Ethics Maternal Right

In: Science

Submitted By mitzi77
Words 2225
Pages 9
Before the advent of fetal ultrasound, nature was the only entity responsible for unveiling the mystery of pregnancy. The widespread use of advanced fetal ultrasonography has given expectant mothers information which can deliver feelings of reassurance and comfort, and at worst times, trepidation and despair. The clear, stirring image of a life in utero has changed the way health professionals comprehend the prenatal world. Besides making the fetus visible to practitioners, technology has heightened the range of diagnostic possibilities of fetal anomalies. The end result is the complex field of fetal intervention and surgery, and along with it, the corresponding complicated moral and ethical dilemmas. Consider the case of Maria (real name withheld), who, at 30 years old, became pregnant for the first time and underwent a routine prenatal ultrasound. The initial ultrasound at 14 weeks showed Maria was carrying twins, baby A and baby B. At 26 weeks gestation, baby A seemed normal, however, baby B showed evidence of congenital hydronephrosis secondary to unilateral ureteral obstruction. Harrison and Adzick (1991) described possible devastating and fatal consequences for the developing fetus with a severe bilateral obstruction due to renal failure from hydronephrosis, as well as pulmonary failure related to lung hypoplasia. Because Baby B has a unilateral obstruction, the physicians in the case recommended surgical treatment after delivery. Against her physicians’ recommendations, Maria requests fetal surgery be done immediately, after learning about fetal surgery on the internet.
Brief history of fetal surgery Fetal surgery began in the United States over three decades ago after extensive animal experiments and innovative technological advances. Led by Dr. Michael Harrison, the “father of fetal surgery,” fetal therapy provided the earliest possible…...

Similar Documents

Business Ethics Property Rights

...Meghan Muller December 18th, 2012 Property rights are a topic brought up in many discussions and debates. It is such an important aspect in our lives, and is a major part of our freedom. The right to ownership begins with out natural rights. In our natural state we have a right to our body which leads us to have a right to the to the energy we exert. Locke explains this to us by saying “The labor of his body, and the work of his hands, we may say, are properly his. (Locke, 209)” Once we exert energy onto an object, or land, that entity is now fulfilled with our personal labor. Property rights should guarantee that that entity is now rightfully ours. Proudhon furthers this discussion by simply stating, “Property is robbery.” The capitalist pays a wage in return for labor, however, that entity is still enriched with the workers energy. If what Locke claims is true, you are entitled to whatever you exert your energy upon. This is not the case for Proudhon's explanation. The capitalist owns whatever the laborer creates. He is therefore robbing the laborer of his property. In many aspects this is unethical. There are many different opinions about how to classify the labor workers produce everyday. It is given that as humans we are entitled to entities created with our labor. There are also many ideas on the impact labor has on our society and self interest. Smith discussed his idea of an “invisible hand” that is apparent in the lookout for self ......

Words: 607 - Pages: 3

Maternal Deprivation

...Maternal deprivation Bowlby was a psychoanalyst; he came up with a theory for maternal deprivation. He used this theory to explain how a child would be effected if the emotional bond between the care giver and the infant was broken. He also showed that if the attachment was damaged on a regular basis, the child could suffer with social, intellectual and emotional damage due to maternal deprivation. This view is supported by Bowlby’s research, 44 Juvenile Thieves. Bowlby conducted a piece of research in which to find out if children were deprived of their mother during the critical period of attachment of the first few years of their lives, could this lead to a serious range of permanent consequences happen for later development. He took 88 clients from the child guidance clinic. Forty-four children had been referred to the clinic because of stealing. Bowlby interviewed children and their parents building up a record of their early life experiences. Bowlby found that 32% of the ‘thieves’ showed affectionless psychopathy as they had spent a considerable amount of time in hospital of a foster home as infants. In contrast only a small amount on the non-affectionless thieves had the same experiences. He concluded that disruption during the attachment stages was responsible for this. However this research was argued by Michael Rutter, he suggested that Bowlby did not consider the differences between deprivation and privation and their different consequences. He also......

Words: 421 - Pages: 2

Maternal Deprivation

...Maternal deprivation Bowlby was a psychoanalyst; he came up with a theory for maternal deprivation. He used this theory to explain how a child would be effected if the emotional bond between the care giver and the infant was broken. He also showed that if the attachment was damaged on a regular basis, the child could suffer with social, intellectual and emotional damage due to maternal deprivation. This view is supported by Bowlby’s research, 44 Juvenile Thieves. Bowlby conducted a piece of research in which to find out if children were deprived of their mother during the critical period of attachment of the first few years of their lives, could this lead to a serious range of permanent consequences happen for later development. He took 88 clients from the child guidance clinic. Forty-four children had been referred to the clinic because of stealing. Bowlby interviewed children and their parents building up a record of their early life experiences. Bowlby found that 32% of the ‘thieves’ showed affectionless psychopathy as they had spent a considerable amount of time in hospital of a foster home as infants. In contrast only a small amount on the non-affectionless thieves had the same experiences. He concluded that disruption during the attachment stages was responsible for this. However this research was argued by Michael Rutter, he suggested that Bowlby did not consider the differences between deprivation and privation and their different consequences. He also......

Words: 421 - Pages: 2

Business Ethics: Corporations Gearing Up to Do the Right Thing

...popularity. One of the main reasons behind these surprising failures was the lack of business ethics. A true understanding of the right and the wrong and the ability to distinguish between them is ethics. Ethics is an important part of life and running a successful business is no exception to this. To become successful, a business needs to be driven by strong ethical values. The mindset of a businessman creates a mindset for his/her company, which in turn sets the work culture of the business organization. For a business to prosper and maintain its wealth, it ought to be founded on certain ethical principles. A business that is based on ethics can run successfully for long years. Moneymakers who do not heed to ethical values can only earn a short-lived success. To last long in the market, business ethics is essential. According to the survey, 60% have codes of ethics, 33% have training in business conduct and 33% have an ethics office where employees can receive advice or report questionable business activities.These surveys of the practices that the employees been conduct can give business great reputation for ethical decisions as well as a great behavioral standards fo the employees to maintain their stong customer relationships. CRITIQUE The content of the article present the idea very weak the information is not well established even though it talks about unethical business ethics that the corporation are dwelling and facing at this moment. They are in a......

Words: 1115 - Pages: 5

Ethics Right to a Child Essay

...Ethics Essay - Rights to a child. 20th January AO1: Explain how a follower of Kantian ethics might approach the issues surrounding the right to a child. Immanuel Kant was a respected ethicist of the 18th Century. He is known mostly for his works on the ‘Groundwork of metaphysics of morals’ and it is within this work Kant proposes the Categorical Imperative, an absolute, deontological, objective and secular approach to making moral decisions. Kant’s theory is based on the principal that the only thing which is truly good is a good will or duty. He continues to say that we must endeavour to use our reason to ensure we have done our duty. This essay will use the principles of Kant’s ‘Categorical Imperative’ in order to display how a follower of Kantian ethics might approach the issues surrounding the right to a child. A Kantian ethicist would believe that desiring a child does not make it a right as any moral decision should be made through reason and based on duty alone - not through overwhelming emotion or desire. However, this still means women have negative rights to a child as the removal of the ability to have children cannot be universalised. And so they may therefore not be seen as having natural, human or positive rights to a child. There are many methods of having children for baron or single women, these methods surrounding a baron or single woman’s right to a child are......

Words: 1338 - Pages: 6

Maternal Changes

...MATERNAL PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES A. Changes in Blood Volume Parturients undergo remarkable changes during pregnancy, labor, and the immediate postpartum period that can directly affect anesthetic techniques; hence a broad knowledge of these changes is essential for proper management of these women. Maternal blood volume increases during pregnancy, and this involves an increase in plasma volume as well as in red cell and white cell volumes. The plasma volume increases by 40% to 50%, whereas the red cell volume goes up by only 15% to 20%, which causes a situation that is described as “physiological anemia of pregnancy” (normal hemoglobin, 12 g/dL; hematocrit, 35). Because of this apparent hemodilution, blood viscosity decreases by approximately 20%. The exact mechanism of this increase in plasma volume is unknown. However, several hormones such as reninangiotensin-aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, estrogen, and progesterone may be involved in this interesting phenomenon. Two current hypothesis attribute the increase to (1) an underfill state caused by initial vasodilation, which stimulates hormones such as renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone or (2) an overfill state characterized by an early increase in sodium retention (due to an increase in mineralcorticoids) that retains fluid, causing an increase in blood volume. Levels of clotting factors I, VII, VIII, IX, X, and XII, and the fibrinogen count are elevated during pregnancy as well. At present the majority of......

Words: 880 - Pages: 4

Maternal Resuscitation

...Maternal Resuscitation Aim To understand and be able to practive resiscitation of the mother and promote the positive outcomes. Resuscitation of the Mother The approach to apparently lifeless patient is the cardiopulmonary resiscitation (ABCD) drill: Rapid assessment of the Airway, Breathing, and remedy of the problems with these as they are found (search for and correct reversible causes), moving through to remedy of the absence of Circulation. 1. Ensure a safe environment for patient and rescuer. 2. Shake and Shout, if no response, call for help and return to patient. 3. Turn patient on to her back and place wedge under right side of abdomen to relieve aortocaval compression. 4. Open the Airway:  Remove any obvious obstruction from mouth.  Perform chin lift by placing two fingers under the point of the patient’s chin and lifting the chin forward.  Jaw thrust, performed by placing fingers behind patient’s jaw and lifting jaw forward. 5. Assess Breathing for 10 seconds:  Look for chest movements.  Listen for breath sounds.  Feel for movement of air.  If the person is breathing, turn her in to the recovery position.  If there is absence of breathing in the presence of an open airway, take this as an absence of circulation. Give 30 chest compressions followed by two breaths.  Breaths are delivered by taking a full breath and placing your lips around the mouth and blowing steadily into the mouth. If possible, a facemask and ...

Words: 589 - Pages: 3

Maternal

...Moderate 29-63 Severe BECK ANXIETY INVENTORY Score Range 0-9 Minimal 10-16 Mild 17-29 Moderate 30-63 Severe BECK HOPELESSNESS SCALE Score Range 0-3 Minimal 4-8 Mild 9-14 Moderate 15-20 Severe PBQ (Personal Belief Questionnaire) sub categories for personality types (DSM IV) Questions Personality 1-14 Avoidant 15-28 Dependent 29-42 Passive-Aggressive 43-56 Obsessive-Compulsive 57-70 Anti-Social 71-84 Narcisstic 85-98 Histrionic 99-112 Schizoid 113-126 Paranoid Borderline 2,4,9,13,15,16,27,60,97,113,116,125,126 INTERPRETING THE BECK DEPRESSION INVENTORY (BDI-II) Add up the score for each of the 21 questions by counting the number to the right of each question you marked. The highest possible total for the whole test would be sixty-three and the lowest possible score for the test would be zero. This would mean you circles zero on each question. You can evaluate your depression according to the Table below. Total Score Levels of Depression 0-10 = These ups and downs are considered normal 11-16 = Mild mood disturbance 17-20 = Borderline clinical depression 21-30 = Moderate depression 31-40 = Severe depression over 40 = Extreme depression A PERSISTENT SCORE OF 17 OR ABOVE INDICATES THAT YOU MAY NEED TREATMENT. ___________________________________________________________________________ INTERPRETING THE BECK ANXIETY INVENTORY (BAI) Scoring Key Not At......

Words: 21699 - Pages: 87

Hsa 515 Assignment 3 Legal Ethics Patients Rights and Hiv / Aids

...HSA 515 Assignment 3 Legal Ethics Patients Rights and HIV / AIDS http://hwguiders.com/downloads/hsa-515-assignment-3-legal-ethics-patients-rights-and-hiv-aids/ HSA 515 Assignment 3 Legal Ethics Patients Rights and HIV / AIDS As the head health care administrator at USA Community Hospital, you are required to review compliance reports on issues relating to the ethical conduct of the professional staff at your hospital, patient review registries, and standard procedures surrounding the ethical treatment of patients with HIV / AIDS. Intermittently, complaints surface from patients with HIV / AIDS concerned with ethical treatment and denial of services. Note: You may create and / or make all necessary assumptions needed for the completion of this assignment. Write a six to eight (6-8) page paper in which you: 1. Devise a plan to investigate the validity of patients’ claims of denial of services. This plan should include, but not be limited to, establishing mechanisms to address service denial claims, a human resources component, and a review of related policies and procedures. 2. Analyze the primary way in which different staffing levels may play pivotal roles in upholding ethical conduct, including treating patients with dignity. Justify your position. 3. Formulate a plan to relate the primary legal ramifications to the professional staff regarding ethical treatment of the hospital’s HIV / AIDS patients. 4. Devise a community relations plan that tout’s......

Words: 270 - Pages: 2

Hsa 515 Assignment 3 Legal Ethics Patients Rights and Hiv / Aids

...HSA 515 Assignment 3 Legal Ethics Patients Rights and HIV / AIDS http://hwguiders.com/downloads/hsa-515-assignment-3-legal-ethics-patients-rights-and-hiv-aids/ HSA 515 Assignment 3 Legal Ethics Patients Rights and HIV / AIDS As the head health care administrator at USA Community Hospital, you are required to review compliance reports on issues relating to the ethical conduct of the professional staff at your hospital, patient review registries, and standard procedures surrounding the ethical treatment of patients with HIV / AIDS. Intermittently, complaints surface from patients with HIV / AIDS concerned with ethical treatment and denial of services. Note: You may create and / or make all necessary assumptions needed for the completion of this assignment. Write a six to eight (6-8) page paper in which you: 1. Devise a plan to investigate the validity of patients’ claims of denial of services. This plan should include, but not be limited to, establishing mechanisms to address service denial claims, a human resources component, and a review of related policies and procedures. 2. Analyze the primary way in which different staffing levels may play pivotal roles in upholding ethical conduct, including treating patients with dignity. Justify your position. 3. Formulate a plan to relate the primary legal ramifications to the professional staff regarding ethical treatment of the hospital’s HIV / AIDS patients. 4. Devise a community relations plan that tout’s......

Words: 270 - Pages: 2

Hsa 515 Assignment 3 Legal Ethics Patients Rights and Hiv / Aids

...HSA 515 Assignment 3 Legal Ethics Patients Rights and HIV / AIDS http://hwguiders.com/downloads/hsa-515-assignment-3-legal-ethics-patients-rights-and-hiv-aids/ HSA 515 Assignment 3 Legal Ethics Patients Rights and HIV / AIDS As the head health care administrator at USA Community Hospital, you are required to review compliance reports on issues relating to the ethical conduct of the professional staff at your hospital, patient review registries, and standard procedures surrounding the ethical treatment of patients with HIV / AIDS. Intermittently, complaints surface from patients with HIV / AIDS concerned with ethical treatment and denial of services. Note: You may create and / or make all necessary assumptions needed for the completion of this assignment. Write a six to eight (6-8) page paper in which you: 1. Devise a plan to investigate the validity of patients’ claims of denial of services. This plan should include, but not be limited to, establishing mechanisms to address service denial claims, a human resources component, and a review of related policies and procedures. 2. Analyze the primary way in which different staffing levels may play pivotal roles in upholding ethical conduct, including treating patients with dignity. Justify your position. 3. Formulate a plan to relate the primary legal ramifications to the professional staff regarding ethical treatment of the hospital’s HIV / AIDS patients. 4. Devise a community relations plan that tout’s......

Words: 270 - Pages: 2

Animal Rights - Ethics

...EthisCarly Peters Ethics, Night Class Mr. Hobbs May 6, 2013 An Ethical View into Animal Rights In May of 2007, two humpback whales, a mother and her calf, found themselves stranded in a fresh water river off the coast of California. They were in the process of migrating from Alaska to Mexico, when they made a wrong turn under the Golden Gate Bridge, and into the San Francisco Bay. They landed over 90 miles away from the Pacific Ocean that they needed to return to for survival. Their skin began showing signs of distress and injury, and the public decided it was time to get involved. They began sending in all their ideas on how the whales could be coaxed back through the river, into the bay, and off to the ocean. They sent e-mails, made phone calls and visits to government agencies, and came up with countless original ideas that they wanted to share with officials. The longer time went on, the more worried people were becoming about these whales. Fortunately, the Coast Guard was eventually successful in coaxing the whales back through the channel and out to the Pacific after many failed attempts. Why do people care so much about other living creatures? Another question I must bring up is should we be spending so much time and effort on them when there are many other human needs of people that need to be met around the world? I will be connecting many ethical philosophies to this idea of Animal Rights throughout this discussion, and hopefully you will be able...

Words: 1108 - Pages: 5

Hsa 515 Assignment 3 Legal Ethics Patients Rights and Hiv / Aids

...HSA 515 Assignment 3 Legal Ethics Patients Rights and HIV / AIDS http://hwguiders.com/downloads/hsa-515-assignment-3-legal-ethics-patients-rights-and-hiv-aids/ HSA 515 Assignment 3 Legal Ethics Patients Rights and HIV / AIDS As the head health care administrator at USA Community Hospital, you are required to review compliance reports on issues relating to the ethical conduct of the professional staff at your hospital, patient review registries, and standard procedures surrounding the ethical treatment of patients with HIV / AIDS. Intermittently, complaints surface from patients with HIV / AIDS concerned with ethical treatment and denial of services. Note: You may create and / or make all necessary assumptions needed for the completion of this assignment. Write a six to eight (6-8) page paper in which you: 1. Devise a plan to investigate the validity of patients’ claims of denial of services. This plan should include, but not be limited to, establishing mechanisms to address service denial claims, a human resources component, and a review of related policies and procedures. 2. Analyze the primary way in which different staffing levels may play pivotal roles in upholding ethical conduct, including treating patients with dignity. Justify your position. 3. Formulate a plan to relate the primary legal ramifications to the professional staff regarding ethical treatment of the hospital’s HIV / AIDS patients. 4. Devise a community relations plan that tout’s......

Words: 270 - Pages: 2

Maternal

...insulin resistance (7), hypertension (8) and coronary heart disease (9). The potentially serious health consequences of these birth outcomes underscore the public health importance of preventing LBW and preterm birth by identifying and correcting modifiable risk factors. ● head circumference Maternal nutritional status is important to maternal and fetal well-being. BMI, weight (kg)/height squared (m2), is influenced by ethnicity and genetics but may also serve as a measure of adiposity and energy balance (10 –12). Although much recent research in developed countries has focused on the association between high maternal BMI and adverse pregnancy outcomes (13), in many developing countries, maternal underweight remains more common than overweight and therefore represents a more important risk factor for poor birth outcomes. Several studies have reported an association between low maternal prepregnancy BMI and increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth (11), LBW (12) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) (13). Other evidence indicates that the association between maternal weight gain during pregnancy and birth outcomes is influenced by maternal prepregnancy BMI (11,13–15). Available Chinese data also suggest that the risk of delivering a LBW (15,16) or SGA infant (17) is higher among women with a low BMI before pregnancy than in their heavier counterparts. Many previous studies have defined low prepregnancy BMI as Ͻ19.8 kg/m2......

Words: 6181 - Pages: 25

The Rights and Ethics of Employees with Respect to Privacy at Work

...Dania Afif El-Achmar The Rights and Ethics of Employees with Respect to Privacy at Work Widespread use of electronic communications media such as e-mail and information resources such as the Internet has prompted many employers to engage in electronic surveillance of their employees. Employers are monitoring—and even recording—employees’ personal phone calls, e-mails, and workplace conversations. Video cameras are trained on employee parking lots, break areas, and other parts of the workplace. Today’s employers have the legal right to conduct search and seizure of employees’ personal property; monitor the employee’s telephone calls, workplace computer, Internet, fax use, and e-mail; perform employee drug testing; and conduct investigation and surveillance of employees. Electronic Surveillance The ethics of employee surveillance are problematic, because both the company and the employee have rights, and these rights can conflict. The employee owes the company a solid day’s work and protection of proprietary property and knowledge, but the employee can claim rights such as privacy, compensation for injury, freedom from harassment, and a living wage. Employees are often not aware of the fact that their e-mails are being read by their employers. Moreover, most employees are unaware of the extent to which their employers can and actually do monitor what they do. Studies indicated that worldwide, approximately 27 million employees workforce, are under continuous Internet or e-mail......

Words: 780 - Pages: 4

The White Princess | Diese Frau ist hauptberuflich Hexe! Wie verdient sie ihr Geld? | Galileo | ProSieben | Lossless