Complex

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Комплексни съединения
Основни понятия. Класификация. Номенклатура. Комплексните съединения спадат към групата на съединенията от по-висок порядък , към които се причисляват и двойните соли. Те са вещества с изключително разнообразно приложение. Различни комплексни (координативни) съединения , изпълняват различни функции в човешкият и в животинските организми. Те играят роля и в живота на растенията. Почти всички биокатализатори са комплексни съединения. Много от реакциите в аналитичната химия също се основават на получаване на комплексни съединения. Интересни и разнообразни са свойствата , които притежават тези вещества , обяснението на които изисква да се познават техният състав и строеж. Изучените теории – методът на валентните връзки и методът на молекулните орбитали , позволяват да се разкрият редица особености на този важен клас съединения. Комплексните съединения се наричат още координационни (координативни) съединения.
Строеж и природа на химичната връзка в комплексните съединения. Основни понятия. Ако към разтвор на меден сулфат (син камък) се прибави разтвор на амоняк, се наблюдава получаване на тъмносин разтвор (синият цвят на разтвора се углъбява). Причината е образуването на комплексното съединение тетрааминмеден (ІІ) сулфат [Cu(NH3)4]SO4. Процесът може да се изрази с уравнението:

От формулата на полученото съединение се вижда , че се свързва непосредствено с молекулите на . Връзката се осъществява чрез предоставената от N атом готова електронна двойка. Механизмът , по който се образува химичната връзка е донорно – акцепторен. N – атомът е донорът, а са акцепторът. Първата теория за строежа на комплексните съединения е предложена от швейцарският химик Алфред Вернер (1893). Според него комплексните съединения могат да се разглеждат , като съединения съставени от вътрешна и външна координационна сфера.
Всяко…...

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