In: Social Issues

Submitted By ah13
Words 1116
Pages 5

Demografia é a ciência que estuda a dinâmica populacional humana por meio de estatísticas que utilizam como critérios e religião, educação, etnia e outros critérios que são influenciados por fatores como taxa de natalidade, fecundidade e migrações. Um dos ramos das ciências sociais, a demografia é bastante recente se comparada com outros ramos como a economia.
O termo “demografia” foi usado pela primeira vez em 1855 por Achille Guillard no livro intitulado “Élements de statistique humaine ou demographie comparée”. Seu objetivo é estudar a estrutura da população, seu arranjo espacial ou a forma como a população é distribuída no meio físico (urbano, rural) e sua composição, que pode ser estudado levando-se em consideração a faixa etária, o sexo, ou outras características da população.
O chamado “movimento da população” também constitui objeto de estudo da demografia. Através de cálculos e estatísticas são estudados os fenômenos da mortalidade, natalidade e movimentos migratórios, todos estes influenciados por diversos fatores como educação, saneamento, e etc. A importância do estudo da demografia consiste no fato da população ser um elemento político essencial que caracteriza uma sociedade e que, conseqüentemente, tornam-se necessários compreender a fim de tornar possível o planejamento econômico, social, cultural ou político. A demografia possui quatro abordagens diferentes que variam de acordo com o foco de estudo.
A abordagem histórica que tem por objetivo estudar a evolução dos acontecimentos demográficos ao longo do tempo pesquisando suas causas e tentando prever as conseqüências; A abordagem doutrinária que se ocupa da análise da teoria através dos estudos das idéias e obras de filósofos, pensadores e pregadores no tocante à população; A abordagem analítica, que por sua precisão matemática é a mais importante tecnicamente, pelo fato de…...

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