Crime in the World

In: Other Topics

Submitted By suryabhai
Words 5424
Pages 22
CONTENTS Page No. 1. 2. 3. Introduction Meaning of Crime/Violence against Women Constitutional and Legal Provisions for Women 4. Constitutional Provision Legal Provisions 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 7 9 13 14 15 16 17 19

Classification Crime Against Women Crimes under Indian Penal Code Crimes under Special and Local Laws Reported Incidents of Crime Crime Against Women in Cities

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

International Initiatives to Curb Gender Violence National Initiatives to Curb Gender Violence Verma Committee Report Conclusion Annexures

Crime Against Women


INTRODUCTION In the ancient Indian women held a high place of respect in the society as

mentioned in Rigveda and other scriptures. Volumes can be written about the status of our women and their heroic deeds from the vedic period to the modern times. But later on, because of social, political and economic changes, women lost their status and were relegated to the background. Many evil customs and traditions stepped in which enslaved the women and tied them to the boundaries of the house1. The official statistics showed a declining sex-ratio, health status, literacy rate, work participation rate and political participation among women. While on the other hand the spread of social evils like dowry deaths, child marriage, domestic violence, rape, sexual harassment, exploitation of women workers are rampant in different parts of India. Humiliation, rape, kidnapping, molestation, dowry death, torture, wife-beating etc. have grown up over the years2.


MEANING OF CRIME / VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN “The Semantic meaning of „crime against women‟ is direct or indirect physical or

mental cruelty to women. Crimes which are „directed specifically against women‟ and in which „only women are victims‟ are characterized as „Crime Against Women‟3. It is equally important to clarify the concept of „Violence‟ against women.…...

Similar Documents


...Before attempting an overview of the input of psychology, we need to take a step back and consider the problematic concept of crime itself. The question, what is crime? sounds as if it should have obvious answers, and certainly there would probably be widespread agreement that some acts, such as personal violence or theft, constitute crimes the world over. However, there might be disagreement about whether these acts are still seen as crimes if t he rule of law is challenged, for instance in wartime. It was only in 2001 that the mass rape of Muslim women during the Bosnian conflict of 1992 - 95 was first deemed to be a crime against humanity, with three of its perpetrators receiving lengthy prison sentences at the Hague War Tribunal. Prior to this, wartime rape and the provision of kidnapped 'comfort women' for soldiers had been regarded simply as a by - product of war. While legal sanctions hold, there is reasonable understanding about what constitut es crime, but this understanding tends to vary according to historical, cultural and power dimensions which may rule different behaviours as criminal at different times. Obvious examples of this are when laws change, so for example attempting suicide was regarded as a criminal offence until 1961, while incest was not classed as a crime until 1908. Similarly, female circumcision is acceptable in some cultures though not in the UK, while in contrast male circumcision has never been against the law, though......

Words: 728 - Pages: 3


...Do we blame the individual or society for crimes committed? Is it religious beliefs or our neighborhoods that shape our minds? Crime has been on earth since the start of time. An out pour of concern has been at an all time high the past few decades due to the increase in crime. What is crime a result of? It all depends on who you are asking because everyone has their own views on the matter. When crime is all over the news in the many parts of the world it is hard to ignore and not become concerned for the safety of ourselves and families. It is not possible to determine the root to why crimes occur but fatherless homes, poverty, mental disease and television have all taken the blame (Talidari). In my opinion people are to blame, they know the law but decide to break it any way, but the difference in opinion will vary amongst experts and regular Joes. Experts reported that children who grow up in fatherless homes are more likely to become an offender as an adult (Talidari). Eighty percent of rapists with displaced anger come from a fatherless home (Talidari), but twenty percent of rapists do not. Television has had its fair share of taking the blame for violence and criminal activity. People want to mimic what they see thinking it will make them popular...

Words: 431 - Pages: 2


...Indian girls and women face a barrage of abuses in the largely patriarchal country. These include female foeticide, so-called ''honour'' killings, acid attacks, and rape, trafficking and dowry murders. The National Crime Records Bureau says more than 24,200 rapes were reported in India in 2011, or one every 20 minutes. As per a recent UNICEF survey, despite changing values in the young generation, 57 percent of Indian males between the ages of 15 to 19 contend domestic violence against women is occasionally is usual. About 53 percent of females within the same age group feel the same, on par with rates of women from older age groups. 1 Billion Rising campaign states, "One in three women on the planet will be raped or beaten in her lifetime". In India, according to National Crime Record Bureau in 2011, 14.7% rape cases are registered in cities while 85% rape cases are registered in rural India total of 2, 28,650 women faced violence and abuse during 2007-2011.In Northeast India, a total of 13,308 incidence of crime against women had been reported according to the National Crime Records Bureau 2011 with 11503 cases in Assam, 269 cases in Meghalaya, 1358 cases in Tripura, 167 cases in Mizoram, 247 cases in Manipur, 38 cases in Nagaland, 171 cases in Arunachal Pradesh and 55 cases reported in Sikkim. Not only in their states, Northeast Indian women are also prone and are vulnerable in metropolitan cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore etc. Over 20,000 people have been killed......

Words: 953 - Pages: 4


...Criminal Justice The act of an individual or individuals when committing a crime and how a society deals with those individuals has changed over time. Crime is a conduct or violation of the criminal to break the laws for which there is no acceptable justification or excuse. Society is often viewed by its criminal element and how the people deal with punishment and rehabilitation of the criminal. There are five goals of the criminal justice system deterrence, incapacitation, retribution, rehabilitation, restoration. In a CJi Interactive Multi-Media slide on University of Phoenix website it described, “These five criminal justice goals are not mutually exclusive. They are really rather like philosophical perspectives from which a community or agency responds to criminal behavior. (Interactive) The criminal justice system has three branches, those branches are police, courts and correction departments, each are an integral part of the American Justice System. The police work in an ever changing environment however in a report on the challenges of crime in a free society the police officers job was described as “the manner in which a policeman works is influenced by practical matters: the legal strength of the available evidence, the willingness of victims to press charges and of witnesses to testify, the temper of the community, the time and information at the policeman's disposal. Much is at stake in how the policeman exercises this discretion and if he judges conduct not......

Words: 1030 - Pages: 5


... four banks were attacked in an hour-and-a-half; one daytime raid took place just steps from the Lincoln Center in downtown Manhattan. The week before, San Diego had seen four bank holdups in a single day. Criminologists wondered if the holiday spree was the first sign of a looming crime wave in recession-battered America. Take an uptick in poverty and economic misery, toss in budget cuts to police departments across the country, and that should be a blueprint for chaos—right? Except, as it turns out, the exact opposite occurred. According to FBI statistics, crime rates went down across the board in 2009. Way down. Murder, rape, robbery, assault, auto theft—plummeted, one and all. Then, this week, the FBI released preliminary data for the first six months of 2010, and again the same pattern emerged. Violent crimes and property crimes alike have been falling in every region of the country. What gives? Have experts just completely misunderstood what causes people to commit crimes?   There's certainly no shortage of theories for why crime rates have gone down over the past two years. The simplest is that crime just isn’t closely related to economic conditions. Consider, after all, the two big crime epidemics in the twentieth century—the first took root in the late 1960s, during a period of healthy growth; the other came during the economic doldrums of the late ‘80s and early ‘90s. The only constant here, it seems, is that both outbreaks were fueled by a major expansion of......

Words: 10363 - Pages: 42


...A crime is defined as "an act committed in violation of a law forbidding it and for which a variety of punishments may be imposed." Crimes are classified into two basic groups; "mala in se" which are crimes that are evil in themselves, and "mala prohibitita" which are crimes that are only crimes because society at the time deems them wrong. In these days crime is more easy perceived by society. Surveys of public opinion in the United States show that more and more people believe that crime is increasing. People feel less safe in their environment and have thus taken measures to protect themselves. But is this view accurate? Most of the crime rates from 1973 to 1992 have risen greatly. In 1973 there was a murder every 27 minutes. Now there is a murder every 22 minutes. The astounding fact is in 1973 there was a violent crime every 6 minutes but now it has increased to a murder every 16 seconds. Crime per thousand from between 1983 and 1992 rose 9.4 percent but from 1991 to 1992 it went down 4 percent. In recent years crime has been decreasing. Property crime, murder, robbery, and burglary have all decreased at least three percent in recent years but that is not much. There is one exception; rape which has gone up 3 percent. Violent crime has risen 40.9 since 1983 while in recent years it has only gone down a tenth of a percent. This may be one of the reasons people feel less safe. People aren't afraid of larceny or property crimes. They......

Words: 744 - Pages: 3


...Crime is a major problem in The Bahamas. When reading a newspaper or watching TV, it is impossible not to hear about some murder, robbery or violent act. Crime is increasing and this is affecting our country and influencing our youths. Imagine this beautiful country losing money simple because visitors are afraid to come here because of the dangerous criminal activity going on or simple because crime rate is out of control. Why our Bahamaland should be put at a disadvantage for such careless act. In this essay I will identify some types of crimes in The Bahamas and give solutions that may help to solve crime in The Bahamas. According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary, crime is defined as: “An illegal act for which someone can be punished by the government”. Research shows the types of crimes committed in The Bahamas are: Crimes against Person (Murder, Attempted Murder, Manslaughter, Rape, Attempted Rape, Unlawful Sexual Intercourse, Armed Robbery, and Robbery Attempted) and Crimes against Property (Burglary, Housebreaking, Shopbreaking, Stealing, Stealing from Vehicle, Stolen Vehicle). According to the Nassau Guardian, ’’The Bahamas like many of the countries surveyed, has had a fluctuating murder count rate over the years… In 2010 there were 94 murders recorded in the country, a record at the time. The next year there were 127 murders, an all-time high and in 2012 there were 111’’. These statistics are becoming a major problem and if it is not......

Words: 523 - Pages: 3


...Controlling Organized Crime Paper LaShanda McMahon 1/26/15 CJA/384 Professor Faggione Controlling Organized Crime Paper Crime is a part of every type of society. It would be naïve to believe that a society could completely rid itself of crime, as long as there are people in the world crimes will be commited. Crime is based on the perception and the actions of individuals. Some see their actions as good and some see them as bad. The problem with this is that sometimes the perception of those committing negative acts that society views as crimes do not see their actions as criminal. Crime is based on the actions of the individuals and depending upon the moral statutes that the society has brought upon them the society deems what is criminal by what they perceive and have implemented as illegal. In this paper an attempt to identify the problems, which are obtainable, and the innumerable associations recognized through organized crime will be established. We will attempt to designate the legitimate boundaries correlated with contesting organized crime, involving an analysis of the general national laws and stratagems that sustenance this exertion. We will also attempt to propose a convincing clarification regarding controlled organized crime by examining and assessing the efficiency of organized crime examinations. Although most issues related to social control or moral regulation have a political aspect to them, discussions related to ‘organized crime’ are......

Words: 1072 - Pages: 5


...RUNNING HEAD: Position Paper 1 Cliffaniqa Towbridge CJ-333-02 Criminological Theory Assignment III Dr. Bullie March 8, 2015 Position Paper "All Law Enforcement Officers Should Be Trained in Criminological Theory in Order to be More Effective in Their Roles in the Community" Law enforcement is very imperative in the world that we live in today as police activity 2 continues to be more controversial while law enforcement also, battles with many forms of crime in todays society. In order to combat these problems and have a positive future in the criminal justice system, everyone must work together on a bigger scale. All law enforcement officers should be trained in criminological theory in order to be more effective in their roles in the community, on behalf of how they approach a situation, control crime, and understand a more deeper perspective of crime. Upon law enforcement officers approaching a situation in a aggressive way; they should act appropriately and ethically at all times. Essentially , young African Americans are fearful of law enforcement for this reasoning, they think they are being targeted and hunted based off of the aggressive portrayal of an officer in ,which the media displays. Which also, steams from the recent fatal shooting and killing of Eric Garner, and Michael Brown; Sometimes all it takes is an aggressive officer to trigger such emotions within an offender or the accused in question. For example, as I read "A Place on the Corner" I......

Words: 800 - Pages: 4


...Pardeep Binning TuTh 4-550pm Crime Unemployment and crime rate. They’re not the prettiest of terms, but they do raise a few eyebrows. The economic situation that the world has been in for the past few years has truly kept everyone on their toes regarding job security. Shouldn’t be surprising when the unemployment rate from 2007, which was 4.6%, more than doubled by the end of 2009 to 10% (Bureau of Labor Statistics). Without the steady income of a job, it’s common sense to infer that some people have to take drastic measures to reach end’s meet. Bruce Weinberg, an associate professor of economics at Ohio State University, says, "A decline in wages increases the relative payoff of criminal activity. It seems obvious that economic conditions should have an impact on crime…” Due to the high rate of unemployment, people have turned to a life of crime in order to stay. Most people do not intend to do harm to another person, however, while trying to commit even the smallest crime such as a robbery someone can get hurt or even worse die. That is why according to the report on CNN, there has been an increase in small time robberies such as convenient stores and gas stations. Those types of stores are small and have almost everything someone’s needs to survive. The robbers are not doing it because they want, but they are doing it because they have no other way of acquiring food for their family. Feeding your family has been a natural instinct, and most parents would do anything......

Words: 1284 - Pages: 6

Disenchantment of Our Modern World and Crime as a by Product of Disenchantment

...Disenchantment of our modern world and crime as a by product of disenchantment What is disenchantment and how does crime in our post apartheid era link to disenchantment? To begin our indulgent search into the inner workings of societies psyche and its effects on our modern day world , we shall first define the plague "disenchantment", that has grasped its hold over modern day society. Thereafter we shall pursue the possibility that many socio economic conditions are a result of this disenchantment, in particular crime.Beginning with a depiction of our times by Weber: "The fate of our times is characterised by rationalization and intellectualization and, above all, by the disenchantment of the world. Precisely the ultimate and most sublime values have retreated from public life either into the transcendental realm of mystic life or into the brotherliness of direct and personal human relations. It is not accidental that our greatest art is intimate and not monumental, nor is it accidental that today only within the smallest intimate circles, in personal human situations in pianissimo, that something is pulsating that corresponds to the prophetic pneuma, which in former times swept through the great communities like a firebrand, wielding them together."(Weber 1946,p.155) This depiction of our modern world through the eyes of Webber, tell us of a world based on logic and rationality as a foundation rather than pure reason. He speaks of a disillusioned world. A world who's......

Words: 768 - Pages: 4


...considered to have been very difficult to enforce and resulted in the growth of many criminal organizations, including the modern American Mafia. The Australian Crime Commission’s illict drug data report for 2011-2012 was released in Western Sydney on 20 May 2013, and revealed that the seizures of illegal substance in Australia during the reporting period were the largest in a decade, due to record interceptions of amphetamines, cocaine and steroids. The beginning of the 21st century saw a drug use increase in North America and Europe, with a particularly increase for marijuana and cocaine. As a result, international organized crime syndicates such as the Sinaloa Cartel and ‘Ndrangheta have increased cooperation among each other in order to facilitate trans-Atlantic drug trafficking. Another illicit drug with increased demand in Europe is hashish, which is generally smuggled from Morocco to Spain, where it is later exported to its final markets (mostly France and Western Europe). The UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND), the chief drug policymaking body of the United Nations, held its annual meeting in Vienna, Austria in mid-March 2014, following a period of historic drug policy reforms throughout the world-such as the decision of the Uruguay government to become the first national jurisdiction in the world to legalize cannabis. The International Drug Policy Consortium stated in the lead-up to the meeting that the meeting itself is likely to feature standoffs......

Words: 1220 - Pages: 5


...The Study of Crime By Juan Andres Alvarez Crime & Society Instructor: Sara Rogers September 19, 2011 The Study of Crime: Throughout recorded history there have been numerous theories that explain why criminal behavior exists. One of those theories is The Classical Theory of Criminology, it states that the combination of free will, hedonistic decision making and the failure of the social contact in producing criminal behavior. I tend to agree that it all come done to free-will and the desire to commit such acts. In order to comprehend the study of crime we must first learn to prevent crime. There are many crime prevention programs that have work others have not. Unlike these theories many of these programs have not yet been evaluated or hold enough creditable scientific evidence to draw positive conclusions. Enough evidence is available, however, to create provisional lists of what might work; what hasn’t, and what’s potential to work in the foreseeable future. In order to formulate a possible list of programs in our neighborhoods we must continue to study of crime and its many possibilities; and to purse and punish those criminals that break the law and bring them to justice. We as society should focus on not just what type of crimes are been committed or to what rate they are been committed but we should focus our attention on the aspect of crime that has not been studied before the learning to find peace amongst ourselves. Before we can learn to find...

Words: 2331 - Pages: 10


...The Impact of Technology on Law Enforcement and Organized Crime Impact of Technology on Law Enforcement and Organized Crime Organized crime involves the illicit flow of goods and services in one direction and the flow of the profits of crime in the other. Technology has created much change in the way organized crime groups conduct operations. It has also caused law enforcement organizations to evolve and use a variety of techniques and methods to effectively combat organized crime groups. In order for law enforcement to effectively target and prosecute these groups they must adapt as the organized crime groups have in their use of technology. Many operations run by organized crime groups and law enforcement organizations require the use of some type of technology. The dynamics of technology have made it an advantage for organized crime groups who use technology. But it can also be just as much an advantage for law enforcement organization so they can combat organized crime groups more effectively and efficiently. Globalization has also had a major impact on both law enforcement and organized crime with many organizations being able to operate through networks. This has created many issues such as jurisdiction which can be combated through the use of technology, communication, and effective legislation. Globalization Globalization is a term that describes the changes in societies and the world economy that are caused by the dramatic increased cross-border trade,......

Words: 2536 - Pages: 11

Disney World and Crime Prevention

...There are many reasons for which Disney World is a good example of crime prevention through environmental design. Barriers, pavement markings, magical fountains and friendly live security are just a few reminders of the purpose of the place: fun and laughter. People who go to the fairy tale world do so governed by their own free will. They give consent to being controlled by Mickey Mouse laws and to be guided like mindless peons through Goofy and Pluto lane. Unfortunately, even in a world filled with magical wonders, there will always be evil characters who are tempted by the dark side of nature as well. Fictional or not, places where opportunities for committing crime and/or people who are willing to commit it will continue to spread or relocate. Situational crime prevention will not have much significance in today’s society unless all individuals and communities work together in an educated fashion. Although there are instances where situational crime prevention and crime prevention through environmental design work well, they do not attain the aspired results when looking at them from a larger perspective. Is it possible to lessen crime through these measures in a society that is so concerned with ethics, personal freedoms and that is divided into numerous economic, racial, and sexual orientation inequalities? I will argue that situational crime prevention and crime prevention through environmental design cannot be effective and ethical at the same time for the reason that...

Words: 1978 - Pages: 8

Recambios para coches | NEW SAMSUNG GALAXY TAB E SM-T560 16GB WI-Fi 9.6 TABLET BLACK $139.99 18d left | Tokyo Underground