Comparing Different Cells

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Submitted By mpatel
Words 4018
Pages 17
Comparing Different Cells
All cells in the human body are made when a sperm cell and an egg cell fuse together.

Cell which have adapted to a specific function are known as specialized cells. These cells are grouped together to form tissues. When tissues combine together, they form organs and organ systems.

Stem cells are defined by their potential to differentiate in a range of specialized cells.
At fertilization, a zygote is formed when two haploid gametes fuse together. The single cell will develop into a brand new organism, which includes external tissues such as the placenta. It is a totipotent stem cell.

The zygote develops into a blastocyst, after a few divisions. The outer layer of cells forms the placenta, whereas the inner mass of cells develops into an embryo

The inner cells can differentiate into any part of the new embryo, but it cannot now form part of the placenta. They are pluripotent stem cells.

As the embryo develops, some cells differentiate fully and therefore no longer are classed as stem cells, but are classed as specialized body or somatic, cells. Other develops into more specific forms of stem cells, which are multipotent stem cells.

Multipotent cells lie dormant in the body’s tissues throughout adult life. These are now known as adult stem cells. For example, haematopoietic cells in bone marrow divide to replace lost or damaged blood cells.

The tree types of stem cells are:
1. Embryonic Stem Cells: these include those which are found within the embryo, the foetus or the umbilical cord blood. Embryonic stem cells can give rise to about any cell in the human body; however this depends on when they were harvested.
2. Adult Stem Cells: these can be found in infants, children and adults. They exist in tissue that has already developed such as those in the heart, kidney and the brain.
3. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells…...

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