In: Historical Events

Submitted By cellmembrane416
Words 2193
Pages 9
Causes of Deforestation:

Agriculture - As demands on agricultural products rise more and more land is brought under cultivation for which forests are cleared, grass-lands ploughed, uneven grounds leveled, marshes drained and even land under water is reclaimed.

Plantations and commercial agriculture - A major force behind deforestation is commercial agriculture: Wealthy companies clear large areas of forest to be converted into farmland. Commercial agriculture such as: Palm oil and acacia trees, cattle ranching, soybeans, etc.

Urbanization - Industries and towns are developing in former rainforest.

Hydroelectric power - Rivers are dammed and huge areas of forest are flooded as a result.

Transport - Transport networks are built through the forest to link settlements.

Industries - Forest are cleared to support industrial activities and extraction of resource, Two main types are: Logging for timber and mining for minerals.

Forest Fires - Fire is often used to clear forested land, as it is cheaper than employing laborers and bringing in machinery to remove the trees and vegetation. The vegetation is cleared and left to dry out, then the area is set on fire. Burning of forest has taken place on a small scale for many thousands of years, by small groups of subsistence farmers, this is known as slash and burn agriculture.

Mining - Large areas of forest are cleared for the open-cast mining of minerals such as iron, gold and copper.

Roads - Road shave been built through rain forest to enable minerals, timber, cattle and crops to be moved easily. Roads also bring in new settlers who clear areas for farming.

Logging - Only valuable trees are chopped down (Celtic logging) but as they fall, they damage other trees. Even more damage is caused by ‘clear felling’ where other trees are also chopped down and chipped for pulp.

Lands for peasants…...

Similar Documents


...degradation has been one of paramount progressive issues the world is facing in different ways. This tumultuous predicament had been as result of deforestation of forest trees and women and men who are environmentalist and eco-feminist had played many roles in fighting against the patriarchal capitalist from further destruction and advocating protection of the environment and forest reserves. Deforestation is cutting down of trees in the forest areas and within our surroundings which meets human natural needs and provides a dwelling to wild life and other animal species. The study of environmental changes through eco-feminist perspective helps to throw light on the effects of those changes, roles humans played in effecting those changes, gender roles, economic roles in the destruction of our environment through deforestation. According to Catharine Roach article “Love your Mother”, “the eco-feminist book Rape of the wild evokes this latter motif of the fertile but wounded earth by linking the violent treatment of women with violent against animals and the ecosystem (Roach, pg: 26)” this explain the power imbalance that exist in the system where a particular group in position of power sees everything under their control as powerless and an idea of exploitation. This is also the case in the issues of deforestation. Deforestation is deteriorating our environment which in some cases is as a result of increase in human population and it is disturbance as well as encroachment......

Words: 1500 - Pages: 6


...UNIT I DEFORESTATION CHAPTER 1 What is deforestation? Deforestation is the removal or damage of vegetation in a forest to the extent that it no longer supports its natural flora and fauna. In other words, deforestation can be defined as the transformation of forest land to non-forest uses where forest land includes lands under agro-forestry and shifting cultivation, and not simply closed canopy primary forests (FAO/UNEP, 1982). However, this definition does not include “logging”. More inclusive was Myers’s 1980 definition, where deforestation refers, “generally to the complete destruction of forest cover through clearing for agriculture … [so] … that not a tree remains, and the land is given over to non-forest purposes … [and where] very heavy and unduly negligent logging … [result in a] … decline of biomass and depletion of ecosystem services … . So severe that the residual forest can no longer qualify as forest in any practical sense of the world.” Alan Graigner (1980, AS quoted in Saxena and Nautiyal, 1997) asserts that selective logging does not “lead to forest clearance and does not constitute deforestation”, whereas Norman Myers (1980, 1993) thinks that logging is crucial because, although it may only affect a small proportion of trees per hectare, it damages wide areas and is the precursor of penetration by the forest farmers. For the purpose of this study, the FAO’s latest definitions (1993) will be used. The FAO defines forests as “ecosystems with a minimum...

Words: 17310 - Pages: 70


...DEFORESTATION By: Madan Thapa Economics 2302 Tarrant County College Southeast Abstract This paper gives the definition of deforestation and also shows the effects of it in the environment. This paper talks about the programs that are implemented in three major parts of the world Brazil in South America, Congo Basin in Africa and Indonesia in Asia. A forest is a home of many animals, insects, and plants. Cutting down trees means making all of these creatures homeless and make them extinct. Deforestation means cutting down trees of a forest for other purposes such as to make a farm, for mining, to make roads and for grazing of cattle. Deforestation have a very serious effect on environment, but also people don’t stop cutting down trees because they need money, a space to build their houses, and to make space for agriculture as well. Cutting down tries without care have severe effect in the whole ecosystem. Although the effect of deforestation is high, the products made from the trees are a large part of the economy in both developed and developing countries. The trees are used in building houses, making papers and also for heating and cooking purposes. The cutting down of trees can help in increasing countries GDP for short term, but at the end it causes many devastating effects which leads into decrease in the economy. This can be seen in many developing countries. The major effect of deforestation can be seen in developing countries like Congo, Indonesia, and......

Words: 894 - Pages: 4


...Jill Cottle Econ 2302 Professor Nervo July 30, 2013 Deforestation and its Effects Deforestation is a prosperous business. Land is cleared to make room for infrastructures and other transportation which links once inaccessible populations to valued marketplaces and vice-versa. The scope of the problem with deforestation has been seen world-wide from the Brazilian Amazon, Indonesia, Russia, and even in the United States. Deforestation has a big payoff in the beginning; as trees are cleared, the lumber is sold and the bustle surrounding deforestation entices migrant laborers who profit from the freshly accessible acreage, lumber, and natural resources (Walsh, 2009). While deforestation is beneficial in the beginning, the ecological effects of the deforestation take a toll on our environment. Many studies have been done to analyze the effects of deforestation in and around local villages, as well as mountainous regions. Each study has a purpose for looking into the effects of deforestation. One study looks at the effect of deforestation and the connection within malaria-endemic areas, specifically in the village of Cacao in French Guiana. In this study the authors are looking at the run off issue associated with the endemic of malaria. They used a group of 839 people living permanently within the village between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007 (Basurko et al, 2013). The information about the number of people for each domiciliary, the total of confirmed cases......

Words: 1169 - Pages: 5


...Deforestation Jason Hennessee Axia College of University of Phoenix Deforestation “Dad! Dad! It’s opening day! Can we please go to the forest to watch the boats race?” Junior, age 10, was very excited about the idea of watching the boats race from the relative quiet and shade of one of the forests to border the river. “Sissy already has the car packed for the trip, and I think she even remembered to grab the charcoal this time!” Dean opened one eye. Seven in the morning was a bit early to leave for the boat races thirty minutes away when they started at nine. But, such was Junior’s excitement that Dean forced himself out of his bed earlier than he planned on. “Ok, son. Let’s check Renee’s packing and we’ll see about weather and conditions. Does Mom have her work finished yet?” Anne appeared framed in the bedroom door. “Yeah. I have some more reading to do, but I can do it at the site. The races are not my favorite thing, but you’ll need my help if the kids want to get wet. However, there is something I need to talk to you about. Junior, honey, please go make sure you have a cooler full of water and juice for us today.” Off like a shot, Junior dashed out of the room and Anne went in, closing the door behind her and lifting Dean’s laptop to the bed. “Dean, I think the forest is gone. Check this out.” Dean read the headlines and cutlines of the pictures and articles that Anne showed him. He shook his head as one by one they all told a devastating...

Words: 1955 - Pages: 8


...DEFORESTATION 1. Introduction The year 2011 is ‘The International Year of Forests’. This designation has generated momentum bringing greater attention to the forests worldwide. Forests cover almost a third of the earth’s land surface providing many environmental benefits including a major role in the hydrologic cycle, soil conservation, prevention of climate change and preservation of biodiversity. Forest resources can provide long-term national economic benefits. For example, at least 145 countries of the world are currently involved in wood production. At the same time, Sufficient evidence is also available that the whole world is facing an environmental crisis on account of heavy deforestation. Nobody knows exactly how much of the world’s rainforests have already been destroyed and continue to be razed each year. Deforestation is a major issue in today’s era. In the name of modernization, man has cut down trees in great numbers that has lead to the destruction of great forests and the lives of many animals and plant species. We fail to realize that trees are the most important aspects of our planet and the existence of tress does play a vital role. 2. What is Deforestation Deforestation is the conversion of forest to an alternative permanent non-forested land use such as agriculture, grazing or urban development. Deforestation is the permanent devastation of native forests and woods. Deforestation is affecting our environment and the way...

Words: 1237 - Pages: 5


...Deforestation Environmental Science SCI-204 iLab 1 People relay on products from rainforest everyday and never realize it. Today, people around the world use woods that come from rainforest for products like desk, flooring, instruments, and many other products made from exotic woods. “Tropical forests yield some of the most beautiful and valuable woods in the world, such as teak, mahogany, rosewood, balsa, sandalwood and countless lesser-known species.” (Rainforest Alliance, 2014) Many medications are made up from plants and trees that are only found in rainforest. “Some 120 prescription drugs sold worldwide today are derived directly from rainforest plants.” (Talk, 2014) Many food products come from rainforest. Things like coffee beans, bananas, nuts, chocolate, and spices all can be found in the rainforest. “At least 3000 fruits are found in the rainforests; of these only 200 are now in use in the Western World.” (Taylor, 2012) Another product people use everyday is oxygen. The Amazon produces more than 20% of the world’s oxygen. “The Amazon Rainforest has been described as the "Lungs of our Planet" because it provides the essential environmental world service of continuously recycling carbon dioxide into oxygen.” (Taylor, 2012) The next time you inhale, and fill your lungs with life giving oxygen be thankful to the rainforest. The rainforest has helped the world with many products, and all of them are important to everyday life. When you go to your local......

Words: 1496 - Pages: 6


...2-4-2014 | | Amazon Deforestation | | Deforestation is the loss or destruction of naturally occurring forests. It is primarily due to human activities such as cutting trees for fuel, slash-and-burn agriculture, clearing land for livestock grazing, oil extraction, and many others. Deforestation is considered to be one of the contributing factors to global climate change. It can occur around the world, even though it’s more common in tropical rainforests. Countries with significant deforestation currently or in the recent years include Brazil, Indonesia, Thailand, and parts of Eastern Europe. Though deforestation has increased rapidly in the last fifty years, it has been known to be practiced through history. Deforestation is typically done to make more land available for housing and urbanization and cattle ranching. Most of the logging industry that contributes to deforestation is done illegally, as reports from the World Wildlife Fund state. Common methods include burning trees and clear cutting, which is the controversial practice of complete removal of a given area of forest. In Brazil, you will find the Amazon rainforest. It is 5.7 million square kilometers and the largest continuous rainforest in the entire world. Since 1970, one sixth of the Amazon has been cleared mainly for ethanol production and cattle. While techniques like slash-and-burn provide a short term boost in agricultural production, rainforest soil is typically very thin and does not......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4


...Essay Deforestation Leads to Serious Problems In the 21st century, the world is advancing to new heights in the field of technology. Human beings have made every facility for their better life. But human beings did not care about nature. Deforestation is the result of unawareness of human beings about nature. Deforestation has direct relationship with success of human beings. Thousand years ago, more than 80% of total land area was covered with forests. In present days, less than 12% of total land area is covered with forests (Hermy 362). Is cutting of trees beneficial for society? Does it lead to serious problems? Some people argue that deforestation is deforestation is necessary for success of many government projects and humanity. However, I would argue that the environment, wild life and human life are negatively affected by deforestation. It has large number of demerits. It has degraded environment by global warming and acid rain in different areas of world. Moreover, deforestation destroys the natural home of wild animals. Wild animals have no homes for living in most of parts of the world. Deforestation disturbs human life by depletion of ozone layer of the earth, increase in concentration of carbon dioxide in environment and reduction in the number of trees, which are used in the production of many medicines. These problems had not fixed. These are increasing day by day with the rate of cutting trees. To illustrate, deforestation has brought bad......

Words: 1548 - Pages: 7


...Name Instructors’ name Unit Date. Deforestation. Deforestation involves permanent destruction of forests and the land used for non-forest uses such as urbanization and agriculture. Deforestation in the world results in loss of an estimated 18 million acres of forest each year. Deforestation is also the reason about half of the tropical forests in the world have been cleared, and forests cover only about 30% of the world’s land mass (Chakravarty 4). The effects of deforestation are far reaching where loss of forest covers contributes to an estimated 15% of annual global greenhouse gas emissions significant contribution to global warming. Trees play a major role in the water cycle; deforestation causes less rainfall and desertification. Deforestation also causes increased soil erosion and loss of biodiversity. The main cause of deforestation is Agriculture. Forest land is cleared by man and used for subsistent farming as well as commercial agriculture for large scale cash crops such as soy, palm oil, and cattle ranching. Man also causes deforestation through logging; where trees are cut down to provide logs and timber for different uses (Chakravarty 14). Trees are also cut down to provide fuel wood for firewood and charcoal. Man also clears land for urbanization to keep up with globalization and also to house the ever increasing population. To control deforestation, there should be reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Programs that promote forest......

Words: 356 - Pages: 2


...Deforestation Identifying the Problem Deforestation is the removal of related ecosystems or rainforests into ecosystems that are less biodiverse such as croplands, pastures, or plantations. Also, more people need wood to make furniture, houses, and many more everyday things. An estimated 18 million acres of forest are lost each year. Believe it or not but in 100 years if the current rate of deforestation continues all forests will be gone. This will cause terrible effects on the global climate and it will get rid of the majority of plant and animal species on the planet. Deforestation is mainly due to our acts that are totally against the laws of nature. To create new land area for people forests are being destroyed. This trend shows the greed of humans and the increasing needs. There are two different types of deforestation: Clear Cutting and Slash and Burn. Clear Cutting is cutting down a large area of trees that are standing at the same time. Slash and Burn is when people cut down all the foliage in a forest and burn it to access the nutrients. (4) A lot of the countries with high amounts of deforestation are the ones that are developing. For the countries to grow and develop their economies they need access to more resources, employment of people, logging to manufacture more timber products, and agricultural expansion. The solution to getting all these positive things is deforestation. The world’s highest rates of deforestation are happening in the......

Words: 2977 - Pages: 12


...but every year areas the sizes of Panama are being decimated (Deforestation).  The clearing of large tracks of forests, which is thereafter converted to a non-forest use, is known as deforestation.  Deforestation has a multitude of devastating effects in the world we live in.  However with the cooperation of people worldwide this process can be drastically slowed down and even stopped. Forests are cut down for various reasons, but are almost always related to money in some way or another.  The most common reasons are Urbanization, logging, large-scale agriculture, mining and urbanization.  Deforestation can occur naturally and is caused by lighting, which then triggers forest fires.  On average in U.S. 4 million to 5 million acres are lost due to forest fires, but in recent years more than 9 million acres have burn.  Scientist believe the reason for the drastic increase is because global warming making summer season longer and dryer which is inductive to forest fires (Wildfires). Healthy forests help absorb greenhouse gasses and carbon emissions that are caused by human civilization and contribute to global warming. Without trees, more carbon and greenhouse gasses enter the atmosphere. To make matters worse, trees actually become carbon sources when they are cut, burned, or otherwise removed.   According to the World Wild Life organization 15 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions are the result of deforestation.  This number might be hard to wrap your head around, but......

Words: 1397 - Pages: 6


...Assignment 2 Deforestation Elaina Burns Science 200: Environmental Science Professor Tom Green December 6, 2015 Deforestation Deforestation is used to make the land available for housing, cattle ranches, oil, and fuel etc... The trees are used to make paper, pencils, furniture, houses, children’s toys, privacy fences etc…For many people especially third world countries trees are used to provide heat and a way to cook. Fires are used to detour wildlife from the villages/small communities. Unfortunately deforestation is a permanent deal. Trees take years to mature and the amount of land cleared each day is approximately 18 million acres each year. This is about the size of Panama City. According to Bradford, A. “about half of the world’s tropical forests have been cleared. Forests currently cover about 30 percent of the world’s land mass. Forest loss contributes between 6 percent and 12 percent of annual global carbon dioxide emissions, and about 36 football fields worth of tress lost every minute.” Deforestation is not completely caused by humans. Deforestation can be a natural factor in the wildlife such as forest fires or subsequent overgrazing which could prevent young trees from growing. A rapped amount of deforestation has a negative effect on the environment such as the loss of habitat for millions of species/animals. Cutting down trees forces the species/animals to move locations and adapt to a different environment. Due to this type of change......

Words: 758 - Pages: 4


...Deforestation Deforest is defined as the cutting down and removal of all or most of the trees in a forested area. ( The action of deforestation damages the quality of the land. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. (Wikipedia) Deforestation affects the environment greatly and is one of the primary contributors to climate change. When deforestation occurs, carbon dioxide is released and remains in the atmosphere. As the carbon dioxide accumulates it catches radiation, which leads to heat. Oxygen doesn’t hold radiation like greenhouse gasses do. The heat that is produced is considered global warming. Trees store carbon and when it is cut down that carbon is released into the air. According to the World Carfree Network (WCN), cars and trucks account for about 14 percent of global carbon emissions, while most analysts attribute upwards of 15 percent to deforestation. ( Another aspect of the environment that deforestation affects is the water cycle. Trees help perpetuate the water cycle by returning water vapor back into the atmosphere. Without trees to fill these roles, many former forest lands can quickly become barren deserts. (Society) Water vapor is a greenhouse gas. The flow of water vapor and carbon dioxide is disrupted directly by cutting down trees. The water that the trees draw from the ground is eventually emitted into the air. When the land is......

Words: 3589 - Pages: 15


...will discuss deforestation across the globe and how it affects the world’s ecosystems. Everyday, a piece of Earth’s ecosystem is demolished by human hands for the conquest for timber, minerals, and other resources. Forests cover 2% of the Earth’s surface, 6% of the landmass, and yet they house half the animal and plant species while rainforests cover twice that area. Deforestation is occurring across the globe on a scale that if it were continue at its present rate the forests could disappear within the next one to two hundred years. This raises concerns and questions. First, why should we be concerned? Second, what kind of damage could deforestation lead to animal and plant species, human existence, and to mother Earth and its atmosphere? Third, how and why the rainforests benefit the human race. To answer these questions, this paper will discuss where the most deforestation is occurring and the consequences of deforestation. Tropical rainforests are defined by two primary factors: location and amount of rainfall they receive. Rainforests receive from 4 to 8 meters of rain a year. Most of the rainfall is blocked by heavy vegetation, and water reaches the forest floor by rolling down branches and trunks. A distinctive characteristic is that the rainforests have no seasonality or no dry or cold season of slower growth. In addition, they are the Earth’s oldest living ecosystems. The rainforests are a priceless part of mother earth and their removal through deforestation would......

Words: 1455 - Pages: 6

HidupMusik | 37 Nap- Út az első világháborúig | Summitsoft 5000 Fonts 1.0.0 [CracksNow]