Cloning & Individualism

In: Social Issues

Submitted By glennheng22
Words 2058
Pages 9
Results May Vary: Adam Phillips’s Theory of Cloning and The Paradoxical Apotheosis of Individualism Adam Phillips’s essay “Sameness Is All” takes the form of a dialogue with two children to introduce the fantasy of cloning in which everyone is identical. Specifically, Phillips observes that cloning is a “denial of difference and dependence” which leads to a “refusal of need” (92). However, Phillip remains mindful that such fantasy of physical or psychological sameness is implausible as everyone is different - even clones. One then questions the significance of such wanting of sameness, or if the sense of sameness serves any purpose. Using the concept of Self and Other that Joanne Finkelstein examines in “The Self as Sign,” I propose that the sense of sameness that is offered by the illusion of cloning allows one to establish a sense of identity. In a final analysis, I will elaborate on Finkelstein’s arguments on the Self and Other to shed light on the question posed by Philips on whether cloning was the death or apotheosis of individualism, and suggest that cloning has the paradoxical outcome of reinforcing individualism even as one seeks uniformity. Cloning is supposed to lead to conformity and uniformity, the absolute sameness. Phillips argues that cloning is appealing to society because it seems to represent a cure for “the terrors and delights of competition” (90-91). What is interesting, however, is the eventual admission by Phillips that this absolute sameness is impossible as “people, in actuality, can never be identical” (94) due to the difference in our individual histories and environment - among other factors which influences our individuality. This admission by Phillips prompts us to further ponder a question he poses in his essay: “Is cloning the death or the apotheosis of individualism” (88)? If we consider cloning as…...

Similar Documents

Cloning

...To Go the Star Wars Rout: Cloning David Rodriguez College Of Southern Nevada Professor Phelan To Go the Star Wars Rout: Cloning Cloning occurs when you copy a living creature. Two clones have the same genes, small structures with information in them that tells them what the body of a living thing should look like and how it should behave. You get the genes from your parents. Many people think that cloning is only done by scientists in laboratories, but, in fact, cloning also occurs in nature. Animals have billions of cells. The nucleus of such a cell has genetic information called DNA. All the nuclei of an animal have the same information. But each cell only uses a part of this information in order to work properly. The other part of the DNA is not active. But because a single cell holds all the DNA of an animal, scientists can make physical copies of an animal from only one cell. They transfer the nucleus of an animal’s cell into an egg cell of another animal. This egg cell has the same genetic information as that of the donor animal. The cell then grows into an embryo. Scientists must then activate the DNA that was not active in the parent cell. Otherwise a full organism would not develop. Clones do not behave in an identical way – this is because they live in different environments. Researchers have found out that identical twins that carry the......

Words: 1210 - Pages: 5

Cloning

...Karren 1 Camille Karren Mrs. Robertson English 5A 12 December 2012 Human Therapeutic Cloning Should Be Permitted Human therapeutic cloning has the ability to greatly improve the quality of life. Cloning could be the answer to the end of your pain and suffering, but before you can understand it’s benefits, you have to know the process therapeutic cloning itself. Therapeutic cloning is a procedure in which cells, typically skin cells, are taken from a patient and inserted into a fertilized egg whose nucleus has been removed. Scientists then extract stem cells from the egg, and use those cells to grow tissue that are a perfect genetic match to the patient. It is a break-through in science and the key to curing many diseases including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Elizabeth Foley explains why human cloning should not be banned due to, “the primary objections to human cloning appear to be unfounded, based more on morality, theology, and fear than objective data.” The potential medical benefits of genetic engineering are far too great to let moral concerns about embryonic cell use get in the way of curing diseases. Human therapeutic cloning should not be banned from society because countless lives can be saved through transplantations and genetic research. Therapeutic cloning is the cloning of human tissues for research and transplant, and shows much promise in organ transplantation. Much needed organs grown from stem cells from the patient’s own genetic...

Words: 806 - Pages: 4

Cloning

...Jeremy A. Belvin-Reed 6-27-2012 Human Cloning: Unproven, Unsafe Human Cloning is the most controversial subject in biotechnology today. It can be defined as the act of creating a new individual (reproductive) or organism (therapeutic) from the single cell of a parent subject. In reproductive cloning (human cloning) a parent subject is expected to act as a surrogate mother. Making the clone involves using the parent’s empty egg (nucleus and genetic code removed) combined with the nucleus of their own skin cells to create 1 embryo which is now a copy of them. Each time a procedure is formed a life hangs in the balance. This life is treated as property to be experimented on, without consent. People are being sold fantasies with ideas such as clones replacing us and another you. Whether you know it or not, resources for these procedures are costly to you. And so far, non-one is being held responsible. Fobes.com reports that “even if a mere 100 eggs were taken from ten donors, the cost of simply paying the donors could easily reach $50.000.” In hindsight, you are actually paying, out of your tax dollars, $1000 an egg. 12-14 of these eggs are transplanted into one surrogate. If you have 3 patients, the cost of the procedure skyrockets to $42,000 more of your tax dollars.“That means costs to treat one patient (human) could......

Words: 1096 - Pages: 5

Cloning

...Argumentative Essay 21st March, 2013 Cloning The twenty first century has brought in many extraordinary breakthroughs one of which happens to be cloning. Cloning can be defined as the process of creating a cell, tissue line or even a complete organism from a single cell (Jane Maienshchein, 2001). Cloning was a mere dream that people in the past used to have and wish upon, where cloning has been seen to be an impossible desire that no man can achieve. However, nowadays technology has reached levels that people thought would never reach and spread into so many branches and depths that now it has become safe to say that nothing is really impossible. Breaking the impossibility, many questions are being asked and many arguments are taking place around human cloning. Cloning has been considered to not just human beings but to animals as well. When the sheep dolly was cloned, the issue of cloning became something familiar to read about in the news. Many headlines have helped the public consider about taking part in this serious issue that is human cloning. Questions start to rise regarding the possibility of human cloning, and of course technology, they are questions that never stop. What has started out as thoughts and ideas about human cloning written down on papers, are now ideas that are being turned in to live experiments preformed in the labs. Away from the different views of the religious organizations and people’s thoughts and disagreement, cloning can be considered a......

Words: 1935 - Pages: 8

Cloning

...  Human Cloning Foundation The official site in support of human cloning! www.humancloning.org |   | Essays supporting human cloning published by the Human Cloning Foundation Note: The Human Cloning Foundation does not have the resources to check the factual accuracy of all the essays that it publishes.  The reader must do fact checking on his or her own. 1. NEW! Cloning Humans is Beneficial by Tae. Hoon H. 2. NEW! Walter Payton, Cloning, and Transplants; and My Kidneys by Shauna Carroll Anderson 3. NEW! Do Not Ban Cloning by Kenny H. 4. NEW! In Support of the Argument for Human Cloning by John Greeney 5. NEW! Cloning the Human Race: The Importance and Advantages of Cloning Technology by Seah Nili 6. NEW! Should Cloning be Banned? by Michelle Halby 7. NEW! What is Mammalian Cloning and Why It May Be Important by Barry Evans 8. NEW! Cloning is Beneficial to Humanity by Adam Fox 9. NEW! Death, the Final Frontier by Charles Dunn 10. NEW! Cloning and Overpopulation - Not a Problem! by Stephanie 11. Human cloning from a sensitive male point of view by Mihailo Alic 12. Cloning for Bioethicists by José F. Jaramillo Vásquez 13. Revolted by Bioethicists by Hank H. 14. Cloning for Medical Purposes by Gabby 15. The Human Cloning Question: To Do, or Not to DO by Miguel Hernandez IV 16. Cloning Earth's Life by José F. Jaramillo Vásquez (this essay contains fantastic graphics so it is slower to download) 17.......

Words: 776 - Pages: 4

Cloning

...2010 Cloning Human, animal, and plant cloning is one of the most controversial subjects in modern science. There are many good arguments in favor of cloning, as well as many against it. In my opinion, plant and animal cloning could be very efficient to society by way of creating more food, but I also view it as unethical. In this essay I will discuss many pro’s and con’s of cloning. Cloning can help the human race in many ways, but is it necessary? One way it can help us is by the cloning of plants and animals. In doing this, we could create more food and genetically engineer the food to maximize its health. "Commercial livestock cloning could inundate the food supply with novel products that have not been safety tested."(Mendelson). Most scientists who oppose the idea claim that cloned animals usually have birth defects, and have not been properly tested for safe consumption. Although this could be true, with the rapidly advancing technology in today’s world it probably will not be long until cloning is perfected, and the animals pass all tests. However, is the cloning of animals really necessary for us to survive? Those who are on the more ethical side of the matter believe that God has and will continue to provide us with plenty of plants and animals to survive on. Thus, the argument can go back and forth depending on your beliefs and personal ethics. Ultimately the answer to the question is what you make it. Another way cloning can benefit us is by the cloning of......

Words: 1082 - Pages: 5

Cloning

...Cloning Should cloning be funded by the government? I for one believe the U.S. Government should fund cloning because cloning can cure disease, endangered species could be saved and we’re taking steps towards immortality. The U.S. Government should fund cloning because cloning can cure disease. Cloning has been proven to recreate cells that may not function correctly. ACT’s Dr. Robert Lanza predicted that work like his will revolutionize the field of medicine, providing novel treatments for Alzheimer’s, diabetes, heart disease and Parkinson’s. A tiny cluster of cells, smaller than the head of a pin, holds the key to curing fatal diseases, even to growing spare body parts, says Lanza, director of medical research at the labs. (Cloning) The U.S. Government should fund cloning because cloning can save endangered species. Organisms can reproduce with a “clone” to make offspring. When an endangered species can’t reproduce fast enough to stop extinction scientist believe cloning can save species. Imagine it is the year 2050, and only 30 cheetahs are left in the world. Tireless efforts to help the animals reproduce in the wild have failed and the species could soon die out. But there is a lifeline, and it's in the freezer. Scientists turn to thousands of cell samples collected from cheetahs over the years since 2002, and one by one each of these animals is reincarnated with the help of cloning. This vision is anything but fantastical. If all else fails, such as habitat......

Words: 334 - Pages: 2

Cloning

...(argument) on the issue based on three main points. 1. Example Thesis: Human cloning should not be legalized because it is dangerous, expensive, and unethical. II. Brief Overview of Opposing Position A. Describe the basic view point of the opposition 1. Initially, many would argue that cloning should be legalized because it may cure diseases. B. Provide the supporting arguments and facts (supported by references to texts and well-known authorities) 1. For example, some scientists say that cloning may provide clues to genetic mapping and diseases (Bogo 1). 2. Additionally, research seems to show that cloning allows individuals to have a “back-up” of their specific blood, plasma, and even organs (Samson 2). C. Elaborate/Analysis and summary of perspective A: 1. To summarize, supporters of cloning believe that it is medically beneficial to humans. D. Counterargument: 1. Indeed, many might believe cloning is beneficial. However, cloning should not be legalized because it is dangerous, expensive, and unethical. III. Your Argument: Main Point #1 (Strong Point) A. Describe any “common ground” between the two view points. 1. Admittedly, human cloning may provide medical resources that would benefit humans. B. Describe the basic......

Words: 645 - Pages: 3

Cloning

...Cloning DNA cloning has given major insights into understanding the genetic makeup of an organism. The cloning process will allow the alteration of DNA to better the organism in ways like nutritional value or resistance to diseases. DNA cloning has opened new doors to the studies of genetics. In order to clone DNA, there is a specific method in which selective amplifying is required of DNA sequences, which would in turn generate homogenous DNA populations (Strachan & Read, Chapter Chapter 4, 1999). Cell-based DNA cloning was the first type of DNA cloning to be developed. Foreign DNA fragments in vitro are attached to DNA sequences (Strachan & Read, Chapter Chapter 4, 1999). The new product of DNA is referred too as being recombinant, which just means that the DNA is linked sequences that originate from different sources. Those recombinant DNA fragments are transferred to host cells, which is where they are cloned. These host cells in which recombinant DNA fragments are transferred to must be able to replicate (Strachan & Read, Chapter Chapter 4, 1999). However, in order for DNA to be able to replicate, it must be able to have an origin of replication. In DNA cloning, most is done using modified bacterial or fungal host cells. They are primarily used because they have a higher capacity for rapid cell division (Strachan & Read, Chapter Chapter 4, 1999). The replicons have to go through many cycles of replication even though bacterial cell hosts only have one......

Words: 364 - Pages: 2

Individualism

...Individualism The Opposite of Collectivism Individualists societies are those in which the interest of the individual prevails over the interest of the group, and in which people are accepted to look after themselves and their imigiate families. Or The habit or principle of being independent & self reliant . “A culture that celebrates individualism & Wealth” Or A Social theory favoring freedom of Action for Individual over collective or state control. :Encouragement has been given to individualism, Free Enterprise, an the pursuit of Profit. Or Synonyms of Individuals are Independence, Self Direction, Self Reliance, free thinking, Free though, Orginallity. Individualism Individual is the moral stance, Political Philosophy, Ideaology, or Social outlook that enfaces the moral worth of the individual. Individualist promote the exercises of one’s m goal’s & desire and so value Independence & Self reliance & evocate that interest of the individual should achieve precedence over the state or a social group, while opposing external interference upon once on interest by society or institutions such as the government. Individualism makes the Individual its focus and so starts “with the fundamental premise that the human individual is of primary importance in the struggle for liberation” Liberalism extentionalism and anarchism are examples of movements that take the human individual as a central unit of......

Words: 1503 - Pages: 7

Individualism

...Cynthia Hum 201 March 16, 2013 Individualism One of the major figures in the movement of Transcendentalism was Ralph Waldo Emerson. Emerson’s essay “Self Reliance” explains his beliefs of individualism, human purpose, the use of nature and social responsibility. Although I don’t believe we will ever have a true understanding of our purpose on earth, I feel that we all need to believe in something in order to feel that we are productive additions to society and hold purpose. In modern day society examples of self reliance, which is close to my heart pertains myself and my brother. I as a single mother faced struggles in order to provide my daughter with the essentials of survival. I worked consistently to provide her with a different upbringing than I had to try and prevent history from repeating itself. I guided her in the direction of fulfilling her education and always told her to be herself. While raising her I am also attending school to further my education which is another example of self reliance. My last example within my own life is my brother whom is gay. The struggles that he has had to face I would not wish for anyone. The hatred and ridicule that he has gone through, only to continue to be him-self and hold his head up proud is admirable. It takes a very strong individual to stay true to your-self while constantly being knocked to the ground and for that I hold the highest respect and admiration to my brothers and the gay community. In Emerson’s......

Words: 1098 - Pages: 5

Cloning

...The first thing that usually pops into someone’s mind when they hear the word cloning is a human replication such as the army of clones in the movie Star Wars. What most people don't know is that there is so much more to cloning than creating a living being identical to the original. There are multiple ways to utilize the technology of cloning whether they be beneficial or not. Cloning is a good idea as long as it upholds life and is not allowed to limit the diversity of genetic traits. Cloning is “the asexual production of an exact copy of an original” (“What is cloning”). It is from one parent and results in identical cells. Scientifically speaking, one cell could be cloned, as well as organs, plants, even animals and perhaps humans. Just as varied, are the reasons to clone in the first place. The possibilities of cloning range from medical uses, personal uses, agricultural and livestock improvement to saving endangered species and more. The medical advantages cloning provides extend life, treat illnesses, and produce medications. Research into cell growth and genetics adds understanding into diseases such as cancer and how to avoid hereditary defects. In addition, cloning can improve food sources whether crops or livestock. Cloning also takes part in choosing desirable traits for people, animals, and plant, crops. Once they genetically engineer the plants, they can clone those seeds so that they have multiple identical copies of that same plant. Same with animals or......

Words: 1822 - Pages: 8

Individualism

...Individualism is usually discussed against some other term like communitarianism or collectivism.  The extreme version of collectivism is "mass mind" or some other expression like that.  The extreme of individualism is "sociopathy".  Clearly, one wouldn't want to be the extreme of either of these things. Moral individualism is not absolutely good or bad. The moral individualist can stand up against a community's horrible moral standards for example.  The sub-categories of utilitarian individualism and expressive individualism are also not necessarily good or bad.  A utilitarian individualist may invent a cure for a disease to make a profit or to save a loved one -- good still comes from it.  An expressive individualist may give to charity in order to gain a public reputation as a philanthropist. In the context of our own society, a lot of people are concerned with the effects of moral individualism, utilitarian individualism, and expressive individualism -- concerned that these orientations are being lived at the expense of community interests to a point at which they are harmful to collective life. Your task is to be familiar with these terms and have some sense of where you stand with respect to them.  Your advocacy in one direction or other is not my primary concern -- I want you to know the terms and have an attitude with respect to them. Foundation of Ethical Conduct Order – patterned trajectories and relationships that have continuity in time. The......

Words: 7254 - Pages: 30

Cloning

...Cloning 1. What should Dr. Smith do? I think that with such minimal overall research done in the entire cloning industry and no research done with a human being the variable, it is not a wise decision for Dr. Smith to proceed with cloning the body cell of Lucy. Although I don’t think that any further damage (besides death) could happen to Lucy, if something terrible happens or if the procedure does go well and then Lucy becomes ill or something else goes wrong with the cloning in the long run, Mr. Luning could come back after the doctor for damages or just create a bad reputation for Dr. Smith and she could lose and donation or funds that she currently has while cloning animals. 2. Give three reasons she should not do this. 1. Risk – Something could go wrong with the cloning and cause a hardship on future funding and views on Dr. Smith 2. Emotion damage – No longer working on an animal, a procedure that goes wrong could cause the doctor to no longer work towards more research in cloning. 3. Ethics – Many people and maybe even the doctor towards human cloning, could have feelings against a human cloning. 3. Give three reasons she should 4. Success – If everything goes right with the cloning she could be forever known as the pioneer in human cloning. 5. Financial – With Mr. Luning willing to pay everything he has for the procedure, with it being successful many other possible client would present themselves for the......

Words: 722 - Pages: 3

Cloning

...challenging problems of cell biology. Her creation raised a troubling question: Can humans, too, be cloned? And if so, Should humans be able to play God? Cloning has been an idea that the world has awaited and feared for decades. Cloning has been around since the 1950s when 2 scientists made a frog from tadpole cells. In the 60s, scientists cloned frogs again, but this time using cells from older tadpoles. What has just happened recently is the cloning of a mammal. The sheep named Dolly. A MAMMAL born from a single adult cell. The question is: Is cloning good or evil? Some say this is one of the most remarkable breakthroughs of science history. Man Creates Life. Amazing. But, let's rethink this.. Is the ability for man to create life (in a sense play god), is this a good thing or a bad thing? Why would it be a bad thing? This is an incredible breakthrough of scientific history. This area of microbiology needs to be further explored. There are several advantages that cloning may serve. A child needs a bone marrow transplant within the next two years. You could clone a copy and retrieve the bone marrow. Cloning would give lesbians a way to bear a biological descendant without visiting the spermbank. Perhaps the army could breed stronger, braver soldiers to use just for battle. Let's look at the advantages to cloning mammals: A farmer could clone his prize cow over and over making several copies of it, producing better milk with more nutrients. A shepard could......

Words: 670 - Pages: 3

Anne of Green Gables Fire and Dew | Calendar Builder | Чёрная Пантера