Epistemology Paper

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By aboyd2002
Words 1088
Pages 5
Epistemology Schools Paper

Arika Boyd


Dixie Hoyt


Epistemology or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy related to the scope and nature of knowledge. The subject focuses on examining the nature of knowledge, and how it relates to beliefs, justification, and truth. Epistemology contract with the means of production of knowledge, as well as skepticism about different knowledge claims. The question is what does people Know? The core of this questions and area of study is Skepticism, in which there have been many approaches involved in trying to disprove a particular form of this school. This paper will discuss the Epistemology school of Skepticism, the contributors whom created the school; the evolution of how the school grew out of it’s the original field of Epistemology, and a few examples of real-life applications pertaining to the school. Epistemology arisen either in defense of or in opposition to certain forms of skepticism. Skepticism is an attitude of doubt and uncertainty as expressed in everyday language and an identifiable school of thought in history ideas. It’s most general sense refers to doubt, disbelief, uncertainty, suspension of judgment, and rejection of knowledge. It is the doctrine that true knowledge in a particular area is uncertain and argues that beliefs in something does not justify that an assertion of knowledge on the particular subject. It also is characterized by its opposition to dogmatism in which claims to know reality and truth. The school is best understood as the product of two movements in ancient Greek philosophy. Skepticism can be attributed to Socrates and to Plato’s successors at The Academy in Athens (5th to 2nd century BC). Pyrrhonism can be traced back to Pyrrho of Ellis(365-275 BC). Skepticism can be found in many other schools of ancient philosophy from Heraclitus to…...

Similar Documents

Epistemology Analysis

...Epistemology: How do we know what is true? Aleisha Roche 11/9/12 Empirist those of the philosophers who believe that it is not rationalism but your senses that tell us the truth about knowledge. Philosophy could be something no one, not even philosophers, could actually agree on how to view life.  Philosophy is divided into multiple branches and Epistemology deals with the “theory of knowledge.” A philosopher’s job is to figure out what is truth, weather relevant or irrelevant and discover how it is that we know something and if it is true. Epistemology of Philosophy shows how truth fits into life. We will be looking into the Western and Asian views on truth from Aristotle to Plato to Kant. This philosopher is known for his study of matter being reality. Plato’s epistemology is that we can have guiene knowledge only on things that are perfect and unchanging. We have knowledge about the forms, but not the material things. Beliefs and opinions are the only thing we can have in a material world. Plato says that before we are born our souls live in a realm of the forms and have complete knowledge of the form but we don’t realize it. We can only recall when in difficulty. Now this philosopher’s theory is the view that all Knowledge originates from experience bases his study on question and answer. Aristotle believes that the object of real existence is the ones that we encounter through our sense perception. Humans, according to Aristotle, do not acquire knowledge all...

Words: 687 - Pages: 3

Hrm Paper

...The strategic focus of HR Recently we have witnessed the amalgamation of several streams of management into the strategic management literature including epistemology, organizational learning, the resource based view, organizational capabilities and competitiveness and innovation and new product development (Frost, 2003; Grant and Baden Fuller, 1995). Other streams focus on nature and processes and examine the internal focus, which includes impact of strategic management concepts and frameworks that managers use to develop competitive strategy (Clark, 1997). Researchers have contended that the concept of strategic human resource management has evolved into a bridge between business strategy and the management of human resources (e.g. Butler et al., 1991; Lengnick-Hall and Lengnick-Hall, 1988; Lorange and Murphy, 1984). On the other hand, Truss and Gratton (1994) opine strategic human resource management as the overarching concept that links the management and deployment of individuals within the organization to the business as a whole and its environment. Ulrich (1997) further distinguished between strategic HR and HR strategy. He stated that strategic HR was the process of linking HR practices to business strategy. Thus, strategic HR deals with identifying the capabilities required of a business strategy and using HR practices to develop those capabilities. On the other hand, he viewed HR strategy as building an agenda for the HR function and defining the......

Words: 387 - Pages: 2


...1. Are there facts of right and wrong, or are these values relative or subject to cultural variations? AXIOLOGY 2. Descartes wrote, “Cogito ergo sum” – “I think, therefore I am.” EPISTEMOLOGY 3. Plato’s theory of forms asserts that the world we think we see around us is an illusion. 4. “Descartes argues that there is no less contradiction in conceiving a supremely perfect being who lacks existence than there is in conceiving a triangle whose interior angles do not sum to 180 degrees. Hence, he supposes, since we do conceive a supremely perfect being — we do have the idea of a supremely perfect being — we must conclude that a supremely perfect being exists” (Oppy, 2007, para. 3). ____________ 5. Can reason reveal knowledge, or must we depend on sense-experience for all knowledge? 6. Do colors exist on the surfaces of objects, or are they dependent on the minds of perceivers? METAPHYSICS 7. Do objects of value have an objective value, or is value subjective? 8. Where is the line drawn between knowledge and belief? 9. Kant argued that existence is not a property that someone or something can “have.” Existence is not part of any concept; therefore, “God exists” must not be true. 10. Plato’s one-over-many argument holds that, “All beautiful things have something in common: namely beauty itself. Now this ‘something’—beauty itself—must exist in addition to all the particular beautiful things there are, for clearly,......

Words: 495 - Pages: 2


...philein, a word that means “love,” and sophia, a word that means wisdom. When you put the two words together, it means “the love or pursuit of wisdom”. Philosophy can be considered to be many different truths, depending on the person and the ideas they have embraced through time. With the different twist and turns that philosophy can take, there had to be some way of classifying the different approaches. The approaches were broken down into 6 areas to be able to classify what type of research was being done. Philosophers like Bertrand Russell brought to our attention that we are quick to embrace the scientific explanation of the world but the Metaphysics or the idea that there may be an afterlife cannot be proven with a microscope. Epistemology is the study of identifying what we know and why we know it. This is sometimes integrated with Metaphysics but has its own meaning. The main question in this study is what truth is, and what the sources of knowledge are. Ethics is the study of morals, values, and principals. Questions arise for these thinkers like how should we treat others, or is there a good life for humans. Political and social philosophy is important to those who want to fight for individual rights they show us all what citizenship really is. The important questions to these thinkers are, what the nature of justice is. Aesthetics is the study of beauty and art, and it questions things like what is true beauty. The logic is all about Validity in an argument. This......

Words: 812 - Pages: 4

Essay on Epistemology

...something although it is false. It is important to set out epistemologies from an axiomatic starting point. There is no better place to start than with the Rationalist René Descartes and his cogito ergo sum. “I think, therefore I am” is a declaration of the extent of indubitable knowledge. That is to say, we can only be sure that a thinking entity exists by point of fact that it thinks (whether it be doubting, and whether or not we can define exactly what such a thinking entity might ontologically be). As Michael Lacewing states[3]: So Descartes begins by understanding knowledge in terms of certainty. To establish certainty, he tests his beliefs by doubt. Doubt, then, is the opposite of certainty. If we can doubt a belief, then it is not certain, and so it is not knowledge. From this Rationalist mantra, one can further adopt the position of the Pyrrhonian Skeptic. This term represents a skeptic who is defined by doubt so as to remain effectively agnostic over everything, even their own position, such that judgement is evaded. However, this, as a scope for an epistemology, is not very useful; it is not entirely pragmatic[4] in the context of everyday life. As a result, it can be deemed necessary, in order to form a usable epistemology, to build up from this. Yet to do so, one has to make certain leaps of faith, if you will. Or to put it another way, one must hold to knowledge claims that are not indubitable – a usable epistemology seems to have inevitable need of making......

Words: 1119 - Pages: 5

Epistemology Paper

...The profiling of two countries is one way to know all about in these countries and to compare to each other. In our subject the Comparative Economics, our professor give a group assignment and that is to search all the profile of one develop country and the Philippines. Our chose develop country is the Japan. Our group leader assigned to me the Political Aspects of these two countries. By the help of internet, books and other source of information, I look for all the political details of the country to know all about the government and political background of these countries for us to compare the political aspects of the two countries. By the profile of the chosen countries, I and my group mates are looking for the advantage of each country and what are the factors that give the two countries improvement or progress. We finish this assignment with the cooperation of all members and at the given time period. During the time of work or the assignment, we share some ideas for us to get the best idea for the format design and the questioner of the group assignment. As the member of the group, I finish all includes to my topic that assigned by our leader and submit to the leader to compile all the profile of the chosen develop country and the Philippines. Philippines The form of government of the Philippines is a Republic Government, which is the Filipino people, elects a representative to lead and to make laws. The government has three branches: the legislative branch,......

Words: 1373 - Pages: 6


...comfort than an evaluation based on the percentage of seriously disturbed or the effects of sleep deprivation in relation to external noise. Furthermore, this corresponds to the European standards and recommendations concerning quality classification of the indoor environment, based on the percentage of dissatisfied. Originality/value – Based on recent European undertakings concerning the development of categories for the indoor environment based on the percentage of dissatisfied, it is desirable to utilise these categories to noise aspects too, and to relate it to the equivalent background noise level. Keywords Environmental noise, Noise control, Dissatisfied, Discomfort, EN 15251, CR 1752, Comfort categories, Environmental regulations Paper type Research paper Evaluation of environmental noise 133 1. Introduction With the noise level it is possible to make a judgement of the results upon the indoor environment caused by environmental noise via of a, so-called, “dose-effect relationship”. The “dose-effect relationships” are determined from reaction responses obtained from people who have been subject to the noise level. In general, these reaction studies have been used to determine “percentages of seriously disturbed” and the percentage of the population that would suffer sleep deprivation related to outdoor noise levels (Gezondheidsraad, 1997). It now appears that these earlier reaction studies do not correspond with the present situation. This is, for example, the case of......

Words: 2388 - Pages: 10

Tok Writing Epistemologies

...In the handout from Man is the Measure, Abel discussed nine “good reasons” or sources of knowledge. In a response of 450-500 words, evaluate any two of those sources. Of these, one should be an epistemology that you consider a strong or secure foundation for knowledge and one that you consider relatively weak. Discuss the reasons for your choice and include specific examples. Among the nine epistemologies suggested by Abel in “Man in the Measure”, I consider sense perception to be a strong epistemology. According to the Oxford Dictionary, “sense perception is to perceive by a sense (sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch). Long before humans learned how to use language or reason, sense was the primary way to interact with the world, and was the only source for obtaining knowledge. Sense perception is considered to be a framework for many other theories. It also helps people confirm assumptions, as they are very convincing. Two men looking at the ocean might say it is light blue, which cannot be doubted. In addition, acknowledging that it is light blue, it may be deduced that the water in the ocean is clean. However, sense perception also has its weaknesses. Firstly, according to Hermann von Hemholtz, humans construct images by inferring it based on past experience. Furthermore, it means that humans convert pictures into something based on the understanding of the world. This becomes a weakness, as different people would have different perspectives. Secondly, due......

Words: 570 - Pages: 3


...My Own Epistemology: In the Making Am I living in an illusion? What will happen to me after I die? Is there really such thing as a God? I have struggled with these three questions throughout my entire life, and I was very intrigued to discover that all of these questions were addressed throughout the many different readings in Libs 201: Exploring the Unknown. Author Chris Frith dissects the idea that the mental world is an illusion created by the brain in his book Making Up The Mind. Antony Flew, a former atheist, argues that there is such thing as a God or an “agent” and backs up his theory using science. Emile Durkheim writes about the foundation of religious thought in primitive people thousands of years ago, and addresses the question of where religious impulse comes from in humans. All of these readings address epistemological questions beyond the scientific domain of research, and I am left with an open mind as I try and retain all of the different concepts and ideas each of these authors has to offer. According to Chris Frith, the mental world is an illusion caused by the brain. In Making up the Mind, Frith addresses the distinction between the mental and the physical world, and claims that there isn’t actually a distinction at all. Frith writes, “Most of our interactions with other people are interactions between minds, not between bodies.” This statement really stood out to me, and I found myself repeating these words over and over again inside of my head.......

Words: 1011 - Pages: 5

Knowledge Claims with Ontology and Epistemology

...Knowledge Claims Knowledge issues emerge from knowledge claims. These are claims about what we know. Researchers examine the knowledge claims about social world (Crotty 2003). They are of an ontological nature (the reality and character of things) and epistemological nature (how the knower discovers the knowledge about the reality). Ontology and epistemology Before researchers embark on their journey to explore social phenomena, they need to clarify what their ontological and epistemological stances are. Just as every project has its start and finish, so does academic research. The first stage of academic research is for inquirers to ask a research question, answers for which will be learnt using proper research methods. Researchers can go about answering the research question quantitatively, qualitatively or utilizing mixed methods. It is believed that while undertaking academic research, ontologies and epistemologies, also called paradigms, must be defined separately from research methods, although these constituents are interlaced and they shape each other (Crotty 2003; Guba and Lincoln 1994; Poetschke 2003; Scotland 2012; Grix 2002). The word ontology is derived from two Greek words meaning being and word. Ontology deals with the world and the question whether the reality exists regardless of our knowledge about it or not. There are two contrasting philosophical traditions: positivism looking at reality as being real, true and concrete and interpretivism looking at......

Words: 1059 - Pages: 5


...As Rorty (1979) has observed epistemology seems to offer a vantage point, one step removed from the actual practice of science itself, which at first sight promises to provide some foundation for scientific knowledge. By seeking to explain ourselves as knowers, by telling us how we ought to arrive at our beliefs, epistemology is pivotal to science since `proper' scientific theorizing can only occur after the development of epistemological theory. It follows that a key question must be how can we develop epistemological theory--a science of science? Almost 60 years ago Neurath (1944) pointed to the paradox that epistemology confronts: a fundamental problem of circularity, from which it cannot escape, in that any theory of knowledge (i.e. any epistemology) presupposes knowledge of the conditions in which knowledge takes place. In effect, this prevents any grounding of epistemology in what purports to be scientific knowledge, psychological or otherwise, because one cannot use science in order to ground the legitimacy of science. For Neurath, such circularity means that we cannot dump philosophy by detaching ourselves from our epistemological commitments so as to assess those commitments objectively--indeed we would depend upon them in order to undertake that reflexive task. It follows that there are no secure foundations from which we can begin any consideration of our knowledge of knowledge--rather what we have are competing philosophical assumptions about knowledge that......

Words: 286 - Pages: 2


...Emily Simpson Philosophy 2745 11-20-2014 Epistemology For the most part, philosophers agree that knowledge requires truth, justification, and belief. However, the debate lies in whether or not a theory of knowledge accurately and fully satisfies these conditions. The standard account of knowledge has three conditions that need to be met in order for an individual to have knowledge. S must know that p if and only if: (1) S believes that p, (2) p is true and (3) S is justified in believing that p. On the surface, it seems that this account implicates knowledge; however, Edmund Gettier showed through the Gettier cases that you can believe yourself to be justified, but not actually have knowledge. This epistemic setback is known as the Gettier Problem. Since the standard account of knowledge was essentially done away with, philosophers have been in search of the best way to solve the Gettier problem. Alvin Goldman in particular has published many papers detailing his thoughts on the matter. “A Causal Theory of Knowing” was the first in a series of works in which Goldman sought a theory that could handle Gettier’s cases. Unfortunately, Goldman’s own causal theory was undermined by his and Carl Ginet’s fake barn case. The Ginet-Goldman fake barn case first appeared in Goldman’s “Discrimination and Perceptual Knowledge”. It describes a boy, Henry, who is traveling through the countryside and sees what he believes to be a barn. Unbeknownst to Henry, the area he is in is......

Words: 1042 - Pages: 5

Plato's Middle Period Epistemology

...Plato's Middle Period Metaphysics and Epistemology 1.0. The Background to Plato’s Metaphysics The author Silverman, Allan (2014) of this article titled Plato’s Middle Period Metaphysics and Epistemology wrote about how Plato first began to annotate his own points on metaphysics and epistemology. As we all knew, Plato’s definition of things are heavily influenced by his teachers Heraclitus (c.540 B.C.-480-70) Parmenides (c.515 B.C.-449-40) and especially Socrates (470 B.C-399). However only remnants of the writings of Heraclitus and Parmenides and also nothing left of Socrates. The only evidence that we ever had is Plato’s depiction of his teacher that is the dialog he wrote in his writings about Socrates’s views. Sometimes, it is as if it was Socrates’s writing not Plato because of the many things about Socrates he wrote. Some had said that it was his own views but instead he used Socrates as the speaker. This article also wrote about Plato’s predecessors’ views of the concept that influences his definition of Metaphysics and Epistemology which are Being and Forms. Firstly, Parmenides which he said there is one and only in this world and that is being. The truth is it never change and will never be. Sadly, there is not much we could conclude from Parmenides’s point of view. His concept of being has become Plato’s based of doctrine of Forms. As contrast to Parmenides’s definition of physical world, Heraclitus is the advocate of change. He said that the ordinary......

Words: 4378 - Pages: 18

Research Paper

...John Locke And His Writing Research Paper By: Brianna Lewis Honors English III Ms. Laroche March 28-2015 John Locke was an influential English philosopher during the enlightenment age. John Locke was born August 29 1632 in wrington Somerset England. His parents were puritan which lead him to grown up in a puritan household. His father was a country lawyer who also served in the military, which lead him to have the best of education. He attended Westminster school in London in 1647 then he attended Christ church in Oxford. He had trouble following the curriculum that was being taught to him which lead him to wonder off and stray into modern philosophy instead of the original curriculum he was suppose to learn. One of his friends that were taking medicine introduced him to it then he found his newfound passion. He begins living though just his mind. He was the very first person back then to identify them though consciousness. He then went to university of Oxford and study medicine and lectured on Greek, moral and rhetoric, which lead to a lot of his writing and his outlook on political disputes. Locke became friends with English statesman Anthony Cooper, Shaftesbury who was his adviser and physician. He became a very influential English philosopher with his writing topics being political philosophy, epistemology and also education. He founded the school of empiricism. Locke's Theory of empiricism emphasized the importance of......

Words: 873 - Pages: 4

Epistemologies Governing the First- and Second-Order Cybernetic Approaches

...Epistemologies governing the first- and second-order cybernetic approaches: Ivan Bronkhorst Student number: 51863456 PYC4808 Assignment 2 Table of Contents 1. First Order Cybernetic (FOC) principles: 3 Recursion: 3 Feedback: 3 Morphostasis /Morphogenesis: 3 Rules and Boundaries: 3 Openness/Closedness: 4 Entropy/Negentropy: 4 Equifinality/Equipotentiality: 4 Communication and Information Processing 5 Relationship and Wholeness: 5 2. Second Order Cybernetic (FOC) principles: 6 Wholeness and Self-Reference: 6 Openness/Closedness: 7 Autopoiesis: 7 Structural Determinism: 7 Structural Coupling and Nonpurposeful Drift: 7 Epistemology of Participation: 8 Reality as a Multiverse: 8 1. First Order Cybernetic (FOC) principles: Recursion: Recursion is focused on the relationship between individuals and given elements in isolation. Recursion is, thus, focuses on how individuals and elements interact with, and influence one another respectively (Becvar & Becvar, 2014, pp. 69-70). In my opinion recursion in FOC refers to the circular causality or impact, if you will, that individuals and/or given elements have on one another. For instance, a child is extremely fearful of his father and, thus, doesn’t like talking to his father. His father, in turn, gets angry and strict when his son does not talk to him on a regular basis seeing as this makes him feel unwanted as a father. This behaviour from the father fuels the fear of the child creating a negative......

Words: 2814 - Pages: 12

Collateral Beauty (2016) | RC Quadcopter Partes | The Cinematic Orchestra