In: Science

Submitted By sawilloughby
Words 927
Pages 4
Sarah Scott
June 24, 2013

Ethanol is an alcohol that, when added to gasoline, can be used as a transportation fuel. It is being blended in to gasoline at concentrations of five percent to ten percent for use in motor vehicles. The main ingredient in ethanol is corn, a renewable resource that is in abundance in the United States. Brazil is the leading producer in ethanol, and vehicles there have been running on 100% ethanol for many years (, 2013). While ethanol seems to be the answer to renewable fuel sources, there are both advantages and disadvantages to using this product. The most obvious advantage of using ethanol is the benefits to the environment. Vehicles that are fueled by ethanol produce much lower carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide than those using gasoline (West. 2013), and because this fuel source is made from plants, the carbon dioxide it does emit is recycled back to reproduce the product. A study published by Yale University's Journal of Industrial Ecology found that GHG emissions from ethanol produced at modern dry-mill facilities are "... equivalent to a 48 percent to 59 percent reduction compared to gasoline, a twofold to threefold greater reduction than reported in previous studies." (, 2013). Another great advantage is that ethanol is readily available in many countries around the world. In the United States, it is made with corn, and produced in the Midwestern states like Nebraska, Iowa and Illinois. In Brazil, it is made with sugar cane, and is widely used as a primary fuel source. Possibly the greatest advantage to using ethanol is that it can be produced right here in the United States. With the use of ethanol, the United State’s dependence on foreign oil is greatly reduced, and it will improve the economy by supporting local farmers and creating domestic jobs. According to the…...

Similar Documents

Alcohol , Ethanol

...Alkohol Alkohol (ethanol) har gennem flere hundrede år været danskernes foretrukne rusmiddel. Det er det mest brugte, og et af de mest sundhedsskadelige rusmidler. Beregning af alkoholindtagelsen For at kunne beregne alkoholindtagelsen skal man vide, hvor meget der er drukket, og hvor stor alkoholprocenten er. F.eks. indeholder en almindelig pilsner 33 cl og alkoholprocenten er opgivet til "4,6 % vol" alkohol. Det betyder at 4,6 % af flaskens indhold målt i rumfang er alkohol. Dette er IKKE det samme som at 4,6 % af massen er alkohol. Men da alkoholens massefylde er 7,9 g/cl finder man nemt antallet af gram alkohol ved at benytte følgende udregning: 1. 1 pilsner indeholder 0, 046 · 33cl · 7,9g/cl = 11,99 gram alkohol 2. 2 pilsnere indeholder 0, 046 · (2 · 33cl) · 7,9g/cl = 23,98 gram alkohol osv. Herved fremkommer formlen: Gram alkohol = alkoholprocenten · total volumen af drikkevare · 7,9 g/cl "En genstand" er defineret som 12 gram alkohol, så når man drikker en alm. øl, svarer det ifølge ovenstående til at man indtager ca. 1 genstand. Det er en udbredt myte, at en snaps på 2 cl også svarer til en genstand. Men dette er – som det vil fremgå af nedenstående opgave - stærkt overdrevet! Faktisk skal man snarere drikke 4 cl snaps for at have drukket en genstand. Indledende opgave (opg. 0): a) Udregn hvor meget en alm. snaps på 2 cl og 40 volumen- % alkohol svarer til i genstande Følgende tabel indeholder volumenprocent'er for udvalgte......

Words: 2508 - Pages: 11

Northeast Iowa Ethanol V Drizin

...CASE: Northeast Iowa Ethanol, LLC v. Drizin A) Parties The plaintiffs involved in this case are the local farmers from Manchester, Iowa. They formed Northeast Iowa Ethanol, LLC. William Ethanol Service and the North Central Construction also invested the construction of the Iowa ethanol plant. The defendant involved in this case is Jerry Drizin. He formed a Nevada corporation, Global Syndicate International Inc. B) Facts In 2000 in Manchester, Iowa, farmers and the President of the local Co-op, Douglas Bishop, began meeting with representatives of the United States Department of Agriculture to explore the possibility of building an ethanol plant in the Manchester area. The idea of building the plant was to help farmers in the area in getting more value out of their crops. An ethanol plant produces ethanol and feed grain that is sold at a profit exceeding that associated with the mere sale of grain. The construction of the plant was expected to cost approximately $21 Million (Morlan, editor & publisher; 2006). It would have the room for producing 15 million gallons of ethanol per year. Through the meetings, Mr. Bishop and others raised $2,365,000. Traditional lenders (like the banks) demanded that the plaintiff raise forty percent of the construction costs. It was clear that the plaintiff could not raise $8 Million. The plaintiff's proposed marketing partner, Williams Ethanol Services, agreed to invest $1 Million in the project as well. The contractor......

Words: 1839 - Pages: 8

Converting Biomass Into Ethanol

...Converting biomass into ethanol through fermentation by Leng Hong, Grazy (0630400033) A Final Year Project Thesis (ENV4071; 3 Credits) submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Environmental Science at BNU-HKBU UNITED INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE Novembers , 2009 DECLARATION I hereby declare that all the work done in this Project is of my independent effort. I also certify that I have never submitted the idea and product of this Project for academic or employment credits. ___________________ Leng hong, Grazy (0630400033) Date: ___________________ Acknowledgements I am grateful to my project supervisor, Dr. C. F. Yu, Assistant Professor of the Environmental Science Program at UIC. He gave me guidance throughout the whole project. Also, I deeply appreciate Prof. Daniel Ruan, the head of the Department of Environmental Science in UIC, for his expert advice, instruction, and technical supports for the whole year. Thanks are also attributed to Car Wu, Sunshine Chen ,the Laboratory Technician at UIC, who provided useful directions and helpful comments during the project. Finally, I would like to give credits to all other laboratory technicians, for their valuable advice. And to all my classmates, who provided me with encouragement throughout the whole......

Words: 6080 - Pages: 25


...Ethanol is an alcohol-based fuel that is made by fermenting and distilling starch crops, such as corn and it can also be made from “cellulosic biomass” such as trees and grasses. A majority of ethanol that is used for fuel is blended into gasoline. More than ninety-five percent of the gasoline supplied in California today contains six percent of ethanol. Flexible Fuel Vehicles, or FFVs, have been produced by United States automakers, which are resulting in a growing market for E85 fuel, eighty-five percent ethanol and fifteen percent gasoline. (Consumer Energy Center, 2006) About two-thirds of the United States petroleum demand is in transportation and approximately half of United States petroleum is imported. With the U.S. depending so heavily on foreign petroleum supplies, we are creating a greater risk for trade deficits, supply disruption and prices changes. The Renewable Fuels Association’s 2012 Ethanol Industry Outlook calculated that in 2011 the ethanol industry replaced the gasoline produced from more than 485 million barrels of imported oil. Ethanol represents twenty-five percent of domestically produced and refined motor fuel for gasoline engines. (U.S. Department of Energy, 2013) Since ethanol has a lower energy content than gasoline, about one-third more ethanol is required to travel the same distance as on gasoline. However, a high octane rating and other characteristics, result in increased engine efficiency and performance. The cost of producing ethanol is......

Words: 581 - Pages: 3

Ib 403 Brazil Ethanol Final Paper

...The Brazilian Ethanol Story IB 403, Section 003 Introduction: Biofuel is one of the newest and largest trends sweeping the world. Gaining interest in countries and economies, governments have announced strong commitments to biofuel programs in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and diversify energy sources. Although these programs are new to many countries, Brazil has years of experience with sugarcane-based ethanol, creating a success story for others to reference. Currently, Brazil is the largest biofuel market with the United States ringing in a close second. However, Brazil’s ethanol is created from sugarcane while the U.S. uses corn to produce their ethanol. Not only is Brazil’s sugarcane-based ethanol the first renewable fuel to be cost-competitive with transportation fuel, but it is also the most economical compared to its competitors. The ethanol’s efficiency is due to the power of the sugarcane compared to corn as an ethanol feedstock, a perfect climate for sugarcane harvesting, and the large, unskilled, inexpensive labor force in Brazil. In addition, the U.S. uses almost double the amount of land to farm corn to produce ethanol as Brazil uses to harvest sugarcane to produce almost the same volume as ethanol. What is Ethanol? Ethanol is an alcohol fuel distilled from plant materials, such as corn and sugar. Ethanol is the main biofuel for transportation and Brazil is the greatest exporter globally of bioethanol. The sugar and ethanol industry......

Words: 3462 - Pages: 14

Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel

...Ethanol has the ingredient formula C2H5OH. It is the same alcohol found in alcoholic drinks, but ethanol also makes successful motor fuel. There have been decades of motor fuel submission knowledge in the United States and other countries with ethanol. Ethanol used for petroleum is being mixed together into petrol at concentrations of 5 to 10 percent. In certain states, ethanol has replaced (MTBE) as a fuel constituent. Over 95 percent of the petroleum supplied in the state today enclosed 6 percent ethanol. There is a miniature but increasing market for E85 fuel for use in elastic fuel vehicles, more than a few million of which have been created by U.S. automakers. But E85 is first and foremost established in the Midwest in corn-producing states. Ethanol is being used to put together a combine of diesel fuel and as a substitute for leaded aviation fuel in miniature aircraft. Ethanol has a lesser power content than petrol. That means that about one-third more ethanol is necessary to take a trip the same distance as on fuel. But other ethanol fuel distinctiveness, including a high octane rating, consequence in enlarged engine competence and presentation. The 15 percent petrol used to originate E85 is to guarantee cold weather engine opening and to improve flame radiance in case of fire. In small-percentage blends with fuel, ethanol outcomes in enlarged vapor pressure that can be in sync for in the gas formulation procedure and/or controlled with on-board vehicle......

Words: 391 - Pages: 2


...Ethanol Ethanol can provide an alternative fuel source that may be a partial solution to the current energy crisis. Although when is not quite agreed upon, most experts can agree that the world will run out of fossil fuels at some point in time. In turn, this causes a need to search for alternative fuel sources. Is ethanol biofuel a solution and a good alternative? There seems to be more advantages then disadvantages, so yes overall, ethanol is an effective solution. Ethanol is produced from plant matter. The plant matter is broken down into simple sugars and starches and then fermented and distilled into alcohol. Many large farms in the Midwest have planted all or part of their land area to take advantage of the government subsidies which are offered for corn production to supply the ethanol production needs. Ethanol can be used in all cars in low concentrations, such as 10% ethanol. It can be used in specialized cars, trucks and minivans known as “flexible fuel vehicles” in concentrations up to 85% ethanol (commonly known as E85). Fuel stations in the Midwest are offering E85 fuel, often as a lower price per gallon then traditional fuel. There is a lot of controversy on the ethanol biofuel which centers on the cost to tax payers for ethanol subsidies, the environmental concerns focused especially on admissions in the ethanol production process, and the amount of net emission savings. Ethanol contains less energy per gallon than a gallon of gasoline. ......

Words: 527 - Pages: 3


...Ethanol Report and Its Importance For Traders Weekly Report * For Production * For Stocks * Two main components – Production and Stocks * Latest report numbers- Production @ 925000 barrels Per day * Stocks 16990000 Barrels * US target for corn ethanol production as latest WASDE is 5050 million Bushels (A Barrel = 42 US Gallons = 4.5 bushels approx.) * Ratio of conversion from 1 bushel of corn to1 gallon of ethanol : 2.8 * Therefore the USDA Target in terms of gallons is 14.14 billion gallons or 336.66 million barrels of ethanol Ethanol Margins VS Production Production Specifications Stocks Of Ethanol Data Release and their reactions 21 May 2014 Production : 925000 Barrels/day v/s 922000 Barrels/Day Inventory : 16990000 Barrels v/s 17302000 Barrels/day Immediate reaction: In spite of somewhat bullish number, market reaction was negative 14 May 2013 Production : 922000 Barrels/Day Vs 894000 BPD last week Inventory : 17302000 Barrels Vs 17140000 BPD last week Market Reaction : The report had a neutral to bearish undertone and the market did’t react accordingly. 7 May 2014 Production : 894000 Barrels/Day v/s 898000 Barrels/Day last week Inventory : 17140000 Barrels Vs 17212000 Barrels/Day last week Market Reaction : The numbers were neutral to bullish and the market......

Words: 436 - Pages: 2

Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Ethanol

...Hydrogen Production from Ethanol for Fuel Cell Applications D.Kunzru Department of Chemical Engineering, I.I.T.Kanpur, Kanpur-208016 Email: Ethanol is a renewable resource as it can be produced from biomass without contributing to the greenhouse gas emissions. Reforming of ethanol to produce hydrogen is a potentially attractive process. The reactions involved include steam reforming followed by water-gas shift and selective oxidation of CO. The development of suitable catalysts for these reactions is crucial for the viability of the process. Recent studies suggest that the promising catalysts are supported Rh and Rh/Ni catalysts for steam reforming, Pt-ceria based catalysts for water-gas shift reaction and Pt-Rh or Cu-ceria catalysts for selective oxidation of CO. Microreactors are well-suited for fabricating microfuel processors for portable power applications. Further research on catalyst development and heat integration schemes is required to commercialize this process. 1. Introduction Most of the energy we use today is obtained from non-renewable fossil fuels. This has not only depleted the reserves of fossil fuels, especially crude oil, but has also caused severe environmental pollution. Intense research efforts are being made to develop alternative renewable energy sources .In recent years , considerable effort has been expended in developing fuel cells. Hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to produce electricity very efficiently and cleanly, since...

Words: 2595 - Pages: 11


...Chapter 9 Ethanol Policy and Ethanol Politics David S. Bullock28 The United States is currently passing through one of the most exciting and controversial periods of its energy history. With the US military caught up in armed conflict in the Middle East, and with global warming looming in the minds of many expert scientists as the world’s greatest environmental challenge, a common belief is that it is more important than ever that the US develop sensible and far-sighted energy policy. Politicians’ claims aside, the politics of energy policy are rarely about what is best “for the country.” When government sets energy policy, some people gain, and others may lose. The politics of energy policy, then, are not simply, or even generally, about how to make the nation as a whole better off. Rather, the politics of energy policy are very much about interested political groups struggling against one another. This type of “special interest” politics is nothing new, and not unique to energy policy. Nevertheless, it is widely held among average Americans that the political activities of special interest politics are often bad for the nation as a whole. Because public information is a democracy’s best weapon against harmful special-interest politics, in this chapter we hope to accomplish three goals: 1) to present an outline of the “nuts and bolts” of U.S. ethanol policy; 2) to use economic analysis to examine the effects of ethanol policy, presenting arguments to cut through much of the...

Words: 14434 - Pages: 58

Should Ethanol Be Used as an Additive to Motor Fuels

...Should Ethanol Be Used as an Additive to Motor Fuels          Since living in Texas my whole life oil has always been a huge part of my life since oil is everywhere in Texas. I have been aware of corn ethanol production in the United States for a long time. The reason for my awareness is a lot of my family has been apart in the oil industry for a long time. Then I notice every time I go to the gas station that it states “the gas may contain up to 10% ethanol”. These things that have affected my life are the reason I analyzed in greater detail what this article has to say about ethanol. I read one article towards the use of ethanol and one against it.           My journey started with the first article that was assigned to the class: “Energy Balance of Ethanol Even More Favorable Than Estimates” from Usagnet by Alan Tiemann, the Nebraska Corn Board Director. In this article Tiemann talks in great detail about the energy balance of corn production to ethanol conversion is a better measurement and more profitable for both the oil and farming industries. He also states that multiple studies have proven that the conversion measurement is better. The study at the University of Nebraska really stuck out. Ken Cassmann, director of the Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research. Cassmann researched and believes that the past researches were based on “backward looking data” and not that true. Whereas, new research conducted at University of Nebraska shows the conversion to ethanol......

Words: 1196 - Pages: 5


...DMACC THE ETHANOL ENVIORMENT A RESEARCH PAPER SUBBMITTED TO MR. JEFF WILLIAMS INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS PHI 105 BE BOONE, IA NOVEMBER 17, 2014 Abstract Ethanol is a renewable resource that is produced from many agricultural products. The public attitude towards corn based ethanol is influenced by many different subjects like, the effects of production on the environment, the effects on local economies, and the effects on the national food prices. Focusing on corn based ethanol there are considerations to take into effect such as the benefits of ethanol, the problems or concerns with ethanol, the political involvement with ethanol, and the effect of ethanol on the economy. The Ethanol Environment Ethanol is a renewable resource that is produced from many agricultural products such as corn, which can be blended into many different proportions of gasoline. The public attitude towards corn based ethanol is influenced by many different subjects. The overall plan for ethanol was good but took a wrong turn and has caused damage as a result. As stated by Michelle Heath, “there are no known environmental hazards that have to do with ethanol.” Ethanol does not only make our vehicles friendlier to the environmental it also has other impacts. Considering our total energy use, including building, heating and electricity, the savings from the use of biofuels is two-thirds greater than using gasoline (Dewsbury, 2009). With the......

Words: 1884 - Pages: 8

Brazil Ethanol

...Research Paper HUMN 432 - Society, Culture and Technology Ethanol in Brazil Team A I. Introduction 3 II. Brazil 4 a. Short history 4 b. Brazil during the oil crisis in the 70’s 6 III. Ethanol as bio-fuel 7 a. Extraction process 7 b. Energetically self sufficient ethanol plants in Brazil 8 c. Energy from Ethanol 9 d. Flex-Fuel Vehicles 10 IV. Economic Effects of Ethanol as Bio-Fuel 10 a. Brazil not endangered by a new oil crisis 10 b. Export 12 c. Vertical industries 13 d. Environmental benefits 14 V. Ethical and Social Implications 15 a. A market not dominated by oil barons 15 b. Independent economy 16 VI. Brazil in a global economy and ethanol in the US 18 a. Future of ethanol as bio-fuel in Brazil 18 b. Ethanol in the United States 19 c. E85 21 VII. Conclusion 22 VIII. Works Cited 23 I. Introduction Fuel, at its simplest, makes us go. It is a necessity to modern day life. Even if everyone were to walk, rather than drive, there would be a need for it. This is one thing that is in common around the world. The dependence on oil based gasoline has many of the most powerful countries forking out quite a bit for their fuel. This is, of course, the case in the United States. There is no doubt that this country needs an alternative fuel, or to cut back on its use of the current fuel. However, because we are so dependent at this time on oil based gasoline and other fuels, Americans tend to be a bit......

Words: 4566 - Pages: 19

Anaerobic Yeast Fermentation for the Production of Ethanol in a Versatile Lab Fermentor

...Anaerobic yeast fermentation for the production of ethanol in a versatile lab fermentor Abstract Whether used for research or production, the versatile BioFlo® 310 fermentor from New Brunswick Scientific allows growth of a wide variety of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, including bacteria, plant, algae, fungi and yeast. Its advanced controller can regulate up to four vessels simultaneously, 120 process loops in all. Here we demonstrate one facet of its versatility—a technique for inducing ethanol production in yeast, by switching from an aerobic growth phase to an anaerobic steady-state culture. Introduction Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model eukaryotic organism, often used in research because it is easy to manipulate and culture, and is comparatively similar in structure to human cells. This yeast is also widely used in industrial applications to manufacture enzymes and proteins for beer, wine and bread, and because it metabolizes glucose to ethanol, is also used to produce many biofuel products. We produced ethanol from a S. cerevisiae (American Type Culture Collection strain 20602) in a 7.5 liter BioFlo 310 fermentor, to demonstrate the flexibility of this advanced fermentation system. In the first phase, we grew the yeast in an aerobic environment, using a dissolved oxygen cascade control strategy to produce a sufficient cell density. Then we pumped in nitrogen gas to create an anaerobic environment for inducing ethanol production, and used reduction and......

Words: 984 - Pages: 4

Ethanol: Is It Really the Best Option

...Ethanol: Is It Really the Best Option Ethanol based gasoline vehicles are becoming more and more popular, but is ethanol gasoline better than regular petroleum gasoline? Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, can be an effective motor fuel, and most of the gasoline in the US contains some ethanol (Ethanol As a Transportation Fuel). Many people everywhere are praising ethanol gasoline because it can reduce pollution, and increase engine performance. There are some facts that are not being recognized, and these facts should be brought to light. The price of corn and food products made from corn will increase from the higher demand of corn and vehicles have to use one-third more ethanol than regular gas. Ethanol gas in the end will end up costing more than petroleum gas being used now. Ethanol gas as an alternative to gas will mean that the demand for corn will become greater and greater. The use of ethanol in motor fuel has increased for years an average of twenty-five percent per year (Ethanol Cost And Environmental Factors). This year America will use 5 billion bushels of corn which will produce about 14 billion gallons of ethanol (Helman). So will farmers be able to grow the amount of corn needed for the production of ethanol gasoline and food demand? The increase in corn crops in the Midwest has added to size of the dead zone in the Gulf Coast (Miller). What if the country was to experience another serious drought, or major flood? A different method of creating ethanol......

Words: 800 - Pages: 4

Montenegro | WINDOWS 7 | Моя гениальная подруга / L'amica geniale / My Brilliant Friend [01x01-05 из 08] (2018) WEBRip | ColdFilm