Counter-Terrorism Grand Strategy

In: Other Topics

Submitted By skippy100
Words 1446
Pages 6
1. Explain what policy objectives are usually pursued within a counterterrorism grand strategy? Provide suitable examples to illustrate your answer. To create an effective counterterrorism grand strategy, states and governments need to identify what the aim of terrorism upon their state is, the terrorist’s goals and ultimately what they aim to achieve with these acts. Without identifying these areas states can’t introduce and effective counterterrorism strategy. This essay will focus on the policy objectives of the Australian government with their counterterrorism strategy, predominantly the changes made over the last decade as a response to new international terrorism threats. This essay will also look at the United States Counterterrorism policies and their objectives, as they have made some of the most influential decisions regarding counterterrorism over the last decade.

In Australia the Criminal Code Act 1995 states that a terrorist act means an action or threat of action where the action causes certain defined forms of harm or interference and the action is done or the threat is made with advancing a political, religious or ideological cause. (Government, 2004) From this definition counterterrorism can be defined as the tactics, practices strategies and techniques used by governments and law enforcement to counteract terrorism acts.

States use a variety of goals and subsequently sub-goals that determine their counterterrorism policies. These can vary greatly depending on the state’s political situation. Some of these goals can include getting rid of terrorism and the motivations and causes for it, preventing attacks and minimising causalities and damages if they occur. (Ganor, 2005: Pgs 25,26) Australia’s main counterterrorism strategy lies in managing effectively the ‘threat assessment’ dilemma. (O'Neil, 2005: pg 390) Where if the government…...

Similar Documents


...I think Sun Tzu’s approach in dealing with war is suited for our times because terrorism is not fought in a conventional way. Generally terrorists are unseen, unpredictable, driven ideologically and differs from a conventional set battle among sides. Sun Tzu’s indirect approach could help in developing strategies against extremist groups. For example Al Qaeda is a known Islamic terrorist group that is a big threat to the U.S., by using Sun Tzu’s underhanded ways military and civilian strategists can gain insight into the current threat and the methods and goals of their adversary. Sun Tzu’s famous words still ring true today, “Know the enemy and know yourself; in a hundred battles you will never be in peril”. If we had only known our enemy a little better America could have possibly been more prepared for the attack on Sept. 11. Although understanding one’s self and one’s adversary is not always an easy task, particularly considering the use of propaganda, misperception and ethnocentrism (Mahnken, 2007: 77). As the world continues to rapidly change especially the change in how war is fought, Sun Tzu’s theories will continue to play a great role in understanding our environment politically and economically and recognizing our strengths and weaknesses. Sun Tzu’s indirect approach can be utilized in the upcoming announcement of Hamas’s new leadership. The Hamas is going full force ahead and is determined to destroy Israel by sharpening their strategic plans. This......

Words: 278 - Pages: 2


...Terrorism has deep historical roots as a threat to peaceful existence of nations and common citizens. Terrorism, as opposed to other forms of violence, is the system¬atically applied threat or use of illegitimate force with the designed intent of achieving a goal by means of such a method as coercion. It is violence used as a policy; it is fear or terror engendered on an organized basis. Terrorism is defined as (1) “intended to inflict death or seriously bodily harm upon civilians or other persons (presumably military personnel) not taking part in hostilities and (2) its purpose is to intimidate a population or persuade a government or international organization to adopt a certain policy” (Weiss, 2002, p.25). Terrorism has many applications, including purely criminal purposes; it is politically motivated terrorism, however, which is of major concern in the modem context. Motivational basis, therefore, is examined first in assessing the nature of the threat presented by the phenomenon of terrorism. Included within the context is brief reference to the contemporary historical development of terrorist activity, because in many cases the two aspects are rooted together. Following Oliverio, “The process by which the definition of terrorism is shaped and enforced involves a theoretical approach that recognizes “terrorism" as a historically and contextually produced discourse, and understood in contemporary U.S. society is the by-product of an androcentric discourse in which......

Words: 1643 - Pages: 7

What Is Meant by 'Counter-Terrorism'?

...'counterterrorism'. What policy objectives are usually pursued within a counterterrorism grand strategy? Provide suitable examples to illustrate your answer. Counterterrorism involves the “detection and prevention of violent dissident activities by governments, police, security agencies, and military forces to more involved efforts to eliminate support within society for the dissident groups” (Lutz, J & Lutz, B. 2008). Thus, counterterrorism is a combination of multiple façades of government and law enforcement which interact to form a counterterror grand strategy. It is important to draw attention to the differences between a “strategy” and a “grand strategy”. A strategy requires a precisely specified political objective – strategy is a scheme for making the means produce the desired ends (Betts, 2000). A grand strategy on the other hand is far more complex. A grand strategy explains how a state’s full range of resources will be utilised to achieve security (identifying threats and how to minimise or eliminate them) - essentially a grand strategy is “complex, multifaceted, and directed toward a distant time horizon” (Crenshaw, 2004). This essay will explore and discuss the key issues considered while designing a counterterrorism grand strategy, and will provide relevant examples of these issues that have been applied in grand strategies. The major component of an effective counterterrorism grand strategy is the ability of law enforcement and the government to be......

Words: 1545 - Pages: 7


...Terrorism came from the word of ‘terror’ which mean to horror and to fear. There is no specific definition about the meaning of terrorism. This is because the field that related inside terrorism is very wide and there are over 100 definitions of ‘terrorism’ according to studies. Terrorism have been existed for many years as a global phenomenon, but only in few decades ago that it has been getting stronger and to influence our daily lives with any costs. In our report, we will explain more details about the relationship of terrorism and transportation. Transportation has always been a target or method for terrorism to transfer their message to the public. While transportation keeps economic moving, nationally and globally, business relies on transport and transport systems at every level no matter transferring goods, transporting customers or staff commuting. From jet airliners to mass transit buses and rail terminals, vehicles and transport facilities are all-too familiar targets of terrorist attacks in all country and abroad. The impact of large-scale disruption of transport infrastructures can be critical for national and global business because transport systems have long been viewed as targets for terrorists groups worldwide. Also we will elaborate more on how terrorism can be spread or being use through the four methods of transportation like rail, road, aviation and maritime. For the incident strikes on the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York on September 11, 2001,...

Words: 13246 - Pages: 53


...According to Christopher Hitchens, “Terrorism is the tactic of demanding the impossible, and demanding it at gun point,” of which is undeniably true. Terrorism is the extension of fear, trepidation and distress to project its views into the then current political spectrum, to alter the views, culture and ethos of the respective political power. Essentially, terrorism is about acquiring awareness in society for its cause, subsequently questioning the government’s stance or perspective. In doing so terrorism, as this essay will discuss, creates reservations about the legitimacy of the current government, raises doubts surrounding the power of the state; a manoeuvre that demands concessions. Moreover, terrorism has taken on a pseudo religious-political form that has resulted in an involuntary knee-jerk reaction throughout the modern liberal democracies in the Western World. Not many events, actions or ideologies have influenced politics as terrorism has done so consistently throughout history. Terrorism and politics intertwine more than many understand. Terrorism is a catalyst for political interaction and development; as politics is seldom contained to one opinion, it is home to a myriad of diverse beliefs and judgements. It is about command and control and is not regulated to a sole individual, but the interconnections of various people from differing backgrounds and faiths, prompting revolution, oppression and liberalisation (Delaware Criminal......

Words: 1889 - Pages: 8

The United Kingdom’s Strategy for Countering Terrorism

...CONTEST: The United Kingdom’s Strategy for Countering Terrorism July 2011 3 Introduction 1.01. This is the third published version of the United Kingdom’s counter-terrorism strategy, CONTEST. This new strategy reflects the changing terrorist threat and incorporates new Government policies on counter-terrorism. 1.02. The aim of CONTEST is to reduce the risk to the UK and its interests overseas from terrorism, so that people can go about their lives freely and with confidence. 4 CONTEST: The United Kingdom’s Strategy for Countering Terrorism Strategic context 1.03. Last year, over 10,000 people were killed by terrorists around the world. But international law enforcement and military collaboration are changing the threats we face. 1.04. The leadership group of Al Qa’ida is now weaker than at any time since 9/11. It has played no role in recent political change in North Africa and the Middle East. Its ideology has been widely discredited and it has failed in all its objectives. Continued international pressure can further reduce its capability. But Al Qa’ida continues to pose a threat to our own security; and groups affiliated to Al Qa’ida – notably in Yemen and Somalia – have emerged over the past two years to be a substantial threat in their own right. 1.05. Al Qa’ida is responsible for only a small fraction of terrorist attacks. Other groups, independent from Al Qa’ida but broadly sympathetic to its aims, continue to emerge and to conduct attacks......

Words: 4235 - Pages: 17

Terrorism – Is There Any Working Global Frameworks to Counter It?

...Terrorism – is there any working global frameworks to counter it? By Zuzanna Sadowska On the 22nd of September 2003 Kofi Annan, UN Secretary-General, organized a conference “Fighting Terrorism for Humanity” in New York City. He opened the summit with words: “Terrorism will only be defeated if we act to solve the political disputes or long-standing conflicts that generate support for it. (…) If we do not, we should find ourselves acting as recruiting sergeants for the very terrorists. We have to win hearts and minds.” The causes of terrorism may be inter alia historical, economical, religious or ideological, and there is no way to entirely eliminate it from our world. Preventing terrorism needs complete understanding of the phenomenon and cooperation between states. There are different actions taken by various organisations and people but not all of them succeed. What exactly is terrorism, how do terrorist organisations work and how to counter terrorist activities? Terrorism by itself has numerous definitions as it is hard to define it precisely. It is said that this phenomenon has over 100 definitions and lack of one, widely recognized, hinders fighting with this danger. When we discuss about terrorism in colloquial conversation, we instinctually know what it is about and what the meaning of this word is. It is otherwise in case of professional and legal discussions where you have to agree on a definition of the term. The concept of terrorism derives from the Greek treo –......

Words: 3731 - Pages: 15


...Terrorism 1. What is terrorism? Terrorism is hard to define. In its broadest sense terrorism can be thought of as the use or threatened use of force against civilians designed to bring about political or social change. Moreover, while we think of terrorism as being both a political and irrational act (especially suicide terrorism), terrorism can also be thought of as a rational act conducted specifically because of the impact -- fear, confusion, submission -- it will have. Given the U.S. government's pledge to wage a war against terrorism, it is important to look at its definitions. According to both the Department of Defense (DOD) and the FBI, terrorism is "the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives." The DOD definition adds that a goal of terrorism can be "inculcating fear" (thus the psychological dimension), while the State Department is more elaborate, specifying that terrorism may include the use of biological, chemical or nuclear devices as well as the act of "assassination." The latter would suggest that assassinating bin Laden would be a terrorist act by our definition of the word; the former that allied forces in the fire bombings of cities in Dresden, and specifically the U.S., through its use of nuclear weapons to end World War II and of chemical weapons in Vietnam, has already engaged in......

Words: 4291 - Pages: 18


...Instructions for authors, permissions and subscription information: E-mail: Web: Is Terrorism Still a Democratic Phenomenon? Erica CHENOWETH Assist. Prof. Dr., The University of Denver, The Josef Korbel School of International Studies To cite this article: Chenoweth, Erica, “Is Terrorism Still a Democratic Phenomenon?", Uluslararası İlişkiler, Volume 8, No 32 (Winter 2012), p. 85-99. Copyright @ International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT). All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored, transmitted, or disseminated, in any form, or by any means, without prior written permission from UİK, to whom all requests to reproduce copyright material should be directed, in writing. References for academic and media coverages are boyond this rule. Statements and opinions expressed in Uluslararası İlişkiler are the responsibility of the authors alone unless otherwise stated and do not imply the endorsement by the other authors, the Editors and the Editorial Board as well as the International Relations Council of Turkey. Uluslararası İlişkiler Konseyi Derneği | Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi Web: | E- Mail: Is Terrorism Still a Democratic Phenomenon? Erica CHENOWETH* ABSTRACT In recent years, multiple studies have confirmed that terrorism occurs in democracies more often than in nondemocratic regimes. There are five primary groups of explanations for this......

Words: 6756 - Pages: 28


...SECURITY RESEARCH PAPER A PERSPECTIVE ON TERRORISM Piers Hutt 1 March 2015 A PERSPECTIVE ON TERRORISM ABSTRACT Purpose: To critically examine the threat of modern terrorism to Western society. Design/methodology: An assessment was made of publically available documentation. The paper is then divided into a number of sections. It initially deals with the difficulties of defining terrorism, followed by its symbiotic relationship with the media. The next section looks at the modern Islamic Fundamentalist threat and the primarily neocon response since 9/11. Whilst the US has withdrawn combat forces from Iraq and Afghanistan, a bipartisan approach has been maintained to counterterrorism. The dangers of such an approach are examined along with emerging threats. Table of Contents * Abstract * Introduction * Define * Role of the Media * Psychology * Modern Terrorism * The Response * Counterview – The Dangers * Looking Ahead – The Next Potential Threats * Another Approach * Conclusion INTRODUCTION “Terrorism has become part of our daily news diet. Hardly a day goes by without news of an assassination, political kidnapping, hijacking or bombing somewhere in the world. As such, incidents of terrorism have increased in the past decade, the phenomenon of terrorism has become one of increasing concern to governments....” Introduction. With the recent high profile terrorist attacks in......

Words: 7041 - Pages: 29

Similarities and Differences in Terrorism and Counter Terrorism

...Terrorism and Counter-terrorism: Similarities and differences in security and risk. Joshua Williams POL192 Perspectives on Security and Terrorism Murdoch University Semester 1, 2014 Utilizing the concepts of risk and security, critically explain the similarities and differences between terrorist strategies and tactics on one hand, and counter-terrorism measures, on the other, since 2001. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States marked a turning point in the understanding of terrorism within the international society (Beck 2002, 39). Although the motives behind terrorism and counter-terrorism are opposite, their effects in terms of security and risk are similar. The similarities and differences between these two activities will be discussed in terms of risk and security within the international society. Central to the issues of security and risk, is the concept of an international society. An international society ‘exists when a group of states, conscious of certain common interests and common values, form a society in the sense that they conceive themselves to be bound by a common set of rules in their relations with one anther, and share in the working of common institutions’ (Bull and Watson 1984, 1). These rules, norms and institutions which make up international society is the central......

Words: 2232 - Pages: 9

Japan's Imperial Grand Strategy (1868 - 1945)

...Topic: Why did the leaders of the Meiji government in Japan decide to construct a great empire in Asia? Analyse the implementation of Japan’s Imperial Grand Strategy during the Meiji, Taisho and early Showa eras (i.e 1868 – 1945). Why did Japan’s imperial project end in disaster? What lessons can be draw? Word count (excluding references): 3857 The world in 19th century had seen the breakdown and collapse of numerous empires and kingdoms of Europe and Asia: first The Holy Roman Empire in 1806, then the defeat of Waterloo (1815) - which marked the end of Napoleonic Era, moreover, 19th century also witnessed the decline of the Ottoman Empire. On the other hand, this paved the way for other nations like England, France, Russia or China, to rise as new powers. During that time, Japan had dynamic political changes - the hundred-years-peace concreted by the Tokugawa Shogunate could not last any longer as the spread of Western imperialism was becoming larger in Asia. Therefore, the government of the Meiji realized that: Japan should become an Empire and emerge as the paramount Asian power along with her European counterparts, to maintain the balance of power so as to develop its national interests– this was Japan’s Imperial Grand Strategy during early to mid-19th century. In the beginning, a more detailed background of Japanese history will be provided. Earlier than the road to......

Words: 4364 - Pages: 18


...Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or violence by a person or group. The goal is to intimidate or coerce societies or governments in an effort to promote political or ideological beliefs. These attacks can take many forms, and could happen at any time in any place. Terrorists typically exploit weaknesses, and may use technology, hazardous materials, biological agents or other methods to create devastating disruptions to the community. Terrorism thrives on fear. By planning how to respond to a terrorist attack, you can greatly improve your chances of survival. You can also lessen the impact of the attack by reducing the fear in the aftermath. Community Involvement As Chief of River City, my first priority would be to protect the citizens of River City. Attacks can be expected to provide maximum negative effect on the following levels: emotional, food, water, health, financial, infrastructure, leadership and the very function of society. Because it is impossible to know in advance which of these areas will be impacted most heavily in the event of a terrorist event, the best course of action is to make individual preparation in the areas where you are able to do so. For example, a supply of food that is easily stored means you aren't dependent upon stores that may or may not be available at the local supermarket. The same thing is true of a water supply. The citizens would be encouraged to stock up on bottled water. The Supply of bottled water could be crucial in the event...

Words: 1351 - Pages: 6


...state-based. Many types of these actions can range from terrorism, rioting, civil war, police brutality, and capital punishment. Terrorism is a political violence act that influences an audience beyond the immediate victim. The terrorist’s strategy is to commit acts of violence that draws the attention of the public, the government, and the world to their cause. The terrorists plan their attack to obtain the greatest attention, choosing targets that symbolize what they oppose. The United States Department of Defense defines terrorism as “the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.” There are two types of terrorism; initially, there is domestic terrorism which are acts of terrorism that are committed by those who are located in and operate from the state and international terrorism which is a type of terrorism which includes acts of terror committed by individuals affiliated with foreign countries. In the 1960s and 1970s domestic terrorism increased in the United States. Groups known as the Black Panthers and other groups constantly caused problems with authorities. An example of international terrorism was when the Islamic terrorist group Al-Qaeda coordinated four terrorist attacks to the United States on September 11, 2001. Terrorism is a one-sided political violence which is usually......

Words: 925 - Pages: 4


...TERROR GROUPS AROUND THE GLOBE- HOW TO ELIMINATE THEM Terrorism is a problem which the country has been continuously facing for more than two-three decades but now has emerged as a global problem against which an internationally united battle has to be fought constantly. Violent behaviour in order to create an atmosphere of fear in the society or a part of it for political ends is generally termed as Terrorism. A terrorist is a person who creates fear panic among the organization to which he belongs. Terrorists resort to various ways to accomplish these goals like planting crude home-made bombs, hand-grenades or other explosives in a shopping centre or a crowded place like a railway-station or a bus stand or even a bus, train or aeroplane, kidnapping, assassination or hijacking. Different terrorist activities all over the world may have different aims, but a few goals, common to all may be underlined. It may be because they want a regime to react or they intend to mobilize a mass support through fear, to eliminate opponents or enemies or to magnify their cause. Terrorist groups are the biggest threat to any civilian of any country. Here is the list of terrorist groups from the ones who are not very well known and whose terror attacks are not much recorded to the ones who terrorize the whole world and cause severe catastrophe. 10. Armed Islamic Group of Algeria (GIA) With an endeavor to overrule the Algerian government, this terrorist group was founded in July 1992 and......

Words: 1593 - Pages: 7

135 Telecharger Rio – Wii Gratuit Rio Wii telecharger torrent Oiseaux dune partie de la plume ensemble dans cette aventure parti basé sur le hit film danimation Rio!... | Off Shoulder Plain Bell Sleeve T-Shirts | Lean On (feat. MØ & DJ Snake)