Evolution and Media Naturalness: a Look at E-Communication Through a Darwinian Theoretical Lens

In: Social Issues

Submitted By bigw
Words 7491
Pages 30
Ned Kock
Lehigh University/Temple University
Bethlehem, PA/Philadelphia, PA USA nfk2@Lehigh.edu Abstract
Modern theories of human evolution converge on the belief that our brain has been designed to cope with problems that occurred intermittently in our evolutionary past. Evidence suggests that, during over 99 percent of the evolutionary process leading to the emergence of our species, our ancestors communicated in a synchronous and colocated manner, and employing facial expressions, body language, and oral speech (what we refer to here, generally, as “face-to-face” communication). Thus, it is plausible to assume that many of the evolutionary adaptations our brain has undergone in connection with communication have been directed at improving the efficiency and effectiveness of face-to-face communication, which begs the question: What happens when we selectively suppress face-to-face communication elements (e.g., colocation, the ability to employ/observe facial expressions) through e-communication technologies? This paper tries to provide an answer to this question by developing a hypothesis, called the media naturalness hypothesis, which builds on modern human evolution theory. The media naturalness hypothesis argues that, other things being equal, a decrease in the degree of naturalness of a communication medium (or its degree of similarity to the face-to-face medium) leads to the following effects in connection with a communication interaction: (1) increased cognitive effort, (2) increased communication ambiguity, and (3) decreased physiological arousal. It is argued that the media naturalness hypothesis has important implications for the selection, use, and deployment of e-communication tools in organizations, particularly in the context of…...

Similar Documents

Brand Positioning Through the Consumers’ Lens

...DISSERTATION Titel der Dissertation „Brand Positioning Through the Consumers’ Lens“ Verfasserin / Verfasser Mag. rer. soc. oec. Christoph Fuchs Angestrebter akademischer Grad Ph. D. (Doctor of Philosophy) Wien, im April 2008 Studienkennzahl lt. Studienblatt: Dissertationsgebiet lt. Studienblatt: Betreuer / Betreuerin: A 094 146 Management Univ.-Prof. Dr. Adamantios Diamantopoulos ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Univ. Prof. Adamantios Diamantopoulos, Ph. D., for the supervision of this dissertation and for being my mentor over the last four years. I would also like to thank o. Univ. Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Udo Wagner, Associate Professor Kevin E. Voss, Ph. D., Professor William E. Baker, Ph. D., and o. Univ. Prof. Bodo B. Schlegelmilch, Ph. D., D. Litt, for their excellent comments on the issue of positioning effectiveness measurement. Furthermore, I am indebted to Dr. Daniel Hoppe, ao. Univ. Prof. Dr. Elfriede Penz, and Professor Rajan Varadarajan, Ph. D., for valuable comments on the qualitative study conducted in Chapter 3. Moreover, I would like to thank Florian Mailänder and Mag. Fritz Alexander from Research International Ltd. for their agreement to collaborate on the scale development project (Chapter 5) and for their valuable input from the practitioners’ side. iii iv ABSTRACT Brand positioning is a core concept in marketing. Despite the importance of the concept, however, there is limited research in the field of......

Words: 12483 - Pages: 50

Media Communication

...Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication Handbooks in Communication and Media This series aims to provide theoretically ambitious but accessible volumes devoted to the major fields and subfields within communication and media studies. Each volume sets out to ground and orientate the student through a broad range of specially commissioned chapters, while also providing the more experienced scholar and teacher with a convenient and comprehensive overview of the latest trends and critical directions. The Handbook of Children, Media, and Development, edited by Sandra L. Calvert and Barbara J. Wilson The Handbook of Crisis Communication, edited by W. Timothy Coombs and Sherry J. Holladay The Handbook of Internet Studies, edited by Mia Consalvo and Charles Ess The Handbook of Rhetoric and Public Address, edited by Shawn J. Parry-Giles and J. Michael Hogan The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication, edited by Thomas K. Nakayama and Rona Tamiko Halualani Forthcoming The Handbook of Global Communication and Media Ethics, edited by Robert S. Fortner and P. Mark Fackler The Handbook of Global Research Methods, edited by Ingrid Volkmer The Handbook of International Advertising Research, edited by Hong Cheng The Handbook of Communication and Corporate Social Responsibility, edited by Oyvind Ihlen, Jennifer Bartlett and Steve May The Handbook of Gender and Sexualities in the Media, edited by Karen Ross The Handbook of Global Health Communication and Development,......

Words: 302761 - Pages: 1212

The Evolution of Mass Media

...Effects of Mass Media There have been great developments in the evolution of mass media during the last century. Media is no longer on how it used to be. In the beginning days it was all about verbs and nouns, and now it has spread to television all the way through magazines. Many people under estimate the power of mass media. Today is the main source of mass media evolution. Each new development, had a strong influence on today's American cultures. How does this affect American media culture, what does it mean and how has it affected our everyday lives? What are the major developments? The Major Developments The major developments in the evolution of mass media during the last century were substantial, compared to those in the past. Beginning in the early 1900s newspapers and magazines where the main sources of mass media. Around the middle era around the 1940s, the radius of hiding his source to reach the various masses of people. During these times it was people that often tuned in to the radio to get. Information regards to retail stores and especially on accounts of the current war at hand. It was in the 1950s that a new so-called television became the main source of resources for mass media. The television was a culmination of the radio and newspaper and people embraced it. And in 1962 the launch of satellites give access to worldwide news. Even as of today, it has exploded with forms of different ways to evolve communication. These new......

Words: 352 - Pages: 2

Evolution of E-Commerce

...Running head: EVOLUTION OF E-COMMERCE Business 70 Student Phil Vu De Anza College Abstract In this class project, I did some research on Evolution of E-Commerce through various sources. I picked different related topics to complete the contents for the research and final paper. Evolution of E-Commerce E-commerce has evolved from online billboards to a fully functional, personalized shopping experience over the past decade. While there were admittedly a few bumps along the road, the path from 1994 through the 2004 holiday shopping season is full of crucial milestones of Internet pioneers and technology innovators. A stroll down memory lane reminds us of terms like "stickiness," "eyeballs" and "personalization" that once captured the essence of articles about what it takes to be successful on the Web. However, even as we look back at 10 years of growth, many analysts have one eye on the future and they are saying, "We've got a long way to go." A quick glimpse at the data promises much more evolution in the years to come. Forrester Research, for example, predicted American firms alone would sell US$316 billion in goods and services via the Web by 2010. That figure would more than double 2004's online spending to account for some 12 percent of all retail sales, up from about 7 percent......

Words: 2231 - Pages: 9

A Bug’s Life Through the Lens of Karl Marx

...A Bug’s Life through the lens of Karl Marx Disney’s Pixar film, A Bug’s Life, is much more than meets the eye. The film is not only an animated comedy; it holds deep sociological theory within its plot. Many of the major themes and concepts of the movie can be viewed through the lens of the famous theorist Karl Marx. Marx’s theory is famous for focusing on how society functions. In particular he concerns himself with how capitalism, the working class, and the revolutions create problems in our society. My paper will analyze how Marxian theory and concepts fit into major climactic scenes of the film. The film revolves around the protagonist Filk, a worker ant. The colony is being oppressed by a group of grasshoppers and their leader Hopper. The grasshoppers claim they will provide protection as long as the ants provide the food supply. When the ants cannot supply the food for the grasshoppers, Hopper demands the ants to produce twice as much food as they did before. As a result, the ants will not have enough food to store up for themselves. Filk then travels to recruit warrior bugs to help the ants fight off the grasshoppers. According to Marx, this would free the colony from the constant oppression of the grasshoppers. The major themes of the movie follow Marxian theory. The first relates to Hopper and how the grasshoppers abuse their power and exploit the ant colony. The grasshoppers expect food knowing that the ants cannot produce enough food for themselves and the......

Words: 2077 - Pages: 9

E-Commerce Evolution

...Evolution of E-Commerce E-commerce has become one of the most prevalent changes in the way we do business today. Businesses, before the creation of the web, were typically at a physical location where customers could come, browse, try-on, and purchase goods and services. Some of the disadvantages of this business model were: customers restricted by location, the need for larger amounts of inventory, larger retail space, and more employees to cover customer-service. E-commerce began with the advent of the Internet and started as billboards for information and advertisement purposes. Then as technology developed through the early 1980s, it grew into e-mail purchasing (Compuserve). From there, the World Wide Web, internet browsers (Netscape) and the first security protocol (SSL) were invented. These technologies, combined together, allowed for the safe transmission of data over the Internet and many entrepreneurs looked at new ways to take advantage of these technologies to grow and develop the way they did business. In 1994, the first services for processing online credit card sales were developed along with digital IDs and certificates to verify the identity of online businesses. Then by 1995 Amazon was selling their first products on-line and their customers were from all 50 states and over 45 countries breaking down some of the restrictions of a traditional retail store. With the development of Web 2.0, broad-band services and more affordable and easy-to-use......

Words: 2003 - Pages: 9

Through the Lens: a Different Perspective

...Through the Lens: A Different Perspective Standing, breathing lightly, inhaling the springtime aroma around me, I poise myself to get the perfect vantage point and hesitantly push down the glistening silver button on my camera thinking, “Is this how I want this moment to be remembered?” Through the eyes of many, a camera is just a tool that you point at an object to take a picture; to a photographer, it is so much more. According to Dictionary.com, the definition of photography is, “The process of producing images on a sensitized surface by the action of light.” However, there is one point that this simple definition fails to state, and that is photography is used to capture a single moment in time, in one frame. A single picture can tell a multitude of stories, and can hold countless memories. Whether done as a profession, a hobby, or a creative outlet, the art of photography can appeal to everyone in the world. Known as a “camera obscura,” the first elements of photography were shown in 384 BC when Mo-Ti, a Chinese philosopher, created the device (Camera Obscura History). The physics behind his invention was that when a lighted area was separated from a dark area with only a pinhole opening between them, it created an inverted image of the lighted area. This technology was further improved by inserting a lens to create a clearer picture (History of Photography). Since then, the art of photography has continued to evolve. Many photographers still rely on natural......

Words: 2698 - Pages: 11

The Evolution and Development of E-Commerce Market and E-Cash

...The Evolution and Development of E-Commerce Market and E-Cash Azamat Nogoev1 Faculty of Business Management and Globalization LimkokwingUniversity of Creative Technology, Cyberjaya, Malaysia Azamat_nogoev@yahoo.co.uk Rashad Yazdanifard2 Faculty of Management,Multimedia University Cyberjaya, Malaysia rashadyazdanifard@yahoo.com Shahriar Mohseni3 Faculty of Management,Multimedia University Cyberjaya, Malaysia shahriar_mohseni@yahoo.com Behrang Samadi4 Faculty of Management,Multimedia University Cyberjaya, Malaysia behrang_samadi@yahoo.com Meera Menon5 Faculty of Design Inovation, LimkokwingUniversity of Creative Technology, Cyberjaya, Malaysia meera@limkokwing.edu.my ABSTRACT Given the impact of the Internet on all aspects of economic life, it can be regarded as a source of emergence of new electronic economy with an extremely rapid growth, creating new opportunities for Industrial and business activity, increase employment opportunities.Robust economic activity on the Internet or by using its capabilities led to the emergence of a new concept- electronic commerce. KEY WORDS Internet, electronic commerce, electronic payment systems. 1. INTRODUCTION Advances in communication technologies within the last decade of the twentieth century paved the way for innovations, promoting rapid globalization. The convergence of telecommunications and computer technology has given birth to a new business organizational system called the internet, presenting a......

Words: 3174 - Pages: 13

Emerging Technologies in the Evolution of E-Commerce

...MGSC-590, Section 001 Information Systems Development (Topics in E-commerce) Spring 2014 Abbreviated Research Paper 1 Emerging Technologies in the Evolution of E-commerce by Jesse Matthews Submitted February 4, 2015 Management Science Department Darla Moore School of Business University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208 Table of Contents Section 1……………………………….. Introduction Page 3 Section 2……………………………….. Analysis Pages 4-7 Section 3……………………………….. Results Pages 4-7 Section 4……………………………….. Conclusions Page 8 Section 5……………………………….. References Page 9 E-commerce is becoming increasingly more popular with each passing day as the technology around us continues to advance. Technology has advanced so rapidly just over the past ten years that basically every business has had to adopt some form of e-commerce just to stay in business. The use of different forms of technology by basically everyone on a day to day basis has greatly increased the importance and benefits of e-commerce as a whole. Companies can use technologies like our smart phones and the internet to reach customers with multiple forms of advertisement, customized to meet each individual customer’s preferences. “Internet technology has changed the supply chain by improving collaboration and efficiency, and adding value to products and firms” (Astuti, 2014). Internet technology has improved the supply chain because it has......

Words: 2341 - Pages: 10

Media and Communication

...ICOM101 Major Essay Does Media Discourse Reproduce Social Inequality? Student Name : Pratama Robin Rachel Discourse denotes to the various forms of representation, codes, habits, conventions associated with language are responsible for producing specific culturally and historically located meanings. Media discourse can be described as an interaction through a media platform with the help of verbal or non-verbal communication. It has been found that media can potentially influence the public. The objective of this essay is to find out the role of media discourse in reproducing social inequality. In order to meet this objective, in the following sections the concept of discourse is explained vividly along with its style of operations. A relationship between media discourse and social inequality will be established in this essay. Discourse can be referred to the manner or way of communication between individuals or group. Discourse plays a major role in determining how an individual will understand and interpret a specific thing based upon ideas, thoughts and beliefs. According to Michel Focault, discourse is an entity of sequences, codes and signs in that they are enouncements. Media discourse includes various media outlets such as radio, television, newspaper, magazine, internet etc. The inevitable power of media has been discussed in discourse studies. Many research studies have shown that media plays an important role in influencing the thought process of individuals...

Words: 2427 - Pages: 10

Evolution of News Media

...Before the invention of new media, traditional media was largely a capital intensive business, reserved for those with power and access to multi-billion dollar presses and expensive physical distribution systems, costly audio-visual recording and government liscensing (Chia, 2011). Not only has new media disrupted the old conventional model by reducing the barrier of entry to extraordinarily low levels, it has also challenged the commercial model that funds traditional news media gathering and adversely gained tremendous recognition as an essential platform for information dissemination and acquisition (Koh, Lim, Ng, Detenber and Cenite, 10/08/2005). As one of the most wired nations in the world, the Singapore media industry sees audiences and advertisers alike, moving away from traditional media towards digital media (Choo, 12/08/2013); where news from myriad sources is available free of charge and where advertisers have a wide range of options for reaching consumers, including cost-effective online advertising and online retailing. In Singapore, traditional news media are primarily represented by two companies, one owned by Temasek (MediaCorp), one of the state’s sovereign-wealth funds, and the other (Singapore Press Holdings) that is government-centric through close monitoring and regulation. Now forced to compete with a vast spectrum of new publishers such as WikiLeaks, giant news aggregators like Yahoo, MsN and Google News as well as millions of bloggers of whom......

Words: 2322 - Pages: 10

E-Commerce Evolution

...E-Business Evolution BIS375 November 2, 2015 E-Business Evolution The evolution of e-business started in the large spread of personal computers in the 1980’s and the commercial internet brought about in the 1990’s. The e-business spectrum refers to the implementation electronic technology in all business functions. E-business is inclusive of computers and internet for both internal and external operations as well communication and e-commerce across an organization. The e-business evolution has allowed businesses to go from storing physical paper in large filing containers to storing that data and much more in digital format on servers. The ability of organizations to electronically store and process data lets them improve both speed of information storage and processing. E-business has allowed organizations to go from manually forecasting business transactions to doing it with spreadsheets and dedicated software increasing information flow and speed to users and making the organization more efficient. The Internet has emerged as a significant aspect of today’s e-business evolution. In today’s marketplace larger companies have Internet accessibility to their goods as well services on their individual websites. The Internet will continues to change and improve, at some point even small businesses will need to acquire or develop their individual websites to be competitive in their own marketplace. The next e-business technology will be to have or acquire a mobile......

Words: 754 - Pages: 4

Power of Mass Media Through the Lens of Hypodermic Needle Theory

...literature, hasbeenthe Noise,a barrier learning communication, concept is widely yet, in and of research.In this the focusofvery little business background noiseis explored pastpsychological paper, theoretical is u a o A measureo fnoise i s d eveloped ndi tsi mpact n recall o fa dvertisementsi nvestigatedsinga literature. marketing In and noisedimensions. that are The results indicate there external internal students. convenience of sample 306 university and Future research affects recallof advertisements. noise significantly of thedata revealsthatinternal addition, analysis are managerial implications discussed. INTRODUCTION as Effective communication long been prescribed the has from elected forsuccessin many things, being magicpotion It to a then, president saving marriage. is notsurprising, tosee the numerous studies investigating factorsthat lead to "effective" communication. One well- knownmodel of communication consists fiveelements: of source; message; and 1955; channel; receiver; feedback (Lasswell1948;Schräm and Jakobson 1960; Schiffman Kanuk 2000, p.228). An the amount research studied processitself, of has impressive as wellas theindividual of elements themodelandhowthey contribute effective to communication Belchetal.1987; (e.g., Maclnnis and Jaworski 1989; Maclnnis, Moormanand Jaworski and 1991; Ratneshwar Chaiken1991; Pham1996; Howardand Gengler 2001; Newell and Goldsmith 2001;). One of thebarriers communication noise. Noise is......

Words: 5776 - Pages: 24

Life Through a Lens: a Look Into the Passion of Photography

...Life Through a Lens: A look into the passion of Photography People always say that a photograph lasts a lifetime. Being able to look at a photograph many years down the road and realizing that you captured that one moment, that frozen moment in time when you captured that memory, is the best feeling alone. When I hear the word “Tunnel Vision”, I picture myself looking through my camera, through that tunnel, meeting the lens, and snapping the shutter closed. There are many reasons why becoming a photographer has many benefits and simple pleasures in life. I began my photography journey by picking up a camera and not knowing a single thing about how to turn it on. When our first child was born, I was tired of all the lackluster photographs that I was sending to my husband who was serving overseas. I got online and picked apart every forum, blog and website I could find for lessons. After seeing the potential that one picture could have I was hooked into the industry. One thing I particularly love about photography is being able to capture something the way I see it. The angle, the lighting, or the position of the subject makes it unique and makes it yours. Giving it my own twist is what I thrive for in photography. I know that no one else will ever see it the exact same way I do. Think back to a time when you went through pictures with your family and looked at the pictures from your family tree. Imagine what you would feel like to not be able to put a face with those......

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Theoretical Evolution of Risk Management

...The beginning of the Twentieth Century brought with it high industrialism and new-found wealth that allowed a profound sense of comfort that was short lived due to the uncertainty caused by World War I. This uncertainty created the need to accurately evaluate “the value of individual dignity and freedom, about the proper organization of society, and ultimately about the possibility of human perfection.”Lagerfield (1999). Due to the uncertainty that was created, Lagerfield felt personal acquisition of wealth and comfort were not the keys that lead to taking a more realistic view of the future, but the ideology of risk management brought about the need to forgo the frivolous waste of resources. The evolution of risk management in its infancy stages derived from the environmental shift that occurred in response to those catastrophic events such as the Great Depression, Three Mile Island, and the devastation of technological failure noted during the launch and disintegration of the Challenger to name a few. Although the ladder that lead to a full paradigm shift in the way in which cause and effect were viewed; the need to gain a better understanding of appropriately managing risk became paramount. Dun and Renner (2008) believed “the strategies to manage risk typically include transferring the risk to another party, avoiding the risk, reducing the negative effect or probability of the risk, or even accepting some or all of the potential or actual consequences of a......

Words: 1561 - Pages: 7

Richard Lambeth | Keep Watching (2017) | Deals de Flash