Cultural Dimension Differences Us vs India

In: Business and Management

Submitted By goaks
Words 2493
Pages 10
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions US vs. India by Edward A. Molnar

January 19, 2013

Abstract
This article acknowledges the six dimensions of Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions, and defines five of them for a comparison between the United States and India. This article shows for the most part, the definitions of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are correct, but the article did identify some ambiguities while making the comparisons. Finally, future areas of possible research were identified that would assist in the removal of the ambiguities.

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions US vs. India
Geert Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions was a result of an analysis of a world-wide survey of employee values by IBM in the 1960’s and 1970’s. This theory describes the effects of a society’s culture on the values of that culture’s members and how those values relate to behavior. This is accomplished by using a structure resulting from factor analysis (Hofstede, 2011). This theory has been used as an example for several fields, particularly in cross-cultural psychology (Hofstede, 2011).
Geert Hofstede’s original cultural dimensions theory had four dimensions from which cultural values could be analyzed. These four dimensions were: (a) individualism versus collectivism (IDV); (b) uncertainty avoidance (UAI); (c) power distance (PDI); (d) masculinity versus femininity (MAS). While Hofstede was performing research in Hong Kong he added the fifth dimension, long-term orientation (LTO). In 2010, Hofstede and co-author Michael Minkov wrote “Cultures and Organizations Software of the Mind.” As a result of Minkov’s analysis from the World Value Survey, Hofstede added a sixth dimension, indulgence versus self-restraint (IVR).
In the five dimension model, a scale exists for 50 countries and 3 regions for each dimension. See Appendix A. This was later updated…...

Similar Documents

The Dimensions of Cultural Diversity

...The Dimensions of Cultural Diversity According to Geert Hofestede, a scholar and researcher from the Netherlands, there are four dimensions of cultural diversity: power distance, collectivism vs. individualism, femininity vs. masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance. (Hofstede, n.d.). As cited by Maloney, Geert Hofstede, “…defined a dimension as an aspect of culture that can be measured relative to other cultures. He suggested that people carry “mental programs” which develop in the family and in early childhood and are reinforced in a person’s organizations and community. Hofstede further suggested that these mental programs include a component of national culture and are expressed in an individual’s values…” (Maloney, n.d.). Asrani (2000-2010), defines power distance as the extent to which a society accepts the fact that power in organizations is distributed unequally. Individualism/collectivism is defined as the extent to which people act on their own or as a part of a group. Uncertainty avoidance is defined as the extent to which people in a society feel threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations. Masculinity/feminity [sic] is defined as the extent to which a society values quantity of life (e.g., accomplishment, money) over quality of life (e.g. compassion, beauty). (Diversity in Workforce, para. 6). Identification and Explanation Referencing Textbooks The factors of racism, ageism, sexism, (including prejudices against gays, lesbians, and other......

Words: 1412 - Pages: 6

Us and Chinese Cultural Difference

...Week Two Assignment Two Aly Parker 5/28/13 SOC1001 People of different culture universally have different values and customs, not counting different perspectives on life and different techniques of learning. “Because all humans face the same basic needs (such as for food, clothing, and shelter), we engage in similar activities that contribute to our survival” (Kendall, 2012, p.64). There are many differences that separate the United States and Chinese cultures. Because these two diverse countries do not have similar history or geographic location there are both typical and general cultures differences. Even though these countries have very different cultures, they do have some similarities along with a lot of dissimilarities. Both China and the United States have their own distinctive past, which initiated with their diverse cultures and lifestyles. China is a very traditional country, and it was first established more the five thousand years ago. China has a long history of famine and wars, and this is why the Chinese find such enjoyment in food whenever they receive the chance. Food is a very important heritage of China, and every year during the spring they have a Spring Festival. This festival is one of the most important times of the year for the Chinese, and it was created as a celebration of food and family, and it includes colorful and indulgent foods. The Chinese believe that it is a form of disrespect if you do not celebrate this time of the year with a......

Words: 827 - Pages: 4

Culture Differences in India

...Globalization Note Series Pankaj Ghemawat and Sebastian Reiche National Cultural Differences and Multinational Business The eminent Dutch psychologist, management researcher, and culture expert Geert Hofstede, early in his career, interviewed unsuccessfully for an engineering job with an American company. Later, he wrote of typical cross-cultural misunderstandings that crop up when American managers interview Dutch recruits and vice versa: “American applicants, to Dutch eyes, oversell themselves. Their CVs are worded in superlatives…during the interview they try to behave assertively, promising things they are very unlikely to realize…Dutch applicants in American eyes undersell themselves. They write modest and usually short CVs, counting on the interviewer to find out by asking how good they really are…they are very careful not to be seen as braggarts and not to make promises they are not absolutely sure they can fulfill. American interviewers know how to interpret American CVs and interviews and they tend to discount the information provided. Dutch interviewers, accustomed to Dutch applicants, tend to upgrade the information. To an uninitiated American interviewer an uninitiated Dutch applicant comes across as a sucker. To an uninitiated Dutch interviewer an uninitiated American applicant comes across as a braggart.”1 Cultural differences, while difficult to observe and measure, are obviously very important. Failure to appreciate and account for them can lead to......

Words: 10010 - Pages: 41

Cultural Differences: Us and Eastern Europe

...United States is very different from the rest of the world, that's a cliche, right? But as every platitude it holds the truth. Here are some of my observations: Keeping appearances vs showing real emotions Most Americans when asked "How are you?" will reply with a typical "I am fine, thank you" response. On the contrary, people from Eastern European countries will usually say "You would better not ask, life sucks" or something similar. Eastern Europeans love to talk about misfortunes that they have to deal with. This seems almost like a social norm and accepted custom to complain about life and your personal problems. Depending on a relationship with you they will open up and recite a more or less detailed list of their troubles. It seems safer to talk about negative aspects of life with other people. Why? Because nobody envies you if your life seems to be a drama. In Poland it was common to talk about adversities, bad luck and all kinds of disasters in communism era. It was a social norm to complain about anything and everything including the regim. At that time people needed to vent their frustration and grumbling about their lack of freedom and other difficulties was an expression of that vexation. But apparently they still love to complain even though the times changed. In United States it is different. On surface everyone is doing great, there is a smile on the face and a nonchalant "I am great" response. It takes a real friend to confine that things are falling......

Words: 573 - Pages: 3

The Perfect Cultural Dimension

...Despite the huge number of studies about cultural dimensions, I think that it does not still exist a “perfect theory” which can help us understanding better other cultures. Professors L. Nardon and R. M. Steers try to find a solution not creating another brand-new theory, but providing what they call the “core cultural dimension”. The aim of the two professors is to seek convergence across the already existing theories, trying to facilitate both research and cross-cultural comparisons. The “core cultural dimensions” are: • Hierarchy - Equality • Individualism - Collectivism • Mastery - Harmony • Monochronism - Polychronism • Universalism – Particularism In spite of the attempt of solving the so-called “culture theory jungle”, they are not still come to the perfect theory. In my opinion, in order to find the perfect theory, a professor does not have to seek all the convergences among already existing cultural dimensions and make a summary of them, but, rather, he has to choose the right ones paying attention to the others. My perfect theory is formed by five dimensions and it deals with the following topics: • Use of time • Display emotions • Communication • Reach the goal Personally, I do not take into consideration any of the four clusters which Hofstede calls “the dimensions of national culture”. Of course, they can be considered the ancestors of later models and they inspired a lot of theorists, but they are also too old (1967-1973), too general,...

Words: 830 - Pages: 4

Cultural Difference: Borat, God Grew Tired of Us, and Going Tribal

...big role in the initial transition of all those involved. After the initial shock wore off, all of these people found that they had to adapt to their surroundings. This paper discusses their experiences. God Grew Tired of Us covered many of the discussions that were held in class. The Lost Boys of Sudan were both excited and nervous about coming to America. They found themselves in a landscape that was drastically different than the arid land from which they had come. Paved roads, an abundance of motor cars, huge buildings, etc. These were all marvels to the travelers. The Lost Boys made many observations about their surroundings. Some of these observations revealed how they obviously see the world differently than we, the average American citizen, do. While watching one of their group struggle in an attempt to ice skate, someone made the comment that he looked like a wounded soldier. Most Americans do not have that point of reference and therefore do not come to that conclusion while watching people participating in simple, fun activities. While watching them observe the Fourth of July firework display, I could not help but wonder whether or not they made the same kind of connection. Did they look at the fireworks and think of war torn times? Cultural behaviors were apparent as well. The Lost Boys were nervous about approaching strangers in a strange land but felt it rude not to. In Sudan, one would not simply ignore a passerby without so much as a greeting. They also......

Words: 1530 - Pages: 7

Leadership and Cultural Differences

...MANAGERIAL LEADERSHIP AND CULTURAL DIFFERENCES OF EASTERN EUROPEAN ECONOMIES   Darryl J, Mitry and Thomas Bradley  National University School of Business and Technology http://marketing.byu.edu/htmlpages/ccrs/proceedings99/mitrybradley.htm Key Factors: ~ Global Business, Colliding cultures & Changing Economies   ~With the accession of the 21st Century, the developing globalization of business and other expanding pluralistic organizations we need to reconsider the topic of managerial leadership within a much larger perspective than has been the usual practice. Therefore, we offer some observations from empirical research and suggest theoretical directions. We review the subject as it relates to the challenges of transnational business and more specifically with reference to business operations in the emerging and transforming economies of Eastern Europe such as the newly independent regions of the former Soviet Union (FSU). The observed “globalization” of business is the precursor to the growing interdependency of peoples around the world; the development of a “Global Community.” This appears to be an inescapable and major event that is contributing to the dissolution of boundaries between customary disciplines of knowledge, information, technology, countries and peoples around the world. Associated with this phenomenon is an intensifying need to provide a strategic global approach in management education.(Mitry & Thomas, 2000)  ~ In the new era of...

Words: 21951 - Pages: 88

Eastern vs. Western Philosophical Differences and Their Cultural Implications

...Questioning vs. Acceptance, Truth vs. Balance: A Comparison of East and West Canyon Law Western cultures have historically differed greatly from their far Eastern counterparts in several ways, be it in lifestyle, government, or worldview. These noticeable differences can be attributed to the West’s and East’s own unique philosophical backgrounds. While Western philosophers such as Locke, John Stuart Mill, and Socrates put large emphasis on the ideals of questioning authority in the search for truth, Eastern dogma—as reflected by Daoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism—assert very different, conflicting values focused on acceptance and obedience of superiors. Because of this disparity of thought process, East and West subscribe to very different schools of thought with regards to individualism, rationalism, and democracy. Jon Stuart Mill, in his book On Liberty, promotes the importance of constant debate of ideas. He argues that all opinions must be heard, whether they are from the majority or a minority of beliefs. He states that, “Judgment is given to men that they may use it… To prohibit what they think pernicious is not claiming from error, but fulfilling the duty incumbent on them, although fallible, of acting on their conscientious conviction. If we were never to act on our opinions, because those opinions may be wrong, we should leave all our interests uncared for, and all our duties underperformed.” (p. 18). In this passage, Mill argues that “judgment,” in this case......

Words: 2678 - Pages: 11

India vs Us Religion

...Into to Sociology Who Am I Part II Due: 9/14/14 Religions of India Religion just might be the biggest social institution I can think of in the world. There is no part of the world where religion doesn’t exist. The biggest thing religion and India have in common is the freedom and diversity. All of India’s people have the right to religious freedom and can practice and worship any religion they please, but religion plays a central role in Indian daily life through its temple ceremonies, festivals, pilgrimages, family religious traditions. Diversity of religion is what I would like to focus on as I look deeper into the foreign country of India. Just like the United States, India also shares freedom of religion. India is diverse in its own since when it comes to religious beliefs. India is the birthplace of four of the world’s major religions; namely Hinduism Buddhism Jainism and Sikhism. According to a 2001 census, out of 1028 million population, little over 827 million (80.5%) have returned themselves as followers of Hindu religion, 138 million (13.4%) as Muslims or the followers of Islam, 24 million (2.3%) as Christians, 19 million (1.9%) as Sikh, 8 million (0.80%) as Buddhists and 4 million (0.4%) are Jain. In addition, over 6 million have reported professing other religions and faiths including tribal religions, different from six main religions (Religion, Census of India 2001, censusindia.gov.). With India being the second largest nation population wise, coming in......

Words: 542 - Pages: 3

Cultural Dimensions

...Frankfurt International Business Administration Cultural Diversity Professor: Hans Hahn Summer Semester 2014 Cultural Dimensions of Geert Hofstede: Analysis of Colombia 10.06.2014 Soraya A. Suarez I. Register Number: 969800 Darmstädter Landstr. 64 60598 Frankfurt Tel: 0176- 708 59654 E-mail: sorayasuarez@gmail.com Cultural Dimensions of Geert Hofstede: Analysis of Colombia 2 Content 1. Introduction............................................2 2. Culture.................................................3 3. Colombia................................................5 4. Cultural Models and Cultural Dimensions.................9 4.1 Geert Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions.................9 4.1.1. Power Distance Index...........................10 4.1.2. Uncertainty Avoidance..........................12 4.1.3. Individualism vs. Collectivism.................13 4.1.4. Masculinity vs. Femininity.....................15 4.1.5. Long vs. Short-term Orientation................16 4.1.6. Indulgence vs. Restraint.......................17 5. Conclusion.............................................20 6. References.............................................21 Table of Figures Colombia Facts & Figures...................................6 Colombia Location, Flag and Coat of Arms...................8 Colombian Population According to Ethnocultural Identity..11 Colombian Culture through the 6-D Model...................13 Cultural Dimensions of Geert Hofstede: Analysis of......

Words: 4459 - Pages: 18

Cultural Dimensions

... | | | |Dimensions of Culture | |MGT 4330-201 | |Spring 2013 | |Yundong Huang | |Texas A&M International University | |Gwennie Bee Potzka | |Due 3/15/2013 | Dimensions of Culture The five dimensions of culture are individualism, masculinity, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation. Individualism versus collectivism refers to how people see themselves and their relationships. Individualists say that individual...

Words: 730 - Pages: 3

Cultural Differences

...Cultural Differences Introduction Cultural diversity is the norm in today’s workplace. If you work for a large corporation, you most likely deal with people from various backgrounds and countries all day long. It is a difficult enough situation to have such cultural diversity amongst your peers but if you are a manager facing these demographics, you really face the challenge of learning the make-up and background of your team. In order to be an effective leader you will have to use various management styles as every team has different personality types, however, you will also have to be sensitive to and educated on what the cultural differences on your team are and how to tie it all together. Relationship building within your teams and reaching a diverse group with effective communication is a daunting challenge but necessary for success in today’s workforce. Millennials are the most ethnically and racially diverse generation ever in the history of the U.S. One out of three or thirty percent of Millennials is ethnically or racially diverse (Blain, 2008). The workforce is getting more and more diverse requiring effective communication, tolerance of others, and education about cultural differences. This paper will take a closer look at the cultural differences in Hofstede’s Five Dimensions between the United States and India. Cultural Differences in Hofstede’s Five Dimensions The workplace is getting more challenging to manage but Dr. Geert Hofstede and his Five...

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7

Cultural Dimensions

...Cultural dimensions are tools used to identify the way a culture communicates and how that culture differentiates from others (Neuliep, 2015). These dimensions are: individualism-collectivism, high-low context, value orientations, power distance and uncertainty avoidance (Neuliep, 2015). Each dimension allows us to evaluate which aspects of culture influences communication. For example, we can see how a culture regards superiors and subordinates, and whether or not that changes the style of communication. These dimensions are especially important when doing business. Junior, Meyer and Murphy (2006) suggest that many organizations have lost their resources because they did business with other companies without understanding the local culture. If these companies had used the 5 dimensions, they would have been able to work more aptly on an international level by identifying the values of the culture they are working with, and adjusting their own style of communication to better suit the other culture. If one were to do business in Canada, there are some very important things that would need to be known in order to be successful. The Canadian backpack metaphor tells us that Canadians are sturdy, frugal and proud of their country. It also highlights that Canada is a small power distance, low-context, individualistic culture. What stood out most is that they impress upon their people that “no one person is inherently any better than others” (Gannon, 220). This would be......

Words: 498 - Pages: 2

Cultural Dimensions: High Context vs. Low Context

...Dimensions of Culture Com 101 Cultural Dimension: High Context vs. Low Context Definition of the Dimension: High and low context communication are ways in which members of various cultures deliver messages. High context messages are communicated non-verbally, in an attempt to maintain social balance, while low context messages express what one would like to communicate directly through language. Examples of how this dimension of culture can result in misunderstanding and/or challenges faced by people who would come from different cultures in which the members of the respective cultures have learned different worldviews/ behaviors/beliefs, etc. regarding this particular dimension: One example of how high context communication could result in a misunderstanding is in a retail setting. An American employee could be going about their job as usual, and a person who is from a low context culture might not get the service they expect. An American might not pick up on the non-verbal cues given by somebody from a high context culture and could come off as rude or non-caring even if that isn’t their intention. An example of challenges faced by people who come from different cultures in which members of the respective cultures have learned different behaviors can happen in the business world. A new hire from a high context culture might have trouble adjusting to the business environment in the U.S. People in America and especially from......

Words: 305 - Pages: 2

Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions

...SUmmer semester 2016, 11.06.2016 Table of Contents – Cultural Dimensions according to Hofstede 1. The psychologist Hofstede a) Geert Hofstede b) Gert-Jan Hofstede 2. The cultural dimensions a) Social Orientation - Individualism-Collectivism-Index (IDV) b) Power Orientation – Power-Distance-Index (PDI) c) Uncertainty Orientation – Uncertainty-Avoidance-Index (UAI) d) Goal Orientation – Masculinity-Femininity-Index (MAS) e) Time Orientation – Long-Time vs. Short-Time-Orientation-Index (LTO) 3. Examples – Germany, United States, Venezuela 4. Problems and Discrepancies 5. Conclusion 6. Bibliography 1 Cultural dimensions according to Geert Hofstede Classifying and comparing cultures is strongly connected with the name Geert Hofstede. The Dutch social psychologist, as he calls himself, was born in 1928 in Haarlem(Netherlands) as Gerard Hendrik Hofstede. He went to schools until 1945, that was when he completed the Diploma Gymnasium Beta. From 17 on until he was 25 years old, he studied Mechanical Engineering and ended it in 1953 with a Master’s Degree. After two years of military service he started working in managerial jobs until 1965. He completed his Ph.D. in Social Sciences in part time studies. Already during that time, from 1965 until 1971 he founded and managed the Personnel Research Department of IBM. In this time, he developed the theory of the Cultural Dimensions that are presented in this paper. He worked with......

Words: 2323 - Pages: 10

The Quest for the Historical Jesus | The Flash Action | Wicked Lovely series