Consider Emile Durkheim’s Approach to the Study of Suicide. Why Does He Associate Egoistic Suicide with Modern Society and Altruistic Suicide with Pre-Modern Suicide?

In: Social Issues

Submitted By colmflower
Words 1319
Pages 6
Consider Emile Durkheim’s approach to the study of suicide. Why does he associate egoistic suicide with modern society and altruistic suicide with pre-modern suicide?
Emile Durkheim goes to great lengths in this article to describe the many different types of suicide and how they affect society. He believes that social influences have a large part to play with suicide rates in different countries. He looks to take the matter away from the individual and focus on how and why suicide rates among different classes, genders, and age groups are similar throughout different countries. Durkheim goes on to discuss the different reasons why people may commit suicide. These include people been over- integrated into society or altruistic suicide, under integrated into society or egotistic suicide, having too much moral regulation or fatalistic suicide and having too little moral regulation or anomic suicide. This assignment will discuss all these different factors and will comment on why Durkheim associates different types of suicide to different types of suicide.
Durkheim defines suicide as “The term suicide is applied to all cases of death resulting directly or indirectly from a positive or a negative act of the victim himself, which he knows will produce this result” (E. Durkheim, suicide: A Study in Sociology, pg 214). A positive action like shooting or stabbing oneself is the same as refusing to eat food knowing that you will die as a direct result of your actions or non actions. There are exceptions to this definition. Durkheim takes the influence away from individual cases and concentrates on the individual in society. He looks at how certain influences in society can influence a person in society. He does not consider the emotional side of suicide but he looks at the details and quotas of “voluntary deaths” that are posted by each country. This is the reason he…...

Similar Documents


...You Are Not Alone Did he do the right thing? I will lie in bed and think long and hard about the decisions he made. Even though it is impossible to put myself in his shoes I try to think and put together the reasoning of his actions. We all ask ourselves the same fundamental question, why? Years ago, our team gathered for another baseball practice. It was one week until are first sub state game against City High, the crosstown rival. We were missing one player for practice on this hot summer day. It was Jeremy, our outfielder. Jeremy has always been the quiet one on the team but never falls short when it comes to being on time and working hard. Today he was not on time. Jeremy had been going through tough times in the past two weeks, issues with the girlfriend, close family members along with trouble in school. On this day all the elements were combined to push Jeremy over the edge and into another world. Jeremy had not been answering his phone for the past hours. Even calls from his parents went unanswered. We went out looking for him, going places where we thought he would be. One of the players said he likes to go down to the river and drive around on his four-wheeler, so we headed down there. We found Jeremy’s four-wheeler. We walked up to his four-wheeler and saw a note with a picture of his girlfriend. “You were the most beautiful girl in the world to me, no one will ever make my heart beat as fast as you do. Mom, dad, I’m sorry for what I have done. ...

Words: 986 - Pages: 4

Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere, Assess the Usefulness of Different Sociological Approaches to Suicide.

...Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the usefulness of different sociological approaches to suicide. Suicide can be defined as an intentional act of killing oneself, it is thought that the study of suicide would be more appropriate to be studied by psychologists since the main reason of suicide is the consequence of mental illness. However, a positivist sociologist, Emile Durkheim rejected this view. He believes that suicide has social causes and is a social fact that has predictable patterns. Nonetheless, this is a controversial topic and there are many other sociologists who have contributed to the study by offering their own points of view of how to categorising and interpreting data. We shall discuss their different approaches further in this essay. As it is said, Durkheim rejects the psychological theories of suicide; evidently he shows that while Jews had higher rates of mental illness than Protestants, they had lower suicide rates. In Durkheim’s view, our behaviour is constrained by social facts – according to Steven Lukes, they are greater and out of reach of individuals and they shape our behaviours. These social facts vary in different groups and societies, explaining the differences in suicide rate. There are two social facts that determine the rate of suicide: social integration, which is the extent to which individuals experience a sense of belonging to a group and obligation to its members. They feel a strong bond and duty towards others. The......

Words: 2130 - Pages: 9


...Suicide is the action of intentionally killing oneself. According to statistics, there has bee a significant increase of 80% suicides, since the previous year. Durkheim believed that suicide rates were dependent on social factors, related to both scientific laws and facts, such as religion, education and the media. Durkheim conducted a range of research to prove these predictions. For example, he found that Catholics had lower suicide rates than Protestants. From these findings concluded that suicide is caused by social factors such as too little/too much social integration and too little/too much moral regulation. Within the Catholic Church suicide is seen as a sin therefore due to this religious tie Catholics are less likely to commit suicide. Additionally, an example of suicide based on too much moral regulation is Palestinian suicide bombings. According to Durkheim, these two social factors create a typology of suicide. Altruistic suicide is due to too much social integration. Egoistic suicide is due to too little social integration. Fatalistic suicide is due to too much moral regulation. Anomic suicide is due to too little moral regulation. Furthermore, many positivists have built on Durkheim’s work. Including Sainsbury who found that social disorganisation, Anomic suicide, was the most popular type of suicide and Hallowach who found urban to rural changes make Egoistic suicide more likely. Durkheim’s work, being a Positivist, made making generalisations......

Words: 657 - Pages: 3

Teen Suicide

...Position Paper Teen Suicide 04 November 2014 Instructor: Course: Identification of the Issue The term suicide is defined as the intentional taking of your own life, or by deliberate inaction, allowing your life to be taken (according to The ways people commit suicide varies, but the act of suicide itself remains the same. Some people overdose on prescription pills, slit their wrists, shoot themselves the list goes on. In 2010, The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that suicide is the third leading cause of death for college aged youth and ages 12-18. Teenagers experience low self esteem issues as a result of peer pressure, bullying, love lost, stress and confusion within the family whether it is due to divorce, financial uncertainty, domestic abuse or substance abuse. And for these reasons teens may associate suicide with being the solution to their problem. Causes for the Problem The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collected data in 2012 (most recent year for which data was obtained), 40,600 suicides were reported, making suicide the 10th leading cause of death for Americans. In that year someone in the United States died by suicide every 12.9 minutes. Shockingly, after cancer and heart disease, suicide accounts for more years of life lost than any other cause of death. Statistics also shows that males are twice more likely to commit suicide than females. As far as ethnicity rates,...

Words: 2280 - Pages: 10


...I. Introduction Suicide comes from the Latin word “Suicidium” from Sui caedere which means “to kill oneself” is the act of intentionally causing one’s own death. Suicide is often committed out of despair or attributed to some underlying mental disorder, such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and alcoholism or drug abuse. Over one million people die by suicide every year. It is a leading cause of death among teenagers and adult under 35. The rate of suicide is far higher in men than women, with males worldwide three to four times more likely to kill themselves than females. There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year worldwide. Views of suicide have been influenced by broader cultural views on existential themes such as religion, honor, and the meaning of life. The Abrahamic religions traditionally consider suicide an offense towards God due to the belief in the sanctity of life. It was often regarded as a serious crime and that view remains commonplace in modern western thought. However, before the rise of Christianity, suicide was not seen as automatically immoral in ancient Greek and Roman culture. Conversely, during the Samurai in Japan, Seppuku was respected as a means of failure or as a form of protest. Sati is a Hindu funeral practice, now out lamed, in which the widow was expected to immolate herself on their husband’s funeral pyre, either......

Words: 461 - Pages: 2


...CHAPTER ONE TOPIC The Impact of Suicide among East Indian Males in Johanna Black Bush Polder. 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY “Suicide” is a constant threat in the Guyanese society. Apart from these stolen lives there are also those living with permanent mental and also physical scars from unsuccessful attempts. Everyday in Guyana people are attempting suicide and this trend continues to present itself. According to Danns (2001) an amazing 76.2 % of suicide deaths are from the East Indian community. Suicide among East Indian males in over the years have increased. There has been outcry from the entire community because of the impact that this phenomena has on the family and the neighboorhood. This suicidal tendency has created fear and a sense of desperation thinking of whom or what will be next. Suicide has and is still a constant problem in Guyana. There has been over the years scored of suicidal attempts and its impact is devastating. East Indian men are regularly committing suicide especially in the County of Berbice. Macionis (1999) defines suicide as “the act of deliberately killing oneself and the cause of action is extremely damaging to one’s interest. However, Granello (2007) said that suicide is the act of killing oneself. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Suicide is often seen as a minor issue in society but when carefully analyzed it was revealed that it has devastating effects on the families, the communities and even a nation. For examples......

Words: 1938 - Pages: 8

Paradox of Suicide

..._ Instructor: Tai Woo Recently, the matter of suicide has come up in several conversations and throughout a media. Yet, the question as to why people commit suicide remains controversial and boundless. There are twice as many suicides in the U.S each year than homicide. After listening to the intrigue podcast “The Paradox of Suicide”, I have developed some thoughts and some new understanding about suicide. So the first thing I ask myself when I think of suicide is why do people do it? This seems to be the question on everyone’s mind. It is extremely hard for me to understand how something can drive a person to a state of mind where they outweigh the value of living. What has pushed them to the limit where the only solution to relieve themselves of the pain is to kill themselves? In the podcast, they interview college professor Dante Everest who has travelled to a tribe in the Amazon jungle to learn more about how people there take on suicide. After Dante tells about his mother’s suicide and explain how it made a huge impact on him to the people of the tribe, they burst to laugh and feel as if the concept of a person voluntarily killing themselves is lubricous and unheard of. It is hard not to compare the tribe in the amazon that has a zero suicide rate, to the U.S which has a 35,500 suicide rate each year. So the next thing comes to my mind is why? Why does the community in the small Amazonian tribe have a zero tolerance for suicide? The people of the tribe have explained......

Words: 890 - Pages: 4


...Teen Suicide Research Paper People need to be informed on why teens commit suicide and what signs to look for. Teens are slowly slipping away because of this deadly subject and people need to start noticing. Sometimes people can get caught up in their own personal lives and not even notice when a loved one is considering suicide. In the seven articles read, there were a variety of things that people seem to overlook often. Why teens are committing suicide and what people can do to help victims who are considering, are two main points that are important for people to know. In a Kids Health article about teen suicide, it talks about teen suicide and different things people need to know about it.  According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, suicide is the third leading cause of death for 15 to 24 year-olds. Most of the time, people don’t realize that they could have helped a victim because they didn’t know any of the warning signs. The article goes on to talk about the risks of suicide, that 60% of all suicide in America are used with a gun. This is why no one should ever have a gun unlocked or kept in a place where it is easily out of reach. In 1996, more teenagers and young adults died of suicide than from cancer, heart disease, AIDS, birth defects, stroke, pneumonia and influenza, and chronic lung disease combined .In 1996, suicide was the second-leading cause of death among college students, the third-leading cause of death among those aged 15 to 24 years,...

Words: 3883 - Pages: 16

Suicide-as a Deviant Act

...Deviance Final paper 18/12/2015 Suicide as a form of deviant behavior Introduction Deviant behavior is defined as any behavior or an act that goes against the established certain social norms in one specific society. As norms change in time, so does the description of deviant behavior. Deviant behavior as an element of social life is the subject of sociology and social psychology. The history of sociology of deviance is presented in a variety of monographs, textbooks and articles ( Ivanova E., 2014 ). However it is poor reflected in the history of Kyrgyz sociological studies of deviance as well as in the formation of Kyrgyz sociology of deviance. Sociology of deviant behavior and suicide behavior holds a strong position as a special theory of suicide within the structure of sociological knowledge (Problem of sociological research, pg. 1). Suicide can be seen as the ultimate deviant act. So it is important to know how it is measured in official statistics. According to the latest World Health Ranking data published in May 2014 Suicide Deaths in Kyrgyzstan reached 1.43% of total deaths. The age adjusted Death Rate ranks of Kyrgyzstan is 79th in the world (World Health Organization, 2015). This paper focuses on suicidal behaviour within the traditional society of Kyrgyzstan. According to established norms and values of traditional society the suicide attempt is extremely shameful and it is a form of deviant behaviour.......

Words: 2504 - Pages: 11


... SUICIDE RISK ASSESSMENT GUIDE REFERENCE MANUAL INTRODUCTION The Suicide Risk Assessment Pocket Card was developed to assist clinicians in all areas but especially in primary care and the emergency room/triage area to make an assessment and care decisions regarding patients who present with suicidal ideation or provide reason to believe that there is cause for concern. This reference guide provides more specific information and the rationale for the sections on the pocket card. The sections of the guide correspond with the sections of the card. The Reference Guide may also be used as a teaching aid for new providers, residents and students at all levels and disciplines as well as other caregivers. This introduction provides general information regarding the nature and prevalence of suicidal behaviors and factors associated with increased risk for suicide and suicide attempts. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors (including suicide attempts and death by suicide) are commonly found at increased rates among individuals with psychiatric disorders, especially major depressive disorder, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, PTSD, anxiety, chemical dependency, and personality disorders (e.g., antisocial and borderline). A history of a suicide attempt is the strongest predictor of future suicide attempts, as well as death by suicide. Intentional self-harm (i.e., intentional self-injury without the expressed intent to die) is also associated with long-term risk for repeated......

Words: 4773 - Pages: 20

Assess Different Sociological Explanations of Suicide

... Assess different sociological explanations of suicide The study of suicide has a unique place in sociology because it was the subject that Durkheim chose to use in order to demonstrate that sociology had its own distinctive contribution to understanding human behaviour. Early Positivists such as Comte and Durkheim argued that sociology was a science therefore they believed that its studies should mirror that of the natural sciences. They advocated scientific and logical methods in order to find law like generalizable patterns and cause & effect relationships. New Positivists aim to develop their theories, whereas Interpretivists sought to abolish this they criticise this theory as such methods are at the expense of actors individual meanings Durkheim suggested that suicide was a social fact. Features of a social facts are that they are external and greater than the individual, they constraint their behaviour therefore shaping the way they act. He argued that factors e.g. climate had no effect on suicide rates. He also claimed that psychological theories were inadequate as he rejects the views that only psychological factors can explain the differences in suicide rates taking the macro structuralist approach. In order to show evidence of his theory Durkheim studied the suicide rates of Catholics and Protestants in the 19th century he found that suicide rates remained constants and rates varied between different groups. He measured social integration and moral......

Words: 982 - Pages: 4

Assess the Usefulness of Sociological Approaches to Suicide (21)

...Assess the usefulness of sociological approaches to suicide (21) Durkheim argues our behaviour is caused by social facts; social forces found in the structure of society. Lukes argues social facts have three features; they’re external to individuals, they constrain individuals shaping their behaviour and they’re greater than individuals, they exist on a different level from the individual. Durkheim argues the suicide rate is a social fact. Using quantitative data from official statistics Durkheim analysed the suicide rate from various European countries. He noted four regular patterns. The suicide rate for any given society remained more or less constant over time. When the rates did change they coincided with other changes. For example rates fell during wartime, but rose during economic depression. Different societies had different rates. Within a society the rates varies considerably between social groups. For example Catholics had lower rates than Protestants. For Durkheim these patterns were evidence that suicide rates couldn’t simply be the result of the motives of individuals. Durkheim explains the suicide rate as the effect of social facts acting on the individual. In different societies these forces act with different degrees of intensity resulting in different suicide rates. Durkheim argues suicide results from either too much or too little social integration. He creates a typology of suicide. Egoistic suicide is caused by too little social integration.......

Words: 1383 - Pages: 6

Assess the Usefulness of Different Sociological Approaches of Suicide.

...Assess the different sociological explanations of suicide- (21 marks) Suicide is define different by many sociologists. The overall definition is for an individual to cause harm to themselves, with the intent to kill themselves. Many different sociologists believe in different reasoning to acts of suicide and uses different research methods including qualitative and quantitative data. I will uses sociologists such as Durkheim, Douglas, Atkinson and Taylor to assess this view.  Durkheim takes a positivist view and believes that social factors is the main factor for why people commit suicide. He suggests that suicide rates are social facts. He used quantitative data (official statistics) and discovered certain patterns: that suicide rates remained constant over time, the differed in different society, if rates did change it was coincided with other changes and within society, the suicide rates differ in different social groups. He believes the social factors are social integration and moral regulations. Social integration is when the individual feels apart of a group, and has a stronger bond. Moral regulations suggest strong norms and values in which individuals desire to follow. Durkheim say without these, people’s desires are infinite and incapable of satisfaction. Durkheim states four types of suicide: egoistic, altruistic, fatalistic and anomic suicide. Egoistic is when an individual has too little integration and becomes selfish and isolated in which they feel they do......

Words: 1403 - Pages: 6

A Sociological Perspective on Suicide

...Emile Durkheim’s (1858-1917) sociological perspective is based upon a structural function, or his view of society as a whole. Believing that society is larger than the individuals living within a system; he strongly emphasizes that patterns of human behavior, not the actions themselves have more to do with societal factors than actual individual choices. Durkheim looks at these overall social factors and their power they have to guide our thoughts and actions. (Macionis, 2010). Conceptualizing suicide to be a social fact, Durkheim explains 4 separate types of suicide; with egoistic and anomic being the most emphasized in his work. ‘In addition to egoistic and anomic types of suicide, Durkheim refers to altruistic and fatalistic suicide. The latter is touched upon only briefly in his work, but the former is of great importance for an understanding of Durkheim's general approach.’(Bolender Initiatives, LLC [B I, LLC], 2008). The University of Chicago helps define the following terms of Durkheim’s theory ( • Egoistic suicide is committed by people who are not strongly supported by membership in a cohesive social group. As outsiders, they depend more on themselves than on group goals and rules of conduct to sustain them in their lives. In times of stress, they feel isolated and helpless. • Anomic suicide is committed by people when society is in crisis or rapid change. In such times, customary norms may weaken or break...

Words: 770 - Pages: 4


...SUICIDE Paula Carver Course: PSY 303: Abnormal Psychology Instructor: Kevin Webster 4-30-12 In this assignment I will be giving an overview of a suicide assessment. I will research the roles of depression according to age, gender, ethnicity and social economics. This assignment will also include information of how I would react to a person who has threatened suicide based on my research and learning's. According to the guide on VA Suicide Risk Assessment pocket care signs of acute risk are threatening to hurt or kill themself, look for ways to kill themself and talking about killing themself. These signs should always be taken seriously and referred to a professional that can assess the immediate needs (911 should be called if extreme). During the assessment the Clinician introductory stamen should be used to pave the way to ensuring an informative and smooth dialogue and reassure the patient that you are prepared for and interested in the answers. Example, I appreciate how difficult the problem must be for you at this time. Then go on to say I had a previous patient with the same symptoms as you and had thoughts of suicide. Have you ever thought about suicide? However, the clinician should ask the screening set of question whenever the clinical situation or presentation warrants it. In the screening process open-ended questions that lead to a response of yes or no. If the answer is yes, the next question should be asked. For example, Are you feeling...

Words: 2024 - Pages: 9

Pokaż kolejną stronę | Comédie Musicales | Download