In: Business and Management

Submitted By mathilde8545
Words 838
Pages 4


A.1 Distribution Functions
Transactional function Contacting and promoting Negotiating Risk taking Logistical function Physically distributing Storing Sorting (sorting out, accumulating, allocating, assorting)

Facilitating function Researching Financing Experiential Function

A.2 Middlemen/Intermediaries

Facilitate business transactions between producer and consumer Central purchasing services Reference product New middlemen Auction websites Websites with purchasing agents Virtual roof suppliers (purchase, logistics, marketing)

A.3 Consumers
“Markets are people but people with money and desiring to spend it” Target profil Purchasing power Purchasing behaviour Categories of consummers Junior (12-18 years old) Young adult (18-25 years old) Young senior (+ 50 years old) Working woman Neorural In a rush people Humanist Hedonist Essentialist Wonderer (curious) Harmonious independent

A.4 Producers
National Brand Private Label When the retailer decides to sell products or a line of merchandise which is owned, controlled, merchandised & sold by the retailer in his own store/chain of stores, he is said to be Selling Own Label / Brand or Private Label merchandise. Advantage for consumer Advantage for retailer Advantage for producer

A.5 Regulation

Price regulation Consumers information and protection Business regulation Sale regulation Opening hours and days regulation Location regulation

A.6 IT
Retailer IT IT System EAN (Eureopean Article Numering) Producer IT EDI Electronic data interchange

B. Distribution Channel
Most businesses use third parties or intermediaries to bring their products to market. They try to forge a "distribution channel" which can be defined as :

"all the organizations through which a product must pass between its point of production and consumption“…...

Similar Documents


...70  500495 ESCORTS LTD. 0.70 532525 BANK OF MAHARAS 0.25  500134 ESSAR OIL 0.80 500019 BANK OF RAJ. 0.60  500630 ESSAR SHIP. 0.55 500041 BANNARI AMAN 0.55  500627 ESSAR STEEL 0.45 500042 BASF INDIA 0.50  500135 ESSEL PROP 0.45 500043 BATA INDIA 0.50  531508 EVEREADY (I) 0.45 506285 BAYER CROPSCIEN 0.30  500086 EXIDE IND. 0.50 509480 BERGER PAINT 0.30  531599 FDC LTD. 0.40 500048 BH.EARTH MOV 0.40  500469 FEDERAL BANK 0.80 500052 BHANSALI ENG 0.60  526881 FINANC.TEC. 0.55 500055 BHUSHAN ST. 0.35  500144 FINOL. CABLE 0.55 526853 BILCARE LTD. 0.50  500940 FINOLEX IND. 0.50 500335 BIRLA CORPN. 0.40  532266 FLEXTRONICS SOF 0.35 526612 BLUE DART EX 0.20  509550 GAMMON INDIA 0.45 500067 BLUE STAR 0.60  532622 GATEWAY DISTRI. 0.50 523457 BOC (I) LTD. 0.50  503699 GEODESIC INF 0.75 500020 BOM DYEING 0.60  532312 GEOMET SOFSO 0.60 500072 BONGAIGAON R 0.30  507815 GILLETTE (I) 0.15 500825 BRITANIA IND 0.50  500676 GLAXOSMITHKL 0.60 513375 CARBORUNDUM 0.60  500163 GODFREY PH 0.30 500870 CASTROL 0.30  532424 GODREJ CONSU 0.35 500164 GODREJ IND 0.15  530019 JUBILANT ORG 0.45 505744 GOETZE INDIA 0.50  522287 KALPA.POWER 0.25 532630 GOKALDAS EXPORT 0.25  505185 KALYANI BRAK 0.20 500165 GOODLAS NE 0.40  500235 KALYANI STEL 0.45 509488 GRAPHITE IN. 0.40  504807 KEC INTER. 0.70 501455 GREAVES COTTON 0.60  502937 KESORAM IND 0.80 500160 GTL LTD. 0.75  500241 KIRL.BROS. 0.40 530001 GUJ.ALKALI 0.65  500243 KIRL.OIL ENG 0.40 500173......

Words: 749 - Pages: 3


...disrupted the plan. After the civil war in 1970, the second national development plan 1970 to 1974 was launched, the plan priorities were in agriculture, industry, transport, manpower, defence, electricity, communication and water supply and provision of social services (Ogwumike, 1995). The third plan, covering the period of 1975 to 1980 was considered more ambitious than the second plan. Emphasis was placed on rural development and efforts to revamp agricultural sector. The fourth plan 1981 to 1985 recognized the role of social services, health services, etc. The plan was aimed at bringing about improvement in the living conditions of the people. The specific objectives were: an increase in the real income of the average citizen, more even distri-bution of income among individuals and socio-economic groups, increased dependence on the country’s material and human resources, a reduction in the level of unemployment and underemployment (Ogwumike, 1995). During these periods, Nigeria’s enormous oil wealth was not invested to build a viable industrial base for the country and for launching an agrarian revolution to liquidate mass poverty. For instance, the Green Revolu-tion Programme that replaced Operation Feed the Nation failed to generate enough food for the masses. In the recent past, various strategies for development have also been tried with little or no result; among these were the structural adjustment programme (SAP), Vision 2010, national economic empowerment and......

Words: 3022 - Pages: 13

Service and Product

...benefits to customers. In the past, selling products are separate from selling service. When consumers bought food, clothes or car, they simply bought the tangible things they wanted and did not have any added value. Since the competition is stronger and fiercer, it’s hard to separate product from its service. If companies only sell their goods to customers without any attached services, they will lose their customer easily and failure is inevitable. For example, when buying computer, they might be attracted by the store where looks professional and they can get full in-formation as well as guidance from helpful staff about prod-ucts, a hotline service for installing the programs and so on. Company must pay attention to it and invest more on distri-bution channel to provide more good service to customers. Service business offers intangible value to buyers rather than tangible goods. It includes a wide range of industries such as hospitality, tourism, art, healthcare, education and so on. “Some service such as charities, arts operate in non-profit or-ganization, other service such as hotel, financial service oper-ate in competitive, profit –making environment. Many ser-vice industries such as tourism include large international companies and small independently and locally operated companies. Larger international service companies are airlines, telecommunication, banking, hotel chain. Smaller operations are independent restaurant, business to business service, taxis”......

Words: 2294 - Pages: 10

Digital Fingerprinting

...un-encrypted parts should not affect the whole transparency of fingerprinted multimedia data. In encryption, the signs of some of the DCT coefficients’ are encrypted and the others are left unchanged. Here the amplitudes are left unchanged. In decryption, the signs are decrypted for restoration. Each different key produces the copy with different signs left unchanged. The position of the left signs determines the uniqueness of the encrypted data. The process is shown in the following figure.     24    Original bl lock Encry ypted block D Decrypted block b gure 8: JFE Scheme Ex E xample Fig   9.1   Video Fin ngerprinting. Video Fin ngerprinting is an applic cation of JFE Here we will conside a video E. er serve that distri er ibutes finger rprinted cop pies of medi to users ia ……n where n the m media distrib bution system. A finger rprint seque ence of leng gth denot F = { , ted , …, } w cardinal with lity . ass sociated with h ∈ for i=1, 2, 3, user is a binary s represents th ith user an U is the se of all user at a specif time in r he nd et rs fic . The set of all f fingerprints associated f the user in U is for rs Figure 9 Fingerpr embedd 9: rint ding scheme e. 25 The binary fingerprint analysis is conducted on the host on order to determine the depth or strength of embedding that provides a good tradeoff between imperceptibility and robustness and code word length form a signal ∈ bits. The fingerprint codewords are modulated,......

Words: 7883 - Pages: 32

Marketing Management

...marketing: one product to whole market (no segm) Works when market shows no natural segment Multiple segments Differentiated marketing: Sell # prod to # segm. Target all segm with # prod => + total sales but + cost. Selective specialization: Choose segments to target. Product specialization: sell 1 prod to # segments Market specialization: serving # needs of 1 seg Single segment Individuals as segments Concentrated marketing: Customized marketing: Market to one well Respond to individual studied and well known customers by by the company segment customizing its and achieve a strong products, services, and market presence into that messages on a one-tosegment: - costs because one basis => difficult of specialized for complex products prod/distri/promotion and + costly Niche market: Subsegments, narrowly defined customers with special needs within a seg 3/ POSITIONNING Positioning is the act of designing a company’s offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the minds of the target market. Requirements for effective positioning process: 1. Determining a frame of reference by identifying the target market and relevant competition 2. Identifying the optimal points of parity (POP) and points of difference(POD) brand associations given that frame of reference 3. Creating a brand mantra to summarize and establish the positioning and essence of the brand Differentiation strategies Product differentiation Services differentiation Image differentiation Employee......

Words: 5098 - Pages: 21

Project Economics

...mai mare atunci când: - nu există produse înlocuitoare; - produsul oferit de furnizor este important pentru client; - costurile de schimbare a furnizorului sunt ridicate; - produsele oferite de furnizor au un grad mare de diferenţiere; - sunt bine organizaţi; - există un număr redus de furnizori; Cel mai bun mod de apărare pentru cumpărători constă în stabilirea unor relaţii de durată re- ciproc avantajoase cu furnizorii sau utilizarea unor surse multiple de aprovizionare. Michael Porter propune trei tipuri generice de strategii economice: 1. Strategia celor mai mici costuri ( de dominare prin costuri ). Activitatea este îndreptată către obţinerea celor mai scăzute costuri de producţie şi de distri- buţie, astfel încât preţurile produselor comercializate să se situeze sub cele ale concurenţei şi să asigure câştigarea unei cote cât mai mari de piaţă. Această strategie se bazează pe curba de experien- ţă. Întreprinderea care aplică o astfel de strategie trebuie să deţină un potenţial tehnologic, de pro- ducţie, de aprovizionare şi logistic ridicat. Aceasta presupune investiţii foarte mari pentru echipa- mente de producţie moderne, o politică comercială şi de distribuţie agresivă, care să permită obţine- rea unei părţi mari de piaţă. Presupune şi acumularea de experienţă prin creşterea producţiei cumu- late, în vederea reducerii costurilor de producţie, îmbunătăţirea continuă a organizării producţiei, un sistem de distribuţie......

Words: 2276 - Pages: 10

Generalized Formulation for the Description of Hysteresis in Soft Magnetic Materials

...the contribution of the reversible process. should be replaced To facilitate parameter extraction, by , the coercive force of the major loop. According to [4] (4) Substitution of (1)–(3) into the preceding equation yields (5) 0018–9464/02$17.00 © 2002 IEEE NAKMAHACHALASINT AND NGO: DESCRIPTION OF HYSTERESIS IN SOFT MAGNETIC MATERIALS 201 Fig. 1. Measured and fit major and minor loops at room temperature and 10 kHz for MN8CX ferrite [9], using R(m) = 1 m with  = 0:014 05 m/A, c = 0:5890, H = 11:8542 A/m, B = 0:4656 T, n = 1. 0 Fig. 2. Comparison of theoretical and measured R(m) for MN8CX ferrite. In the classical Preisach model, the magnetization under a certain field history is found by proper integration of the distri. In the Basso–Bertotti DWM model, bution function however, magnetization is calculated from the 1-D domain-wall position that, in turn, is found by proper integration of sgn (6) sgn where is the magnetization, is the saturation magis the inverse function of , i.e., netization, and . The inventors of the model named the “domain-wall surface function” [3]. The forms of are the focus of the paper. is suggested by Kadar on the basis of One choice of population dynamics [8] (12) Although this choice has been found to be satisfactory for the sample material in [4], a good fit between modeling and measurement has been found to be difficult for the very gradual saturation characteristic of power MnZn ferrites, as is evident in Fig. 1. Two......

Words: 2730 - Pages: 11

Marketing Anlaysis of Shangri-La Hotel

...page 54-57, Managing Product Mix, Industrial Marketing, Eastern Economy Edition, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. 11. Shangri-la website, (2011), About us, viewed date: 26th/7/2011, from: http://www.shangri-la.com/en/corporate/aboutus/overview 12. Schiffman, L. et al., 2008. Consumer Behaviour. 4th ed. Frenchs Forest NSW: Pearson Education Australia. 13. 7 Days website, (2011), About us, viewed date: 22th/8/2011, from: http://www.7daysinn.cn/about.html 14. Trading Economics, 2011, China GDP Growth Rate, viewed date: 22th/8/2011, from: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/china/gdp-growth-annual 15. Vieceli, J., Valos, M., 1998, “Marketing environment”, Marketing Management, Atlantic Publishers & Distri....

Words: 4158 - Pages: 17

The History of Finance

...the expected value or probability-weighted mean value of its possible out-comes; and its risk with the variance or squared devia-tions of those outcomes around the mean. This identi-fication of return and risk with mean and variance, so instinctive to finance professionals these days, was far from obvious then. The common perception of risk even today focuses on the likelihood of losses — on what the public thinks of as the “downside” risk — not just on the variability of returns. Markowitz’s choice of the variance as his mea-sure of risk, counterintuitive as it may have appeared to many at the time, turns out to have been inspired. It not only subsumes the more intuitive view of risk — because in the normal or at least the symmetric distri-butions we use in practice the downside risk is essen-tially the mirror image of the upside — but it also has a property even more important for the development of the field. By identifying return and risk with mean and variance, Markowitz makes the powerful algebra of mathematical statistics available for the study of portfo-lio selection. The immediate contribution of that algebra is the famous formula for the variance of a sum of random variables; that is, the weighted sum of the variance plus twice the weighted sum of the covariances. We in finance have been living on that formula, literally, for more than forty years now. That formula shows, among other things, that for the individual investor, the rele-vant unit of analysis......

Words: 5360 - Pages: 22

Bmw Strategic Analysis

...production depends how the firm allocates to the sites. They products and rules on the struc develop flexibility measures ture of good allocations but refrain from optimizing the allocation. We could use their results to select This content downloaded from on Mon, 23 Dec 2013 16:01:50 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions Fleischmann, Ferber, and Henrich: of BMW's Global Production Strategie Planning Interfaces 36(3), pp. 194-208, ?2006 198 Network INFORMS reasonable model have allocations for the load-planning potential and to evaluate the resulting load plan, but we done so. Objective To model with Function not New Products models, and year and the given (estimated) demand and distri drives production installation for new of capacities. How is inverse products 2005): The new product starts firm cre only by in the year life can the design of a multiperiod chain supply investment the appropriate decisions, objective is the net present value function (NPV) of the yearly cash flows and 2002, Huchzermeier (Goetschalckx In the planning Cohen per product activities bution ever, the actual (Goetschalckx ates demand to deciding of the launch logic and Fleischmann et al. 2001, and Popp 1983). 1996, Papageorgiou In their model, Canel and Khumawala (1997) did not revenues discount the and costs and completely allo as cost to the year cated the investment expenses of installation. investments......

Words: 6024 - Pages: 25


...(EEE) ANALOG ELECTRONICS 2 (EEE) ANALOG ELECTRONICS 2 (EEE) ANALOG ELECTRONICS 2 (EEE) A B C D 12:0 - 2:0 2:0 - 4:0 4:0 - 6:0 8:0 - 10:0 ST MW ST MW 236 236 236 236 00680 00681 00682 00683 ANALOG ELECTRONICS 1 (EEE) ANALOG ELECTRONICS 1 (EEE) ANALOG ELECTRONICS 1 (EEE) ANALOG ELECTRONICS 1 (EEE) A B C D 2:0 - 4:0 4:0 - 6:0 8:0 - 10:0 10:0 - 12:0 ST MW ST MW 242 242 242 242 00688 00689 00690 00691 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS 2 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS 2 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS 2 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS 2 AC AC AC AC A B C D 10:0 - 12:0 12:0 - 2:0 2:0 - 4:0 4:0 - 6:0 ST MW ST MW 243 243 243 243 9 ENGINEERING CODE COURSE NAME 00696 ELECTRI POWER TRANS & DISTRI 00697 ELECTRI POWER TRANS & DISTRI 00698 ELECTRI POWER TRANS & DISTRI 00699 ELECTRI POWER TRANS & DISTRI SEC A B C D TIME 8:0 - 10:0 10:0 - 12:0 12:0 - 2:0 2:0 - 4:0 DAY ST MW ST MW RM 253 253 253 253 00703 00704 00705 ELECTRICAL MACHINES 1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES 1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES 1 A B C 12:0 - 2:0 2:0 - 4:0 4:0 - 6:0 MW ST MW 245 245 245 00710 00711 00712 MICROPROCESSOR & I/O SYSTEM MICROPROCESSOR & I/O SYSTEM MICROPROCESSOR & I/O SYSTEM A B C 8:0 - 9:30 9:30 - 11:0 11:0 - 12:30 ST MW ST 255 255 255 00717 00718 00719 ELECTRI PROPERTIES OF MATLS ELECTRI PROPERTIES OF MATLS ELECTRI PROPERTIES OF MATLS A B C 4:0 - 6:0 8:0 - 10:0 10:0 - 12:0 ST MW ST 246 246 246 00724 00725 00726 00727 ELECTRONIC DEVICES (EEE) ELECTRONIC DEVICES......

Words: 10014 - Pages: 41

Social Media Business

...were ran- domly chosen to participate in this research, and 1,059 of them responded to the survey. Ninety-five percent of re- spondents had ever used Facebook, and 516 of the respon- dents were employed at the time of the survey. Since the focus of this research is workers’ attitudes toward the current job, those who were not employed at the time of the survey were not included in the data analysis. Among these currently employed respondents, 36.3 per- cent worked 40 hours or more per week, and 30.3 percent worked 20 hours or less per week. Regarding the distribution of gender and age, 39 percent of respondents were men, and 54.9 percent of respondents were 25 years old or younger. The ethnic composition of the sample was similar to the distri- bution of the university, and the majority of respondents (84.3 percent) were White. Measures Four dependent variables were measured on a five-point Likert scale. Respondents were asked to rate how strongly they agreed with the following statements regarding their current job, with 1 indicating strongly disagree and 5 indi- cating strongly agree: I have a great relationship with my colleagues/coworkers (mean = 4.03, standard deviation = 0.82); I deeply care about my work performance (mean = 4.20, standard deviation = 0.83); I really like the job (mean = 3.58, standard deviation = 1.15); and I am thinking about changing jobs (mean = 3.23, standard deviation = 1.25). The use of Facebook was measured by five questions: How many......

Words: 1718 - Pages: 7

Disaster Management

...on the east bank was 0.34 km. And the fact about the west bank is almost the same as at the east bank.In this bank the bridge point is situated on 89°45'25" longitude and at 2.53 km up of the bridge the extreme curvature of the western bank was on 89°44'40" longitude, that is, the distance between the two longitude on the west bank was 1.12km. The main channel shifted eastward also. It can be said that, both of the guide bunds were in danger in this period. 5. In this phase (1999 to 2001), the area and the width of the channel was increased. The channels were relatively unstable and the left channels shifted eastward and the right channels towards the west. In the upstream, four distributaries met with the main channel. One of the active distri buaturies met at 24°25'45"latitude, which was 3.67 km away from the east bridge point. At 24°28'55" latitude to 24°23'55" latitude the main channel shifted gradually eastward and meander curve increased, which was a matter of danger for the east bridge point. Fig. . decadal erosion pattern along the banks of the Jamuna River Fig: jamuna river vulnerable Location A systematic and well-organized programme is necessary against flood disaster. Measures that can be adopted for flood damage mitigation can be classified into two categories:   a.                  Structural measures. b.                  Non-structural measures Structural measures aim at protecting an area up to certain level of flooding. It can be divided into......

Words: 2081 - Pages: 9

Business Corporate Eth

... Main concepts Social Entrepreneurship • value creation vs value capture Corporate Social Responsibilities Responsibilities of firm to balance 3P Minizing negative and maximizing positive impacts on society Business Ethics Norms guiding and regulating behaviors right-wrong, acceptable-unacceptable Corporate Governance Procedures, mechanisms to make sure suppliers of finance get return on investment 1 3/21/2015 Govern ment The Media Owner s Directo rs Employ ees Primary Secondary Internal Custo mers/C onsum ers Educati onal instituti ons External Society Stakeholder model Lender s/credit ors NGOs Supplie rs Service profess ionals Compe titors Busine ss organis ation Dealer s/distri butors 2 3/21/2015 Potential Ethical Implications in Business Operations OWNERS Reporting Minority shareholders Fair dividends EMPLOYEES Hiring practices Firing practices Wages & working conditions Private lives vs company lives Discrimination Honesty Unions Conflicts of interests Secrecy & espionage CONSUMERS & CUSTOMERS Advertising Packaging Product safety Deception, overselling Price fixing discriminatory pricing Collusion with competitors COMPETITORS Price fixing Unfair competition Pricing below cost Stealing personnel Industrial espionage GOVERNMENT Laws compliance Political contributions for favors Lobbying Honesty in tax return Accurate reporting SOCIETY AT LARGE Corporate citizenship Respect for the environment......

Words: 829 - Pages: 4

Interkultureller Marketing Mix

...2010), ergeben sich viele Hürden für die Distributionspolitik durch die unterschiedlichen Rahmenbedingungen der verschiedenen Länder und Kulturen (Felser, 2005). Ein sehr gutes Beispiel für die Schwierigkeiten, die sich für ein Unternehmen im Bereich der politischen und rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen auftun können, ist der Markteintritt in China. Aufgrund von politischen Interessen und Richtlinien sind die Wartezeiten für eine Genehmigung zum Markteintritt eines Unternehmens sehr lang, können aber, wie im Fall IKEA, durch die Besiegelung eines Joint-Ventures mit einem chinesischen Partner drastisch verkürzt werden (Felser, 2005). Ein weiteres Beispiel für die Schwierigkeiten der interkulturellen Distributionspolitik stellt das japanische Distri-butionssystem dar. Aufgrund von kulturellen Gegebenheiten ist das Vertriebssystem der Japaner stark durch Beziehungen geprägt. Konkret bedeutet dies, dass Einzelhändler nur von einem Großhändler ihre Waren beziehen können und sich nicht ihre Lieferanten aussuchen können. Für ein Unternehmen, das in den japanischen Markt eindringen möchte, resultiert daraus, dass viele Kontakte zu unterschiedlichen Großhändlern herge-stellt werden müssen. Im Fortlauf müssen diese neugeknüpften gepflegt und aufrecht gehalten werden (Apfelthaler, 1999). Apfelthaler, G. (1999). Interkulturelles Management – Die Bewältigung kultureller Dif-ferenzen in der internationalen Unternehmenstätigkeit. (S. 159 - 173). Wien: Manz. Felser, G. (2005).......

Words: 1734 - Pages: 7

Bubuki Buranki | the englishman who went up a hill x264 | Sheckley, Robert - Paraiso II [18263] (r1.1 rafcastro).epub