Ebola Outbreak

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INTRODUCTION An epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) is ongoing in West Africa. The outbreak began in Guinea in December 2013, but was not detected until March 2014, after which it spread to Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and Senegal. The outbreak is caused by the Zaire ebola virus, known simply as the Ebola virus (EBOV). It is the most severe outbreak of Ebola in terms of the number of human cases and deaths since the discovery of the virus in 1976, with the number of cases from the current outbreak now outnumbering the combined cases from all known previous outbreaks. Another outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo, which has killed 13 people as of 26 August 2014, is believed to be unrelated to the West African outbreak.

Initial outbreak in Guinea

Researchers believe that the first human case of the Ebola virus disease leading to the 2014 outbreak was a 2-year-old boy who died 6 December 2013 in the village of Meliandou, Guéckédou Prefecture, Guinea. His mother, 3-year-old sister and grandmother then became ill with symptoms consistent with Ebola infection and died. People infected by those victims spread the disease to other village.
On 19 March, the Ministry of Health acknowledged a local outbreak of an undetermined viral hemorrhagic fever; the outbreak, ongoing since February, had sickened at least 35 people and killed 23. Ebola was suspected, and samples had been sent to Senegal and France for disease identification. On 25 March, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that the Ministry of Health of Guinea had reported an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in four southeastern districts: Guekedou, Macenta, Nzerekore and Kissidougou with suspected cases in the neighbouring countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone…...

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...According to the Ebola Response Roadmap (2014), their objective is to halt the spread of Ebola within 6 to 9 months; ultimately preventing the Ebola virus from being spread internationally. Due the rapid transmission rate of Ebola in Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone, WHO launched an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak Response Plan on July 31, 2014. It has been reported that over 3,000 people have been infected with the Ebola Virus and 1,400 people have died; many of them being volunteer healthcare workers. As a result of this, the national authorities in conjunction with WHO and other partners have increased control measures to keep the virus contained. Although there is a great effort being made to contain the Ebola virus, the record outbreak is still being transmitted at an alarming rate. The Ebola Response Roadmap outlines three major objectives: to attain nationwide coverage with corresponding Ebola response in the countries that have a vast transmission rate, to employ immediate response teams to areas with contained transmissions and/or with primary cases, and to promptly detect and respond to all Ebola cases in a timely manner (Ebola Response Roadmap, 2014). The Emergency Response Framework outlines three levels for responding to an outbreak. A Level 1 emergency is a single country or multiple countries with a minimal threat which requires a minimal scale response. A Level 2 emergency is single or multiple countries with a moderate threat which requires a moderately......

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...EBOLA The Ebola virus infecting and killing people in West Africa is the worst recorded outbreak, according to the World Health Organization. The first case of Ebola in a patient diagnosed in a U.S. hospital was confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Tuesday. Initial symptoms include fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat. These symptoms are followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function and sometimes internal and external bleeding, according to WHO. Symptoms usually appear 8-10 days after infection, according to the CDC. WHO says lab tests of contaminated individuals find low white blood cell and platelet counts. The virus is transmitted from wild animals to humans. Humans spread the virus through contact with blood or other body fluids of an infected person, as well as exposure to objects like contaminated needles, according to the CDC. Ebola is only contagious when patients begin showing symptoms. Infection control measures in place in U.S. hospitals means it's unlikely the virus will spread far, according to infectious disease experts. People most at risk include health workers and family members or others who are in contact with the infected people, according to WHO. Currently, there is no vaccine. Treatment consists only of "supportive therapy," according to the CDC. There are several vaccines being tested. None are available for clinical use. In past outbreaks, up to 90% of humans who contract......

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...EBOLA VIRUS (EBOV)1 Ebola Virus (EBOV) Alaina White Microbiology 11/04/2014 EBOLA VIRUS (EBOV)2 Ebola Virus (EBOV) The Ebola virus causes a serious illness, that causes haemorrhagic fever in humans and animals which, if it is not treated in time is often fatal. Diseases that are fatal like Ebola, affect the body's vascular system, which makes it hard for the blood to circulte through the body. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the first notification of the ebola virus was mentioned in the Ebola River valley in Zaire for the time of an outburst in 1976 (Olival et al., 2013). Researchers claim that the virus is zoonotic (animal-borne), with 4 out of 5 subtypes that happen in animal hosts close to Africa (MacNeil et al., 2010). Literature Review It has been proven by scientists that the Ebola virus can be transferred from one human beng to another by means of bodily contact. The common geographic territory that ia mostly influenced by divergent subtypes of the Ebola virus is Central Africa, especially the cities of Zaire, Sudan, and Gabon (Chepurnov, Bakulina, Dadaeva, Ustinova, & Chepurnova, 2009). Ebola virus infection runs its course from 14 to 21 days. Firstly, the infection can be identified with symptoms that are uncommon for the flu, including malaise, fever, and muscles pain. With the progress of infection, patients experience acute bleeding and coagulation abnormalities such as a rash, gastrointestinal bleeding (Chepurnov, Bakulina,......

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...Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Some of the most deadly killers can’t even be seen with the human eye. These microscopic predators are known as viruses. In my report, I will explain about one of the most deadly killing viruses, the Ebola virus. Ebola was named after the Ebola River in Zaire, which in 1976 is where the virus had first developed. The first outbreak infected over 284 people. Just a few months later there was a second outbreak from Yambuku, Zaire, which infected about 318 people. Ebola’s natural source was never identified, even with the astounding effort of experienced and dedicated researchers. The third strain of Ebola was first identified in 1989 when infected monkeys were imported into Reston, Virginia. The most recent outbreak of Ebola started with a pregnant woman from Ikanamongo Village that had butchered a wild animal. She became sick and reported to a private clinic in Isaka Village then later died on August 11, 2014, meaning that several healthcare workers had been exposed to the Ebola virus. The 2014 Ebola outbreak is the largest ever recorded in history, affecting multiple countries in West Africa. Although, most sources said the risk of Ebola coming to the United States was very low, there has recently been a case of Ebola in Dallas, Texas. Officials say they can keep it contained from spreading any further. As the Ebola virus travels through the human body, it begins damaging the immune system and the organs. It causes the clotting of blood to stop.......

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...Name: Professor: Title: Date of Submission: Origin and Spread Ebola Background According to WHO, Ebola which is a serious, acute illness if untreated is very fatal (WHO.Int). Ebola virus disease first appearance was in two simultaneous outbreaks back in 1976. One was in Yambuku in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the other in Nzara, Sudan. The name Ebola sprout from Yambuku neighbors a river known as Ebola River. In 2014, the first case was notified in March which is the most recent and is still a current outbreak in the West of Africa. Ideally, this is the most complex and largest Ebola outbreak since the 1976 first appearance. The numbers of deaths are the highest (WHO.Int). The spread began in Guinea before spreading to the bordering nations including Liberia and Sierra Leone, then to Nigeria through one traveller on air, and to Senegal through on traveller on land. Ebola hemorrhagic fever also the Ebola virus disease or simply Ebola is a disease of primates including humans whose cause is Ebola viruses. Fever, headaches, muscle pain and sore throats are the initial signs and symptoms that develop between two days and three weeks upon contracting the virus. Decreased function of the kidney and liver then follow in addition to rash, diarrhea and vomiting. At this time, it is likely to observe both external and internal bleeding. The risk of death in relation to Ebola is significantly high. Killings between 25% and 90% are recorded of those infected which extends......

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...officials from Miami-Dade health discussed how to manage a universal health threat on Ebola. There was a scare that was triggered by a police response. According Dr. Carlos Migoya who is the “chief executive of Jackson Health System”, Miami Dade’s public hospital network. “Every hour of every day, we are ready,” he said. To validate how prepared Jackson was, physicians demonstrated the protective green fluid- resistance gown, clear goggles, latex gloves and a face mask, shower cap and slipped covering on shoes in front of the media to ensure the prevent-ness and the outbreaks of Ebola. This virus is spread through direct contact with once bodily fluids. According to physician Abdul Memon who is the “chief medical officer for disaster and emergency preparedness states”, “ if a patent is vomiting or the patient has diarrhea, you wont get it on you”. Steps of Patient suspected having Ebola: They will be put in a pressurized room for three days while during medical staff doing blood work. If the first test shows negative, there will be a second test just for precautionary reason. Gov. Rick Scott: He made an announcement on Monday that his “ office is working with Texas officials to learn from their Ebola response, and Florida agencies have held conferences with state airport and seaport leaders about the preparedness plans”. State Health Agencies: A) Requested for additional Ebola testing kits (30) from the CDC. B) Ordered about 100 units of extra high-level......

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