Deposition Technique

In: Science

Submitted By enyenty
Words 3525
Pages 15
California Institute of Technology

Physics 77

Vacuum Techniques and Thin Film Deposition
Experiment 3 (October 2001)

1

Introduction

Much of modern experimental physics is done under vacuum. Design and construction of vacuum apparatus is one of the most useful ”bread and butter” skills an experimentalist in condensed matter, atomic, or optical physics can have, and the subject of vacuum engineering is a vast one. This lab serves as an introduction to basic vacuum techniques and thin film growth, another often essential skill for condensed matter physicists. This lab is an optional prerequisite for Experiment 10, Condensed Matter Physics at Cryogenic Temperatures, for which you can grow your own samples for Weak Localization measurements if you choose.

2

Pressure and gas flow

In vacuum work, pressures are almost always measured in millimeters of mercury, or torr. One torr is just the pressure necessary to support a column of mercury with a height of one millimeter. The conversion to units more familiar to readers of physics textbooks is 1atmosphere = 101kPa = 760torr There are two pressure regimes of interest to the scientist working with vacuum systems, and gases behave differently in each regime. The first, the viscous flow regime, describes the case where gas flows as a fluid, where the mean free path of the gas molecules is much smaller than the dimensions of the apparatus. The second, the molecular flow regime, describes the high-vacuum case, where the mean free path is much longer than the characteristic dimensions of the apparatus. In this regime, gas molecules interact almost entirely with the walls of the chamber, acting independent of each other. Gas flow in either regime is measured in torr liters per second, which is equivalent to mass per second. The conductance of a tube describes how much gas flows through the tube for a given pressure…...

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