repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-producing stimulus until the same response is elicited from the neutral stimulus.” (p. 192). Both Pavlov and additional researches discovered that “optimal time interval varies in different conditioning situations” (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2006, p. 194), but it is hardly beyond a couple of seconds. Research has slated that Pavlov spent at least three decades studying classical conditioning, and during these decades he found a lot of element that would and could change the power of the conditioned response. Classical conditioning is a quad-step learning process connecting reactions: First, Unconditioned Stimulus (US) - a stimulus that suggests an unconditional response with no former conditioning (requires no learning for reaction to take place). Secondly, Unconditional Response (UR) – an uneducated response\ reply to an unconditional stimulus that happens with no former conditioning. Third, Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – a formerly neutral stimulus with the purpose of and in the course of conditioning, obtained the capability to suggest a conditioned response. Forth, is Conditioned Response (CR) – is a learned response to a conditioned stimulus that happens due to a previous......

Words: 398 - Pages: 2

Master of Martial Hearts Episode 4 English Dubbed | Kino no Tabi: The Beautiful World - The Animated Series | Jersey Shore