Comparing Different Cells

In: Science

Submitted By mpatel
Words 4018
Pages 17
Comparing Different Cells
All cells in the human body are made when a sperm cell and an egg cell fuse together.

Cell which have adapted to a specific function are known as specialized cells. These cells are grouped together to form tissues. When tissues combine together, they form organs and organ systems.

Stem cells are defined by their potential to differentiate in a range of specialized cells.
At fertilization, a zygote is formed when two haploid gametes fuse together. The single cell will develop into a brand new organism, which includes external tissues such as the placenta. It is a totipotent stem cell.

The zygote develops into a blastocyst, after a few divisions. The outer layer of cells forms the placenta, whereas the inner mass of cells develops into an embryo

The inner cells can differentiate into any part of the new embryo, but it cannot now form part of the placenta. They are pluripotent stem cells.

As the embryo develops, some cells differentiate fully and therefore no longer are classed as stem cells, but are classed as specialized body or somatic, cells. Other develops into more specific forms of stem cells, which are multipotent stem cells.

Multipotent cells lie dormant in the body’s tissues throughout adult life. These are now known as adult stem cells. For example, haematopoietic cells in bone marrow divide to replace lost or damaged blood cells.

The tree types of stem cells are:
1. Embryonic Stem Cells: these include those which are found within the embryo, the foetus or the umbilical cord blood. Embryonic stem cells can give rise to about any cell in the human body; however this depends on when they were harvested.
2. Adult Stem Cells: these can be found in infants, children and adults. They exist in tissue that has already developed such as those in the heart, kidney and the brain.
3. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells…...

Similar Documents

Comparing Photosynthesis and Semiconductor Based Solar Cells

...April 22, 2012 There are many similarities and also many differences when comparing photosynthesis and semiconductor based solar cells this paper will outline those these as well as give a description of the two cycles. I will also be defining the law of thermodynamics and explaining how it applies to photosynthesis and also semiconductor based solar cells harnessing solar energy. Photosynthesis is the process of converting solar energy into chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates. For photosynthesis to occur a few factors must be present such as water, carbon dioxide, chlorophyll, and light energy. Photosynthesis consists of two sets of reactions the first being the photo portion or light reaction which is the reaction that captures solar energy the second being the synthesis reaction or Calvin cycle reactions which converts that solar energy into carbohydrates (Mader, 2010). For light reactions to occur first light energy enters the cells and is absorbed by the chlorophyll. That Light energy raises the energy level chlorophyll enabling electrons to be freed form the chlorophyll molecules. This makes the chlorophyll molecules positively charged the electrons from hydrogen atoms are attracted to the positively chlorophyll causing water molecules to break apart into oxygen atoms. The elections freed from the chlorophyll and the protons freed from water take part in the chemical reactions in the cell. The reactions result in the production of adenosine triphosphate......

Words: 932 - Pages: 4

Comparing television. Throughout this article, the authors make an argument they think is important, but in all reality, most readers would not find this information important enough to hold their full attention due to the complicated wording, biased examples, and the very repetitive information. The authors begin the article with a brief abstract which summarizes what it is the readers can expect from their article. The article is broken down into sections which separate the different topics that the authors are discussing. On the top of page 203 in the article, the authors clearly state, “Building on this previous research, the current study examines whether female and male characters continue to inhabit traditionally sex-typed roles. Such analysis is important in light of the fact that popular press accounts regularly boast about the rapid evolution of the portrayals of gender in prime-time” (Lauzen, Dozier, Horan p.203). When constructing their research, the authors used a variety of different sources to attempt to make their point clear to the reader including past and more current studies. The sources include many female writers who explain how their field is dominated by males, and these firsthand sources give the reader confidence in the message the authors are trying to present. Toward the end of the article, they use their own method to calculate the stereotypes in the 124 shows they were using as examples, along with four hypotheses about what they might find.......

Words: 1100 - Pages: 5

Comparing Cells

...University of Phoenix Material Comparing Cell Cycles Complete the Cell Cycle charts below. Describe the events in each phase for Cell Cycle A. Compare the steps in mitosis and meiosis for Cell Cycle B. Cell Cycle A |Phase |Describe the events in each phase | |G1 (1st growth stage) |This is the portion of the cell cycle just after division, but before DNA synthesis. During this| | |time the cell grows by producing proteins and organelles. | |S (Synthesis) |DNA synthesis (or replication) occurs during this phase. At the beginning of the phase, each | | |chromosome is single. At the end, after DNA replication, each chromosome consists of two sister | | |chromatids | |G2 (2nd growth stage) |This third subphase of interphase is a period of metabolic activity and growth. During this | | |phase the cell makes final preparations for division. | |Prophase of mitosis |Prophase occupies over half of mitosis. The nuclear membrane breaks down to form a......

Words: 594 - Pages: 3


...Cell Structure and Function AbstractThis report is about cell structure and function. The cell is the basic unit of life. All living things are madeof cells. By doing this lab, I hoped to learn how a cell looked and how it functioned. I also wanted toknow the differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells Introduction The concept of this lab is producing a replica of an animal cell, and a plant cell. Producing the models of the cells helps to provide a better understanding of each cell and its contents also, to explore thedifferences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Cell theory states that all cells reproduce new cells,while passing their genetic information. In addition, cells make up all living things, metabolize energyand that the chemical make-up of cells is similar. The objectives for this lab are to gather the materials,which include gelatin packs, plastic bags, water, Tupperware, bowls, and some small various householditems. The other objectives are preparing the gelatin as directed, gathering the household items that willserve as cell organelles, pouring the gelatin in the bag and placing the items in the plastic bags. Thenplace the cell replicas in the refrigerator for 24 hours. Results After twenty-four hours, I removed the cell replicas from the refrigerator and observed them. They didnot look exactly like I planed but they were understandable. Discussion Replicating the cell structures provides better understand the structure......

Words: 403 - Pages: 2

Comparing Nude Women of Art from Different Eras

...Comparing Nude Women of Art from different eras It is surprising how different female body sculptures from different ancient civilizations are. The diverse forms of human body also embody many different functions and meanings. In art, naked figures reflect a very complex set of formal ideals, philosophical concerns, and cultural traditions. In this essay I would like to compare two sculptures of nude women. The first one is the Venus of Willendorf which was built in Paleolithic Period. Another is called the Venus of Milo carved in ancient Greece. The female body of the Venus of Willendorf depicts enlarged breasts, buttocks and genital, which represents fertility, while the body of Venus of Milo, on the other hand, demonstrates beauty and perfect proportions. Despite the difference characteristics and styles between them, they both represent the different view of the perfect female form. The most widely known female figurine, the Venus of Willendorf, with only 11cm in height, is possibly the smallest female nude sculpture we know. It is one of the most obese representations of the Paleolithic statuary. The Venus of Willendorf can be dated back to approximately the Paleolithic period, around 28,000 to 25,000 BCE. According to some analysis, it was obvious that it had once been “painted with red ochre”, a symbolic substance commonly found in connection with burials and grave goods from the same time period. It was made of Oolitic limestone. Her thighs are also large and......

Words: 1788 - Pages: 8

Comparing Two Different Os Systems upgraded versions ‘Bender’ and ‘Cupcake’ were also released. Google then adopted the trend of naming android versions after any dessert or a sweet in alphabetical order. The other releases are Donut, Éclair, Froyo, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice Cream Sandwich and Jelly Bean. Jelly Bean is so far the latest android version from google. Since the platform is not closed like IOS, there are too many great android apps built by developers. Just after stepping into the smart phone and tablets market Android gained immense popularity due to its beautiful appearance and efficient working. Many new features were introduced which played a significant role in Android’s success. Google Play is an official app market which contains millions of different apps for android devices. Samsung, HTC, Motorola and many other top manufacturers are using Android in their devices. Currently Android is one of the top operating systems and is considered a serious threat for iPhone. Read more: Top 10 Mobile Phones Operating Systems (mobile OS) Follow us: @denharsh on Twitter | shoutharsh on Facebook...

Words: 363 - Pages: 2


...Structures in All Eukaryotic Cells We're going to start with eukaryotic cells even though they tend to be more complex than prokaryotic. But, there is a method to our madness: you are a eukaryote and have eukaryotic cells, so we thought you might relate better. And, eukaryotic comes before prokaryotic alphabetically. Come up with whatever reasons you want for it, but eukaryotes are up first. Tough cookies. Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function A cell is defined as eukaryotic if it has a membrane-bound nucleus. Any organism composed of eukaryotic cells is also considered a eukaryotic organism. Case in point: You. Biologists do not know of any single organism on Earth that is composed of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. However, many different types of prokaryotic cells, usually bacteria, can live inside larger eukaryotic organisms. Creepy, but true. We humans, for example, have trillions of bacteria living in our colons, not to mention in our mouths and stomachs and small intestines and…you get the picture. Despite the fact that we have gobs of prokaryotic cells living inside and on us, humans are still categorically eukaryotic organisms. Deal with it. This means that all human cells, including those found in the brain, the heart, the muscles, and so on, are also eukaryotic. Here is what one of these little guys looks like: OK, we are slightly impressed. That is a lot of stuff jam-packed into something we can't see too well with the naked eye. All......

Words: 1363 - Pages: 6

Cell An introduction to the microscope and magnification MAGNIFICATION AND RESOLUTION Because cells are too small to be seen with the naked eye, the light microscope was developed to produce enlarged and more detailed images of cells. The magnification of an image is how much bigger it appears under the microscope than it is in real life, and is worked out using the following formula: magnification = image size ÷ actual size unit metre decimetre centimetre millimetre micrometre nanometre picometre symbol m dm cm mm μm nm pm metres 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000 001 0.000 000 001 0.000 000 000 01 However, magnification on its own does not increase the level of detail seen, it just increases the size. The term resolution refers to the ability to see two distinct points separately. For example, if the resolution of a light microscope is 200nm (0.2μm), this means it can see any two different points as separate objects if they are 200nm apart or more; but if they are any closer than this amount, they appear as one object. THE LIGHT MICROSCOPE Light microscopes use a number of lenses to produce an image that can be viewed directly at the eyepiece. Light passes from a bulb under the stage, through a condenser lens and then through the specimen. This beam of light is passed through an objective lens and then the eyepiece lens. The light microscope usually has a number of objective lenses which can be rotated into......

Words: 8313 - Pages: 34

Cell Anatomy

...Eukaryotic cells are not all the same size as seen by comparing the size of the cheek cell to the size of a fungi cell. This can also be observed in just the cells of the different kingdoms of eukaryotes: protists, fungi, plants, and animals. 4. As seen in the elodea cell it is possible to see the cell wall, chloroplasts, central vacuole, and nucleus in plant cells as well as the plasma membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm within animal cells. 5. In all of the cells it was possible to see a plasma membrane (clearly observed in the bacteria) that surrounds all cells and provides a barrier between the inside of the cell and the environment, cytoplasm that surrounds the chemicals and structures of a cell (example paramecium), as well as the small size of cells so the surface area and volume are proportional to each other to help maximize the efficiency of the cells. 6. In eukaryotic cell there is a nucleus present versus only the presence of genetic material in prokaryotic cells (example in cheek cell). Eukaryotic cells also have membrane bound organelles which allow compartmentalization within cells allowing eukaryotic cells to specialize (example seen in the elodea cells). Eukaryotic cells much larger than the size of prokaryotic cells (bacteria versus paramecium). 7. On a cellular level, the trend toward complexity is observed in the direction of increasing specialization. Starting with some of the most basic units of life seen in the bacteria cells there is......

Words: 410 - Pages: 2

Cell Biology

...the Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells by comparing their structure and function: It will talk about the similar components they have and their function of the two cells (prokaryotic and Eukaryotic) and then it will talk about the different components and their function in the cell. It will relate the structure to function in two specialised eukaryotic cells and the structure of the cell membrane to its function of movement of substances into and out of the cell. Regarding to the cell theory all living things are made of cells and all organisms may be classified as prokaryotes (before nucleus) or eukaryotes (true nucleus). Prokaryotes was developed first, they are small (size 1 to 10um) and they consist of one cell (unicellular) and it has no nucleus but instead it as a nucleoid which contains the genome (DNA of the cell). (Boundless 2015) (Look figure1) Eukaryotes come from prokaryotic cells and they are large (size 10 to 100um), highly structured, they consist of many cells (multicellular), has a nucleus which is the brain of the cell and it is enclosed in a nuclear envelope. The prokaryotic and Eukaryotes both have a Cell Membrane, Ribosomes, Cell Wall (in Eukaryotic it is present only in Animals) and Cytoplasm. The cell membrane is a thin flexible bilayer round the outside of all cells and it's made by phospholipids and proteins. Its function is to separate the contents of the cells from the outside environment. (AQA Biology 2012) The Cell Wall is composed of......

Words: 989 - Pages: 4


...Pascal Debowiak Mrs. Morse Comparing/Contrast Essay 02/03/16 The Environmental benefits of bicycling There are numerous reasons to own a car. Every day people drive a car to get to work, visit friends, buy groceries and complete many other chores. We are, like it or not, dependent on automobiles. However, bicycles are often a useful alternative and are more environmentally friendly. A car is but also costly and often difficult to pay for. To begin with, buying a two-year old car is smarter than purchasing a new one. After a new car depreciates a couple years, it can be purchased for thousands of dollars less. But whether buying new or used, the car’s cost is only part of the expense. Paying for insurance, maintenance, gas, and repairs adds significantly to the expense. Being able to repair a car yourself helps keep costs down, but there still is an expense. Costs of purchase, maintenance and repair aside, automobiles have an adverse effect on the environment that bicycles do not. Even before a car is driven it consumes energy. Automotive production leaves a giant footprint because materials such as steel, rubber, paints, plastics, and glass must be created before a new ride is ready to roll. But that’s not all; air quality suffers because vehicles are America’s biggest air quality compromisers, producing about one-third of all U.S air pollution. The also contribute to global warming. These findings have caused engineers to develop more eco-friendly cars for the future.......

Words: 666 - Pages: 3


...The structure and functions of Cell The purpose of this report is to explain the structure and functions of Cell. Cell is the basic unit of life and it contains other membrane-bound organelles structures that carry out specific functions necessary for normal cellular operation. Organelles have a wide range of roles and functions that include everything from producing hormones and enzymes to providing energy for Cells. Organelles Location Structure Functions Nucleus Centre - Nucleus is spherical in shape - Nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear envelope - Nucleus is separated from cytoplasm by double membrane - It functions as an intermediary when DNA replication is taking place during cell cycle. - It contains hereditary materials DNA and RNA - It directs activities of the cell such as growth, metabolism and reproduction. - It create different type of RNA from DNA in the process called Transcription - It is control centre of the cell Nucleolus Inside the Nucleus (Centre) - It is spherical in shape - It is made of Protein and RNA - It helps in synthesis of Ribosome - It helps in assembly of signal recognition particles in the cell - It helps in sensing stress in the cell Golgi body They are found in Cytoplasm of the cell - It is sac-like - It comprises stacks of membrane structure - It is involve in movement of Lipid molecules around the cell - It helps in process and package of macromolecules e.g. Protein - It modifies protein after Endoplasmic Reticulum......

Words: 614 - Pages: 3

This Time Is Different: Comparing Al-Qaeda’s Unique Place in the History of Terrorism with the Freedom Fighters of the Irish Republican Army

...“This Time is Different: Comparing Al-Qaeda’s Unique Place in the History of Terrorism with the Freedom Fighters of the Irish Republican Army” Al Qaeda and the Irish Republican Army are two of the most complex and famous terrorist organizations in modern history. While both groups share some principles with one another, and undoubtedly have committed and continue to commit horrible acts, the world’s perception of each is undoubtedly different from the other. There is an apparent contradiction in Karl Heinzen’s famous quote: “If to kill is always a crime, then it is forbidden equally to all; if it is not a crime, then it is permitted equally to all.”[1] This difference in public perception is a result of several key tenets of each organization’s strategy and structure. The IRA fights to protect and support the liberties of the Irish people, while Al Qaeda relies upon the religious doctrine of a radical Islamic minority to carry out jihad against Western infidels. Al Qaeda, while claiming to represent the entire Muslim world, has never had a real home or a consistent base to draw upon; inversely, a large proportion of the Irish people are steadfast in their support for the cause. Al Qaeda’s indiscriminate killing of innocent civilians has resulted in a falling out with a large percentage of its former supporters. Finally, the IRA had a distinct, tangible, and realistic goal of expelling the British from Ireland, while Al Qaeda seeks to establish a new caliphate based...

Words: 3638 - Pages: 15


...Stem cells: What they are and what they do Researchers believe stem cells offer great promise for new medical treatments. Learn about stem cell types, current and possible uses, ethical issues and the state of research. By Mayo Clinic staff You've heard about stem cells in the news, and perhaps you've wondered if they might help you or a loved one with a serious disease. You may wonder what stem cells are, how they're being used to treat disease and injury, and why they're the subject of such vigorous debate. Here are some answers to frequently asked questions about stem cells. Why is there such an interest in stem cells? Researchers hope stem cell studies can help to: * Increase understanding of how diseases occur. By watching stem cells mature into cells that eventually become bones, heart muscle, nerve cells, and other organs and tissue, researchers and doctors may better understand how a variety of diseases and conditions develop. * Generate healthy cells to replace diseased cells (regenerative medicine). Researchers hope they can train stem cells into becoming specific cells so that those specialized cells can be used to regenerate and repair diseased or damaged tissues in people. People who might benefit from stem cell therapies include those with spinal cord injuries, type 1 diabetes, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, heart disease, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and multiple sclerosis. Stem cells could also be grown to become......

Words: 19974 - Pages: 80


...Comparing Oedipus and Othello For Oedipus and Othello “duty” should have their first priority. Othello’s duty was supposed to be the importance of his marriage, but he listened to Iago, ignored Desdemona, didn’t believe his own conscience, and his own heart. Oedipus’ duty was to defeat the Sphinx(which he does) free Thebes from heavy taxes(which he does) be a great king of Thebes and be a good husband, but instead he offends Creon, his brother-in-law and uncle; insults his friend, Tiresias the blind prophet; kills his father; and destroys Jocasta, his mother and his queen. Fatal flaws demolished the lives of both Oedipus and Othello. Othello was so proud of his honor and bravery that he didn’t recognize his violent temper and Iago’s mind tricks. Oedipus was so proud of his cleverness that he tried so hard to escape his own fate. With all that said, these were honestly just a couple of comparable traits between Oedipus and Othello. When looking for a great leader that would lead your city through anything and everything it is not hard to tell that both Oedipus and Othello could be those leaders. Both had great gifts in leadership. They stood up in what they believed in. Each held exceptional accomplishments and both possessed the ability to be an all-around leader. Othello was a respectable citizen who was usually known for his fighting or war success. He knew how and what the goal was to succeed. Not all leaders knew that. Oedipus was also somewhat the same. He,......

Words: 1011 - Pages: 5

Riverdale | Coldplay - Hymn for the Weekend | Not Kansas