Critical Logic

In: English and Literature

Submitted By sweetascandy
Words 953
Pages 4
Critical Logic Critical thinking is a skill used throughout a lifetime. Throughout the growth process children begin to formulate ways of getting what they need, and want. When a baby is born it soon realizes that crying will bring someone to them. A toddler that does not want to sleep will figure out a way to get out of the crib. As the growth process progresses the critical thinking skills evolve and soon develop into an individual’s unique logic. Each individual has their own experiences that influence their perceptions. A child growing up in a military family that moves often will probably have a higher adaptability than that of a child who grew up in the same town. Military families are also subjected to many different cultures and ideals, allowing them to see a variety of perspectives. For example, in European countries it is not uncommon to see naked patrons at a public pool while this is considered “indecent exposure,” a crime in the United States that carries a hefty fine and possibly jail time ("Criminaldefenselawyer.com", 2013). Growing up exposed to this type of atmosphere can desensitize a person’s sense of modesty. As a child experiences new situations and opinions their first reaction is usually to ask their parents or other close family members to explain the difference between their beliefs. This becomes a very important part of how the nature of logic can be molded. When clarifying the variations parents often convey their true feelings and opinions, projecting them on the child and in turn directing the child’s thought process in the same direction as theirs. Open-minded people often times raise open-minded children while those with very strict beliefs pass them onto their children. This inheritance of ideas and opinions is also responsible for shaping perception. Perception is an important aspect of how critical thinking correlates with…...

Similar Documents

Logics

...Introduction to Logic GROUP A 1) The following argument involves the use of emotionally loaded language. Is it wrong to conduct medical research on animals? Is it wrong to trap an innocent creature, one whose only crime is availability and no representation, to confine it in dreadful isolation, in an inhumanely small space whose environmental conditions are foreign, to force feed it on the cheapest diet possible, and, in the interim, to perform ungodly acts upon it causing horrible pain? a) Write a well-crafted version of the argument, replacing the emotionally loaded verbiage with more neutral language. b) Examine each statement and explain with reference to the language and sentences used as to how you could decide whether this argument is valid or invalid. c) Give one example each of how hedges and assurances are used in arguments that are not well-crafted. d) Demonstrate or give an example of how non-uniform language is used in arguments that are not well-crafted. e) Write a counterargument to the passage above. Mercy killing is morally permissible only if it promotes a greater amount of happiness for everyone affected than the alternatives do. And mercy killing does promote a greater amount of happiness for everyone affected than the alternatives do. Therefore, mercy killing is morally permissible. f) Use as many......

Words: 405 - Pages: 2

Logic

...Logical Concepts an overview What is logic? •  Logic is the science of reasoning, •  which is to say: the academic discipline that investigates reasoning. What is reasoning? •  reasoning is inferring (deducing) •  to infer is to draw conclusions (output) from a premise or set of premises (input). An Example of Reasoning You see smoke And you infer That there is fire (input) (deduce) (output) Another example of Reasoning You count 19 people in a group; which originally had 20 people in it; and you infer that someone is missing (input) (input) (deduce) (output) The Basic Idea Logic evaluates reasoning in terms of arguments. What is an argument? •  The word “argument” can mean many different things depending on the context. •  But for the purposes of logic, the term “argument” means something very specific: What is an argument? •  an argument is a collection of statements, one of which is designated as the conclusion, and the remainder of which are designated as the premises. •  Important note: premises are always intended to provide support or evidence for the conclusion, but they don't always succeed. (It’s still an argument either way.) What is a statement? •  A statement is a declarative sentence, •  i.e., a sentence that is capable of being true or false. •  For example: The door is closed. •  Other kinds of sentence are not capable of being true or false: •  Interrogative sentences are inquiries for information: Is the......

Words: 2744 - Pages: 11

Logic

...Class: BBA 1 (Section B) Course title: Introduction to logic Assignment no 1 Chapter no 3 Categorical proposition Submitted to: Sir Imran Exercise I. State the converses of the following proposition and indicate which of them are equivalent to the given proposition. 1. No people who are considerate of others are reckless drivers who pay no attention to traffic regulations. Answer: No reckless drivers who pay no attention to traffic regulation are people who are considerate of others. (Equivalent) 2. All those who pass the NDA exam are commissioned officers in Indian army. Answer: *All commissioned officer in Indian army are those who pass NDA exam. (Not equivalent) *Some commissioned officer in Indian army are those who pass NDA exam. (Limit) (Equivalent) 3. Some Korean cars are overpriced and inferior quality automobiles. Answer: Some overpriced and inferior quality automobiles are Korean cars. (Equivalent) 4. No reptiles are warm-blooded animals. Answer: No warm-blooded animals are reptiles. (Equivalent) 5. Some film producers are elderly persons who are incapable of producing works of quality anymore. Answer: Some elderly persons who are incapable of producing works of quality anymore......

Words: 525 - Pages: 3

Conflicting Logics of Twentieth Century Critical Theory: a Language Construct or a Social Notion?

...Critical Theory concerns conflicting logics- a social concern versus a language one. In the pathways of developments in theory, there are two diverging points- one, the obsession with language, communication systems and, two the focus on social construction. On one hand, Critical Theory of society emerged to deal with those aspects of social reality which Marx and his followers downplayed and neglected. It takes a specialized sense, describing the work of the Frankfurt School. On the other hand, it is concerned with the dominance of language to explain all phenomena. The term ‘Critical Theory’ was coined in 1930s. The concept of language and culture being linked has been discussed for a long period. However, in the twentieth century, Critical theory marks a linguistic turn; a whole new approach to language, literature and interpretation. During this period one witnessed the rise of an astonishing number of theories that used language as a basis for thinking about every kind of human experience. There were ‘new’ ways of looking at psychology, sexuality, philosophy, politics, technology— and, of course, literature. The major theories that spawned in critical theory ranged from formalism, structuralism, semiotics, psychoanalysis, and deconstruction, to the responses and critiques posed by race and gender theory, cultural studies, post colonialism, and new media. At the very crux of literary theory is language. Books are made of language; the question 20th century critical......

Words: 749 - Pages: 3

Logic

...Part one of the video opens up by telling viewers that Aristotle is credited with formalizing logic as a discipline. Viewers are directed to the aspect of what arguments are in the area of logic. Arguments are not heated exchanges or personal assaults, but however they are a group of statements. Statements are sentences capable of being true or false. An example of a statement is saying, “All cats are vicious animals.” The next topic that is brought up in part one of the video is the subject of inference. Inference is the reasoning process of an argument. Inference can be explicit (using premise and/or conclusion indicator words) and implicit (the reader has to catch the inference). Finally the video concludes with the point that there are four non-inferences commonly mistaken for arguments these are: advice, assertion, reports, and explanations. Part two of the formal logic video is the topic of inference. As stated in the early video inference is the reasoning process of an argument. Viewers are now introduced with the topic of deductive and inductive arguments. A deductive argument means that there is no possibility of the conclusion being false when the premises are true. Inductive arguments mean that the premises merely make the conclusion likely (conclusion “goes beyond” the premises). Lastly inductive forms are arguments based on signs, prediction, and generalization just to name a few. Part three of the video talks about validity, strength, soundness, and......

Words: 423 - Pages: 2

Logic

...Are Aware Of Folk Culture Court Cultural Makeup We Are Unaware Of Deep Culture CAVUMC05_124-157hr 10/10/07 1:41 PM Page 131 Why Culture Matters in International Business 131 Why Culture Matters in International Business Effective handling of the cross-cultural interface is a critical source of a firm’s competitive advantage. Managers need to develop not only empathy and tolerance toward cultural differences, but also acquire a sufficient degree of factual knowledge about the beliefs and values of foreign counterparts. Cross-cultural proficiency is paramount in many managerial tasks, including: • • • • Developing products and services Communicating and interacting with foreign business partners Screening and selecting foreign distributors and other partners Negotiating and structuring international business ventures • Interacting with current and potential customers from abroad • Preparing for overseas trade fairs and exhibitions • Preparing advertising and promotional materials9 Let’s consider specific examples of how cross-cultural differences may complicate workplace issues:10 Teamwork. Cooperating to achieve common organizational goals is critical to business success. But what should managers do if foreign and domestic nationals don’t get along with each other? Try to sensitize each group to differences and develop an appreciation for them? Rally the groups around common goals? Explicitly reward joint work? Lifetime employment. Workers in......

Words: 18507 - Pages: 75

Geek Logics and Metaphysics in Critical Thinking

...CRITICAL THINKING (HCT 1012) Question I : Geek Logics and Metaphysics in Critical Thinking Question II : Modern Western Philosophy in Critical Thinking Name : Muhammad Abid bin Ariffin Matric No : BS-04/12-00052 I/C No : 940621-10-5287 Session : 2013/2014 (03) Name of Lecturer : Mr. N.Krishnan Table of Content No. | Particular | Page | 1 | Acknowledgements | | 2 | Introduction | | 3 | Question I : Geek Logics and Metaphysics in Critical Thinking | | 4 | i.Background | | 5 | ii.Contribution | | 6 | Question II : Modern Western Philosophy in Critical Thinking | | 7 | i.Background | | 8 | ii.Contribution | | 9 | Conclusion | | 10 | Refference | | Acknowledgements I would like tyo thank Mr. N.Krishnan for assistance in conducting Critical Thiunking’s class and the following reviewers for their helpful cemment and suggestions on an earlier draft of this paper. Thanks to the legenda’s wifi for the internet access to accesss all the information. Thanks to god give me evergy to do this task. Thanks to my parents for give me support. Introduction Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally. It includes the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking. Someone with critical thinking skills is able to do the following : * understand the logical connections between ideas * identify, construct and evaluate arguments * detect inconsistencies and common mistakes in reasoning *......

Words: 429 - Pages: 2

Logic

...CHAPTER 2 Identifying Arguments The starred items are also contained in the Answer Key in the back of The Power of Logic. Exercise 2.1 Part A: Arguments and Nonarguments *1. 2. 3. *4. 5. 6. *7. 8. 9. *10. 11. 12. *13. 14. 15. *16. 17. 18. *19. 20. 21. *22. 23. 24. 25. Nonargument (explanation). Nonargument (conditional statement). Nonargument (report). Argument. Conclusion: Waging war is always wrong. Nonargument (explanation). Argument. Conclusion: Today the principal threat to America is America’s public education establishment. Argument. Conclusion: Without us, light does not exist. Nonargument (conditional statement). Nonargument (report). Nonargument (explanation). Nonargument (explanation). Argument. Conclusion: The population of the world has grown both steadily and rapidly since 1950. Nonargument (report). Argument. Conclusion: James died because he was hanged. Argument. Conclusion: Not all mob bosses avoid prison. Nonargument (illustration). Nonargument (conditional). Nonargument (illustration). Nonargument (conditional). Argument. Conclusion: The U.S. policy of nuclear deterrence was immoral. Nonargument (conditional). Argument. Conclusion: The good don’t always die young. Nonargument (explanation). Argument. Conclusion: Some metals are liquids at room temperature. Argument. Conclusion: Stealing is wrong simply because society disapproves of it. Exercise 2.2 Part A: Identifying Arguments *1. 1. The defendant is insane. So, 2. The defendant is not......

Words: 5559 - Pages: 23

Logic

...Logics Introduction to Logic GROUP A 1) The following argument involves the use of emotionally loaded language. Is it wrong to conduct medical research on animals? Is it wrong to trap an innocent creature, one whose only crime is availability and no representation, to confine it in dreadful isolation, in an inhumanely small space whose environmental conditions are foreign, to force feed it on the cheapest diet possible, and, in the interim, to perform ungodly acts upon it causing horrible pain? a) Write a well-crafted version of the argument, replacing the emotionally loaded verbiage with more neutral language. b) Examine each statement and explain with reference to the language and sentences used as to how you could decide whether this argument is valid or invalid. c) Give one example each of how hedges and assurances are used in arguments that are not well-crafted. d) Demonstrate or give an example of how non-uniform language is used in arguments that are not well-crafted. e) Write a counterargument to the passage above. Mercy killing is morally permissible only if it promotes a greater amount of happiness for everyone affected than the alternatives do. And mercy killing does promote a greater amount of happiness for everyone affected than the alternatives do. Therefore, mercy killing is morally permissible. f) Use......

Words: 301 - Pages: 2

Phil 447 Logic and Critical Thinking Final Exam Answers

...PHIL 447 Logic and Critical Thinking Final Exam Answers Follow Link Below To Get Tutorial http://homeworklance.com/downloads/phil-447-logic-and-critical-thinking-final-exam-answers/ PHIL 447 Logic and Critical Thinking Final Exam Answers (TCOs 3, 6, 7, 9) Here is a passage that contains a rhetorical fallacy. Name that fallacy, and in a paragraph, explain why the argument is irrelevant to the point of the passage. Here is your example for this question: I know I forgot to deposit that check into the bank yesterday. But I can’t do anything that pleases you. I brought you flowers yesterday and you didn’t even put them in water. (TCOs 5, 8) In the example below, identify the presumed cause and the presumed effect. Does the example contain or imply a causal claim, a hypothesis, or an explanation that cannot be tested? If it does fall into one of those categories, tell whether the problem is due to vagueness, circularity, or some other problem of language. Also tell whether there might be some way to test the situation if it is possible at all. Here is your example: This part of the coastline is subject to mudslides because there is a lack of mature vegetation growing on it. (TCOs 2, 4) Explain in what way the thinking of the following statement is wrong or defective. Give reasons for your judgment. There must be something to palm reading. Millions of people believe in it. (TCOs 3, 9) Briefly discuss how we look at sample size, sample diversity and......

Words: 10177 - Pages: 41

Logic

...1.2.1.AK Combinational Logic Design Introduction Combinational and sequential logic are the fundamental building blocks of digital electronics. Combinational logic, which is sometimes referred to as "combinatorial logic”, is characterized by its output being a function of the current input value. A variety of different logic gates can be used to implement combinational logic circuits. Many of these gates will be studied in future units of this course. In this introductory unit, we will limit our designs to AND, OR, and INVERTER gates for the sake of simplicity. In this activity you will use the Circuit Design Software (CDS) to build and test your first combinational logic circuits. Equipment * Circuit Design Software (CDS) Procedure Now it’s time for you to implement your first AOI combinational logic circuit. The circuit that we will use for this purpose is a Car Safety Buzzer design.The design specifications are as follows: The buzzer is on whenever the door is open or when the key is in the ignition and the seat belt is not buckled. 1. Create a table that describes these design specification in terms of “highs” (1) and “lows” (0). This is when the sensor or indicator is active or not active. Seat Belt | 0 = SEAT BELT NOT BUCKLED | | 1 = SEAT BELT BUCKLED | Key | 0 = KEY NOT IN THE IGNITION | | 1 = KEY IN THE IGNITION | Door | 0 = DOOR IS NOT OPEN | | 1 = DOOR IS OPEN | Buzzer | 0 = BUZZER is OFF | | 1 = BUZZER is ON | 2.......

Words: 690 - Pages: 3

Logic

...deserve a second chance on a new planet." "Maybe so," Claudia says in a patronizing tone."And now that you mention it, we probably have a legal obligation to let them in. Our current immigration laws say that we have to admit at least ten thousand applicants annually, from every major nation. If those aliens would just sign the right papers, we'd have to give them permanent resi­ dency. However, what worries me is, they may have the wrong intentions. After all, didn't they conduct experiments on those people they abducted?" "Yes, but don't we experiment on animals? If the animals don't complain, why should we? Also, medical experimentation often leads to wonderful new cures. I'm certain we have nothing to worry about," says Ralph, proud of his logic. "Humph! I hope you're right. Well, I've got to go now-and don't let any green men kidnap you," Claudia says with a barb. "And you, either," Ralph answers. 3.4 Fallacies of Presumption, Ambiguity, and Grammatical Analogy The fallacies of presumption include begging the question, complex question, false dichotomy, and suppressed evidence. These fallacies arise not because the premises are irrelevant to the conclusion or provide insufficient reason for believing the conclusion but because the premises presume what they purport to prove. Begging the question presumes that the premises provide adequate support for the conclusion when in fact they do not, and complex question presumes that a question can be answered by a sim­ ple......

Words: 9519 - Pages: 39

Logic

...Administration Presentation Questions Module Name: Introduction to Logic Module Code: ECO1015 GROUP A 1) The following argument violates some principles of well-crafted Arguments: While 1[there is much wickedness in the world,] 2[there is also much good.] For 3[if there is evil, then there must be good,] since 4[good and evil are relative, like big and small.] And no one will deny that 5[evil exists.] Answer questions ‘a’ to‘d’ below from the passage above. a) Identify and give the names of two (2) excess verbiages used in the passage. b) Write a well-crafted version of the argument by eliminating all excess verbiages and restructuring the argument if necessary. c) Construct an argument diagram to help you to identify the logical structure of the argument. d) Examine each statement and explain with reference to the language and sentences used as to how you could decide whether this argument is valid or invalid. e) Give one example each of how hedges and assurances are used in arguments that are not well-crafted. f) Demonstrate or give an example of how non-uniform language is used in arguments that are not well-crafted. g) Construct an example of an enthymeme that has all categorical statements. h) Explain exactly what makes the argument in ‘g’ above an enthymeme. i) Use any appropriate method learnt in logic to test and report on the validity of this enthymeme. j) Where an argument form......

Words: 570 - Pages: 3

Logic

...Logic Application Project Student Name: _______________________, _______________________ Last Name First Name The Problem: How can you found out what cards you have? The Approach: First, we should examine the stated facts that Andy has the cards 1 3 7 while Belle has the cards 3 4 7 and Carol has the cards 4 6 8. Then the second thing we will look at is their answer on the question cards that they draw. Combining the information given and their answers on the question cards, we can figure out what is the connection of these to your own cards, and that’s how we will figure out what cards you have. Conclusion: First, by examining the stated facts that Andy has the cards 1 3 7 while Belle has the cards 3 4 7 and Carol has the cards 4 6 8, and the answer of Belle to his question card, knowing that she sees Andy, Carol and yours, she says that she sees all of them, the five odd numbers on the cards that she can see and Carol don’t have any odd number on her cards so the ones that are left is you and Andy. Andy has three odd numbers of each kind on his cards and that would leave a conclusion that you have two odd numbers on your cards. Looking back to the answer of Andy to the question “Do you see two or more players whose card sum to the same value?” and answered “Yes”, knowing that the cards he can see are yours, Belle and Carol, and the sum of Belle’s cards and Carol’s cards are not the same, we can conclude that one of them have...

Words: 982 - Pages: 4

Logic

... Logic Application After evaluating the game of “Guess your Card”, I assume that my cards could only be 4, 5, and 9. I came up with this logic by starting with Andy. I add all three numbers together from each player. Andy has the cards of 1, 3, and 7 with a sum of 11. Belle has the cards 3, 4, and 7 with a sum of 14, and Carol has the cards 4, 6 and 8 with a sum of 18. Since each player have a different sum I took the players with the highest sum which is Belle and Carol to see which player cards would add up with my cards. Next, Belle draw the question card, “of the five odd numbers”, how many different odd numbers do you see? She answer all of them. Only because the only odd numbers she see is from Andy and Carol which are 1, 3, and 7. That's how I came up with the numbers of 5 and 9. I then, add together 5 and 9 which is 14, let's not forget in the beginning I said the sums must add up to either 14 or 18. Since 5+9=14, and the smallest card is 1 so my cards must add up to more than 14. The sum of my cards must be 18. In order for me to find out what is my final card I must subtract 18 from 9 and 5 which gives me 4. You can also see why Andy knew what cards he had. He realize that the only odd numbers Belle could see from Carol and myself were 5 and 9, but yet she claim she could see all five odd numbers. So the remaining three: 1, 3 and 7 must have come from Andy himself. That's how he figure out what he had. The logic of......

Words: 342 - Pages: 2

Seth Meyers | The Children Act 2017 FRENCH BRRip XviD AC3-AM84 | Crested Geckos