Comsumer Policy in Eu

In: Business and Management

Submitted By amurphy91
Words 978
Pages 4
Ireland in Europe
Consumer Policy

The European Union has over 490 million consumers.[i]According to the European Consumer Centre Ireland, European consumers are the largest single economic group within the EU single market. They account for a staggering 58% of EU GDP.[ii]The main aim of consumer policy is to unite all 27 markets into 1 single market where consumers feel confident to purchase outside country borders. Both consumers and businesses will benefit from consumer policy. The slogan “A Single Market puts the Consumer and Small Businesses First “was accompanied with an EU report published in 2007.[iii]Consumer Policy has been included in a variety of EU legislation. The European Commission believes that if consumers are empowered they are able to make more informed decisions. This will improve the competitiveness of the market. If the market is more competitive it means that businesses will become more effective in terms of efficiency and innovation

EU consumer policy has been a developing issue and has advanced through a variety of treaties. Consumer policy was first recognised in the Maastricht Treaty in 1992.Product Safety became a main issue in article 153 of the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997.The European Commission has had a leading role in the implementation of consumer policy. It introduced and action plan for consumer policy 1999-2001.This action policy was focused on food safety related issues as well as completion policy and market integration issues. The Commission admitted in 2001 that their previous efforts regarding consumer policy were lacking and insured that consumer policy would now be a “central element of overall EU policy development”[iv]The Commission then became aware that they needed to implement a more rigorous and involved strategy regarding consumer policy. The Consumer Policy Strategy 2002-2006 was developed. This strategy set…...

Similar Documents

History of Eu

...Brief History of EU In 1957, the “Six” countries Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and West Germany signed the Treaties of Rome which establish the European Economic Community,(ECC) establishing a customs union and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for cooperation in developing nuclear energy. In 1967 the Merger Treaty created a single set of institutions for the three communities, collected referred as European Community (EC). The EC was enlarged in 1973 when Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom became members. The first direct election for European Parliament took place in 1979. Greece became member in 1981, Spain and Portugal in 1986. What were the four freedoms of the EC? (main idea behind EU) Goods, services, capital, and labor and would adopt a common policy toward nonmember trading partners and on agriculture transport. What was the main objective of The Single European Act? The Single European Act was signed in Luxembourg in 1986. The main objective was to create the Single Market with European Commission by the end of 1992. What was the significant of the Treaty of Maastricht in the EU? The Treaty of Maastricht was signed in Netherland in 1991. The Treaty of Maastricht created the European Union and the single currency though out Europe. What were the assumptions of the Cecchini Report? This report is the analysis of the benefits and costs anticipated from the European economic integration. The report......

Words: 948 - Pages: 4

Accession to Eu

...| The accession of Croatia to EU: A timely change for EU? | | | | | | Introduction This paper discusses the path of Croatia to the European Union. It explains all the different challenges Croatia faced in order to be able to comply with the EU standards and obligations. There is the Fundamental Rights chapter that presents the arguments that showing the great effort that Croatia has put in adopting new frameworks in all areas of the chapter. After, there are the benefits and risks that Croatia could face after EU accession. Some concerns about the economic crisis are mentioned from the public opinion and other EU members’ point of view. Finally there is a conclusion explaining what Croatia could benefit from or be deprived of by joining the EU, followed by a last explanation if there are still challenges in the political criteria. The path to the European Union The war in Croatia cost them loss of a whole decade in the path to European Union. In particular the war was detrimental for the economy. Was Croatia lagging behind to meet EU standards back then? Was there enough stability or any limitations toward accession to EU? The first step towards EU was on 29th October 2001 when Croatia signed the Stabilisation and Association Agreement in Luxembourg, becoming a potential candidate for joining the EU. All candidates which aim in joining the EU have to adopt the EU’s legal patrimony known as acquis which contains 31 chapters. The process of......

Words: 2582 - Pages: 11

Perspectives on Eu Competition Policy

...Perspectives on EU Competition Policy Table of Contents Introduction 1 The 1989 Merger Regulation, Neofunctionalism and Spillover 2 M&As at the National and EC level 1983-1990 5 The Need for an Additional Approach: Regulation 1/2003 and New Institutionalism 6 Conclusion 9 Bibliography 10 Introduction Competition policy is a major policy area within the European Union (EU), and it has been a core executive function for the European Commission since 1962. Being an area of exclusive competence of the EU and with the Directorate-General of Competition (DG Competition) firmly in power, it constitutes an interesting case for understanding the European integration process and the contemporary consequences for business. Two major policy changes, in 1989 and in 2003, make it possible to investigate how to accurately explain the development in the area. I argue that until 2003, neofunctionalism offers the best analytical tools for understanding the process, as it accurately explains and predicts the expansion of the policy competences of the DG Competition through a variety of spillover-effects, mainly from the Single Market. But while neofunctionalism is analytically advantageous at the macro-level, it is applicable only to a point, as it cannot explain the apparent decentralization of executive power taking place with the introduction of Regulation 1/2003. Here more power was delegated to the national competition authorities (NCAs) at the surface, but at the same......

Words: 4498 - Pages: 18

The Impact of Eu Cohesion Policy in Greece from 2000 to 2006:the Cases of Two Greek Municipalities.

...Description of the topic General View Cohesion policy in the European Union has the intended purpose of reducing differences between the member states in matters of economic, social and territorial importance and works to ensure that each region achieves its full potential. Moreover, Article 174 of the Lisbon Treaty states that the policy aims to promote ‘overall harmonious development’ of the EU through the ‘strengthening of its economic, social and territorial cohesion’. According to the European Commission, ignoring the disparities that are apparent across the EU would undermine the single market and single currency, justifying the large percentage of the budget that is spent on these policies . The Greek Case As we know Greek regions have benefited from the inflow of community funds since 1981,when Greece joined the European Union. At this point we believe that we have to present briefly the main funding that Greece has received from 1986 to 2006.Firstly, we have to mention the Mediterranean Integrated Programmes (MIPs) from 1986 to 1993,which <<pushed>> the available funds to small infrastructure projects in Greece. Moreover, we have also to state that the 1994-1999 Community Support Framework, gave the incentives to the country to implement the major infrastructure projects of national character. These infrastructures (railway network,ports,highways) helped Greece not only to connect with other countries but also to be prepared to enter in the......

Words: 3900 - Pages: 16

Eu Competition Policies – Which Instruments Does the Eu Use in Order to Create Healthy Competition?

...Throughout the development of the globalized economy, the EU has become a very attractive market for many companies around the world as producing and selling products in the EU becomes more popular. The EU has developed different competition policies in order to review, prevent or prosecute any anti-competitive behaviour and to protect the customer’s welfare. The challenge the EU now faces is how to achieve healthy competition and maintain customer welfare without derogating the free market. In the following, I will give an overview of the instruments which the EU uses to do so. It is stated in the Report on Competition Policy 2008 that “cartels are amongst the most serious violation of competition law”. Cartels have a profound negative impact on competition, pricing and innovation because they shield their participants from external competition, which allows them to raise prices, divide the market or limit production, which in turn can harm the consumer’s freedom of choice. Hence, companies have to pay high fines when the EU uncovers their cartels. Another problem the EU has to deal with is the monopolising positions of some firms. The abuse of such a position influences free competition and affects the consumer’s choice. Monopolists often try to create an unattractive market for competitors i.e. through dumping. A recent example of abuse of a monopolising position was the Microsoft case from 2007. During this case, the Commission made “a decision concluding that......

Words: 488 - Pages: 2

Study on Eu

...European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 member states which are located primarily in Europe, currently under the presidency of Herman Van Rompuy. Its capital is de facto Brussels. The EU operates through a system of supranational independent institutions and intergovernmental negotiated decisions by the member states. Important institutions of the EU include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the European Central Bank. The European Parliament is elected every five years by EU citizens. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), formed by the Inner Six countries in 1951 and 1958 respectively. In the intervening years the community and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. The Maastricht Treaty established the European Union under its current name in 1993. The latest amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. The EU has developed a single market through a standardized system of laws which apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area passport controls have been abolished. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on......

Words: 4447 - Pages: 18

The Difficulty of Eu Policy Reform on the Example of Cap and Regional Policy

... European Public Policy PO 886 Schneider Second essay 4612 words (excluding references) Why does the EU find it difficult to reform its policies? Answer with reference to two policy areas of your choice. UNIVERSITY OF KENT 2007-2008 There is something strange about European Union policies: they are always reformed and they always need to be reformed further. This is due to the fact that these reforms concern mainly the form and not so much the content. The seven objectives of the regional policy have been replaced by three objectives in the 2000-2006 budgetary perspective, which have themselves been converted into three principles for the 2007-2013 period but it did not leqd to any revolutionary change. The CAP has been reformed in 1984, 1988, 1992, 1999, and 2003, but the principle of protecting agriculture from market forces remained intact. Scholars, especially economists, often criticise this inertia claiming that real reforms are necessary to avoid huge economic costs and to ensure a long-term development. Why is it so difficult to reform EU policies? What are the factors encouraging these reforms and those leading to their lack? We have chosen the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the regional policy to tackle this question......

Words: 5528 - Pages: 23

The Eu

...and Answers Summary The European Union (EU) is a political and economic partnership that represents a unique form of cooperation among sovereign countries. The Union is the latest stage in a process of integration begun after World War II, initially by six Western European countries, to foster interdependence and make another war in Europe unthinkable. Today, the EU is composed of 27 member states, including most of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, and has helped to promote peace, stability, and economic prosperity throughout the European continent. The EU has been built through a series of binding treaties, and over the years, EU member states have sought to harmonize laws and adopt common policies on an increasing number of economic, social, and political issues. EU member states share a customs union, a single market in which goods, people, and capital move freely, a common trade policy, and a common agricultural policy. Seventeen EU member states use a common currency (the euro). In addition, the EU has been developing a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), which includes a Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP), and pursuing cooperation in the area of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) to forge common internal security measures. EU member states work together through common institutions to set policy and to promote their collective interests. Key EU institutions include the European Council, composed of EU Heads of State or Government, which acts as......

Words: 8592 - Pages: 35

The Eu

...(Murray, 2011). In fact, Peter Schmitt-Egner identified the process undertaken by the EU as transnational regionalism, as it seeks to 1: Utilize European integration as arena for transnational learning to foster internal regional development and; 2: Enhance regional competence to create a ‘Europe of Regions of Citizens’ (Schmitt-Egner, 2002). For Europe, regional integration has presented itself as a window of opportunity that allows for: “outward looking trade policy, internal competitiveness and involvement in cross-border agreements” (Downs, 2002). Traditionally, this European model based on competitiveness and biggest commercial trading powers in the world, rendering Europe to become the most important regional zone with total exports and imports representing upwards of 40% word trade (Sava, 2006). However, the combination of free trade regimes within the Union and protectionist attitude taken to affairs outside of it will only be successful so long as Europe has the capacity to dictate trade (Murray, 2011). Increasing cooperating of emerging powers of BRICS nations including that of Russia, China, India, South Africa and Brazil has proven to continually push the limits of the EU’s ability to address the global challenges of multilateralism (Molchanov, 2007). To cope with this, enlargement of the Union and the Eurozone further into Eastern Europe provides a potential solution to render the EU more competitive with access to larger labour pools reducing costs for......

Words: 1667 - Pages: 7

Why Is Regional Development Considered to Be an Important Eu Policy?

...Why is regional development considered to be an important EU policy? “The mission in the Directorate General for Regional Policy is to strengthen economic, social and territorial cohesion by reducing disparities in the level of development among regions and Member States. This means investing in regions’ indigenous potential to promote the competitiveness of regional economies and the permanent catch-up of those lagging behind the more prosperous areas” (http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/regional_policy/index_en.htm) I chose this essay as I found it very interesting to learn about how and why the EU develops regions when I was doing my presentation for this module. I found it surprising to discover just how important an EU policy it is and to learn why both poorer and wealthier regions require development funding, often for very different reasons. My aims for this essay are firstly to give an insight into the history of EU policy over the past fifty years, with particular reference to the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) that was established in 1975. I will then begin with examples from Ireland, in regions where the EU consider development an important policy. From there, I will contrast this development with poorer regions in Europe, where regional development is now a major EU priority (especially regarding new Member States). As I conclude, I will highlight current and future regional development actions of the European Union. During the period 1957-1988, the......

Words: 2071 - Pages: 9

Role of Social Dialogue in Employment Policies of Eu

...[Name] Role of Social Dialogue In Employment Policies Of The EU. [Course] [Instructor] [University Affiliation] [Date] ROLE OF SOCIAL DIALOGUE IN EMPLOYMENT POLICIES OF THE EU. Introduction. Evidence from various countries from the past three decades of European integration indicated that EU level social dialogue indeed plays an imperative role in the advancement of the social model of the Union. This is done through the delivery of benefits from the workers, workers as well as for the economy and the entire society as a whole . October 2011 marked the 20th anniversary of the agreement between social partners which was later officially enshrined on the mashsrctictt treat ( Alter, 1998). This lead to the establishment of procedures for governance of the labor and management on shaping as well s executing the EU employment as well as social policies (Bailey,2009). According to (Armingeon,et al. 2008), the European social dialogue entails the discussions , negotiations , consultations and joint actions that involve the organizations that represent two sides of the European industries, namely the worker sad the employers. The EU social dialogue primarily takes two forms: • The tripartite dialogue that entails the public authorities • The bipartite dialogue between the trade union organizations and the European employers. Usually this happens across the cross industry levels and also within the sectoral committees of social dialogue As an ......

Words: 3349 - Pages: 14

Implementation of Eu Values, Policies and Standards in the Local Community in Serbia

...with the realization of the project "Implementation of EU values, policies and standards in the local community." European values, policies and standards in the local community The project is designed in accordance with the current status of Serbia in the process of Euro-integration. The ratification of the Stabilization and Association Agreement Serbia has pledged to implement comprehensive reforms through harmonization of national legislation with the EU acquits. "Action Plan for the harmonization of the laws of the Republic of Serbia with the EU in 2007" provides for the first stage of harmonization, which implies changes and the adoption of 44 laws, which are mainly related to the field of food safety, environmental protection and consumer protection. The new laws provide for the adoption of European standards, which are largely different from the existing standards in Serbia. All these innovations will be necessary to implement at all levels, and their most direct impact will be seen at the local level by improving the quality of life of citizens. The project aims to better understand the process of European integration, as well as the efficient implementation of European values, policies and standards, which concern primarily the protection of consumers, the environment and food safety. The program consisted of four areas: • "About the European Union" - about the history of Euro-integration, the EU institutions, decision-making, regional cooperation,......

Words: 645 - Pages: 3

How and to What Extend Has the Eu Become a Social Policy Regime?

...Unit: Comparative and Global Social Policy (SP1) Assignment Title: How and to what extend has the EU become a social policy regime? Submission Date: 28/01/2014 Table of Content 1. Introduction 3 2. Definition of Social Policy 3 3. Key characteristics of social policy in the European Union 4 4. How has the European Union become a social policy regime? 5 5. To what extend has the European Union become a social policy regime? 7 6. Conclusion 9 Reference List 9 Introduction Every European Union member states have their own social policies yet the European Union has a significant influence on the member state’s social policies development as the EU tries to align and harmonise policies within the EU to achieve same or similar standards and levels in the member states. This assignment discusses the main characteristics of the EU social policy and explains how and to what extend has the European Union becomes a social policy regime. Definition of Social Policy It is fairly difficult to define social policy as there is no agreed, unified and specific definition of social policy. But the term is more defined by its traditional content and areas it contains, and it is associated with welfare. Yet scientist, researchers and authors attempt......

Words: 2675 - Pages: 11

Eu & Tr Trade and Policies

...EU & Turkey, Trade and Policies, Summary Chapter 1: The formation of the European Union United Europe has been the vision of many statesmen since the Roman Empire, and more recently of philosophers/politicians (17th century (). Winston Churchill; spoke of European Federation (1951) but true fathers of borderless continent were: Robert Schuman and Jean Monnet (supported/complemented by Paul Henri Spaak and Jacques Delores). Why was Europe created: They wanted to avoid repetition of wars between Europeans (especially avoid another conflict between France and Germany). Germany wasn’t punished because Americans learned from WWI. To avoid repetitions politicians/intellectuals came up with free commerce, democracy, and individual freedoms. The sincere collaboration (early 1950s until today) made peaceful Europe possible. They also wanted to rebuild Europe equitably after WWII, to share vital resources to mutual benefit, to counter threat of communism, to leverage with USSR and US, and eliminate acute nationalism and racism. The importance of the EU to Turkey: 1. number 1 trading partner for Turkey 2. one of 4 world’s major powers 3. Turkey aspires to join the EU 4. Turkey needs Europe to be democratic 1951 – Paris (ECSC) 1st form of Europe-wide collaboration among states was ECSC (European Coal & Steel Community) in 1951 and was developed in free trade and commerce within the newly formed EEC (European Economic Community). ECSC was created......

Words: 6207 - Pages: 25

The Basic Differences in the Competition Policies of Us and the Eu

...The basic differences in principles between US and EU in competition policy For the topic of my essay I have chosen the differences between the US and the EU in the competition policy. First of all I would like to start my paper with the explanation of competition policy: what is it about, why is it necessary, why is it good for us. So what is competition policy? It should guarantee an equal competition between the companies on the market, based on their products and prices and none of them should have any unfair advantage as against the others. Under competition businesses have to offer the best quality products and at the best possible price to gain profit otherwise consumers can and will choose another company. There is a big pressure on the businesses and they often try to make their position safer with the bypassing of rules. With competition policy they try to avoid this anti-competitive behavior and to ensure perfect competition. The instruments which are used to avoid competition: -agreements between companies that restrict competition (for example cartels) -misuse of a dominant position (squeezing competitors out of market) -mergers -liberalisation of state-run monopolies -financial support for companies. These are the most important ones that the authority has to pay attention to. Why is it necessary and good? From the business side it is positive because they are motivated to be more efficient and more enterprising. From a consumer point of view we...

Words: 4356 - Pages: 18

Aladdin (1992) BluRay - 720p - Original Auds [Telugu + Tamil + Hindi + En | VW POLO 9N 1,2 GOAL Ausstattung Bj 2006. | Hand of God