Fuel Act of 2007

In: Miscellaneous

Submitted By bawss
Words 409
Pages 2
American Government / 1
9 January 2007
Fuel Smile Act of 2007 Did you know that every gallon of gasoline a vehicle burns puts roughly 20 pounds of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere? Scientific evidence strongly suggests that the rapid buildup of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is raising the earth's temperature and changing the earth's climate with potentially serious consequences. Global warming is a real danger that cannot be ignored. However, automakers continue to build fuel-inefficient vehicles. The vehicles we drive are contributing to this problem, but automakers don't seem particularly concerned. Fuel efficient cars such as the Volkswagon New Beetle produce around 54 tons of carbon dioxide. While fuel in-efficient cars such as SUV’s are said to produce over 100 tons. By choosing a more fuel efficient car, tons of thousands of tons of carbon dioxide Federal law gives heavy sport utility vehicles permission to emit higher levels of toxic and noxious pollution - carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides. Sport utility vehicles can spew 30 percent more carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons and 75 percent more nitrogen oxides than passenger cars. These combustion pollutants contribute to eye and throat irritation, coughing, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, confusion and headaches. Hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides are precursors to ground level ozone, which causes asthma and lung damage. Finally, it is important to note that fuel in-efficient vehicles are contributing to our dependence on imported oil. The more gasoline we use, the more oil we have to import from other countries. Currently, more than half of the oil we use is imported. This level of dependence on imports is the highest in our history, and will only increase unless we do a better job with conservation and alternative fuels. If current rates of consumption were to…...

Similar Documents

Fuel Subsidies

...Indonesia’s Fuel Subsidies: Action plan for reform David Braithwaite Alexander Chandra Prasetyaning Diah R. L. Ami Indriyanto Kerryn Lang Lucky Lontoh Nataliawati Siahaan Damon Vis-Dunbar Bobby A. Wattimena Unggung Widhiantoro Peter Wooders NE SI A N I N S TI TU T E F OR E N E RG IN DO I I EE FO U N D AT I O N C O NOM I YE CS March 2012 www.iisd.org/gsi © 2012 The International Institute for Sustainable Development © 2012 The International Institute for Sustainable Development Published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development. About IISD The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) contributes to sustainable development by advancing policy recommendations on international trade and investment, economic policy, climate change and energy, and management of natural and social capital, as well as the enabling role of communication technologies in these areas. We report on international negotiations and disseminate knowledge gained through collaborative projects, resulting in more rigorous research, capacity building in developing countries, better networks spanning the North and the South, and better global connections among researchers, practitioners, citizens and policy-makers. IISD’s vision is better living for all—sustainably; its mission is to champion innovation, enabling societies to live sustainably. IISD is registered as a charitable organization in Canada and has 501(c)(3) status in the......

Words: 22015 - Pages: 89

Fossil Fuels

...Nicholas Wiltzius American Intercontinental University SCIE210-1301A-05 Environmental Science Unit 3 Individual Project Instructor Beverly Hamilton Abstract There have been laws passed about the use of different energy which include fossil fuel: oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear energy, solar energy, wind power, water (hydro) power, and bioconversion (biofuel) these laws could allow the possibility of tax incentives. The use of different types of natural energy can pave the way for a greener earth. Although, some may argue that there are pros and cons of such energy. In this paper we will be discussing these pros and cons as well as two provisions of the Energy Policy Act, 2005, including its tax incentives. 1.) The law of conservation of energy states that energy may neither be created nor destroyed (The law of conservation of energy, n.d). 2.) The pros and cons of fossil fuel: oil, natural gas, and coal. The pros are its high efficient, cheaper than non-conventional forms of energy because it is easy to extract and process them and it the potential to power the entire globe. The cons are Fossil fuels are believed to be the largest emitters of greenhouse gases, responsible for global warming and climate change. It is also believed that coal mining creates earthquakes. The biggest con of all is that they are non-renewable. Nuclear Energy creates little amount of CO2 and it can generate a great amount of electrical energy in one single plant. But these......

Words: 676 - Pages: 3

Should Congress Pass the Farm, Nutrition, and Bioenergy Act of 2007?

...the financial protection of American citizens is paramount to most supporters of the 2007 Farm Bill. Proponents also argue that the bill is necessary for a country to provide a financial safety net for the men and women that are providing food for this country. Other supporters maintain that this single bill is crucial to preserving our forestry, wildlife, and farm lands. Meanwhile, groups against the legislation argue that what is at stake here is the health of the nation and its future generations. They feel the social problems and values that are most important are not getting addressed adequately. Opponents of the bill point to the values of improving the health of all Americans, of protecting our environment, and of equality for all farmers financially as the key social problems to be addressed in this bill. They also maintain that there has been a severe social injustice placed upon smaller, family, unsubsidized farmers not growing large quantities of commodity crops. Critics of the bill also argue that the legislation does not tackle important issues such as hunger in America. The website Foodbattle.org states, “The Food Stamp program of the Farm bill provides recipients on average only $3.15 per person per day for food, barely enough for one meal let alone three.” Still, supporters for this bill argue that not all the repercussions of this bill are negative. In fact, “without the (2007 Farm bill), America would struggle to produce sugar—an ingredient that the U.S.......

Words: 15532 - Pages: 63

Where Are the Bio Fuels?

...Jalen Foster Mr. Mundth ENG 107 16 December 2011 Biofuels on Mother Earth: Where Are They? The fossil fuels provided by our Earth are extremely limited due overuse by humans. Scientists thought the problem was solved with a new man-made fuel that could replace fossil fuels; they called them bio-fuels. With bio-fuels people can power cars, power factories, power houses, and power many other structures around the world. But lately these biofuels are becoming harder to come by, and they cost more than anticipated. Scientists have done several studies on why this is happening, but the answer in very clear. Although we have millions of resources on Earth we have managed to decrease those resources by more than half, and it is not all because of global warming. It is really because we have over used them as a people. Firstly, global warming should not have the full blame for the depletion of bio-fuels. Global warming is the worlds’ temperature increase, which has been found to be predominantly caused by humans as well. The “Green House Gases” aka carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide are created from our cars, industrial buildings, houses, etc. In a movie called An Inconvenient Truth the issue was that people are emitting so much carbon dioxide that for the first time, carbon dioxide levels has risen over 300 parts per million. This comes from billions of cars running cars being driven across the world and the millions of major factories being ran across the world the...

Words: 1755 - Pages: 8

Alternative Fuels

...Alternative Fuels, Why bother? Over the years, fossil fuels have been the most popular form of fuel utilized in our every day transportation needs. Although fossil fuels are effective as our current energy source, the time is approaching where society will have to shift from fossil fuels towards utilizing alternative fuel sources. There are several factors contributing towards the shift from fossil fuels to using new alternative fuel sources. The primary reason for this shift is the rise in costs for harvesting, manufacturing and distributing the necessary basic components of gasoline. The increase in manufacturing costs has been passed on to the consumer in the form of increased gas prices. The average price paid per gallon in 2009 is $2.54, compared to $1.11 in 2001 (Energy Information Administration, 2009.) Additional factors contributing to the increase in gas production and distribution are due to the fact that fossil fuel reservoirs are not readily replenished and therefore, provided enough time has passed, our current stores will be depleted and society will be forced to rely on a new energy source. Additional factors contributing towards our need to switch to alternative fuels include the increase in foreign oil dependence to acquire fuel, the rise in air pollution, and the processing and distribution of these alternative fuels are more cost effective. Therefore, based on this and additional rationale, politicians and environmentalists should push for more......

Words: 2343 - Pages: 10

Fuel

...searches for an alternative fuel that can replace the oil industry, but usually the cost of producing a fuel isn’t as cheap as producing oil. One alternative to using oil is using bio-fuel; bio fuel isn’t produced without a cost. Bio-fuel uses food to make fuel and the main problem that has come out of this is the crisis of 2007 and 2008. The crisis caused a rise in the cost of food and distribution and caused many hungry people to be even more deprived from food. Bio-fuels help decrease the amount of carbon in our atmosphere, but do bio-fuel help in other areas beside the environment. Bio-fuels mainly use corn and other agriculture to make ethanol, an alternative to the petroleum-based fuel. What some say is happening is the amount of corn and other agriculture stockpiles are decreasing and causing the price of bio-fuel based agriculture to go up. There have been controversies about the issue with alternative fuels, mainly the big crisis that took place in 2007 and 2008. The price in oil increased and the amount of grain stockpile decreased. The cost of the increase in oil has escalated the cost of food transportation, industrial agriculture, and fertilizers. Some of the root causes may have been the increase of bio-fuels in developing countries and the demand for a variety diet across the expanding middle class of Asia. Factors like these combined with a decrease of food stockpiles all have an effect on the global rise in food costs. The use of bio-fuels increased......

Words: 641 - Pages: 3

Fuel for Thought

...“Fuel For Thought: All Biofuels Are Not Created Equal” Rhetorical Analysis With fuel and food prices rising and the effects of climate change being more evident, authors David Tilman and Jason Hill present their research in the article “Fuel For Thought: All Biofuels Are Not Created Equal.” David Tilman, a Professor of Ecology at the University of Minnesota and Jason Hill, an Assistant Professor of Bio products and Bio Engineering, give insight to the dangers that biofuel production can create for our most fundamental needs. Tilman and Hill make a subtle call to slow biofuel production in order to develop alternate means of production. Unfortunately, they’re lack of appeals to pathos and an understated call to arms weaken the argument and make this article feel informative instead of actionable. Writing for the Seattle Times, Tilman and Hill are interacting with the general public. By speaking casually Tilman and Hill effectively show the conflict between biofuel production, our food resources and the ability to maintain a sustainable environment. With logic and reasoning the authors easily persuade their audience to consider the repercussions of biofuel production and view alternate methods than what are currently being campaigned. Although the target audience is general, there is an underlying motive to decelerate political proponents and wake them from their “ethanol induced euphoria.”(571,par.2) The authors avoid the scientific community and the overuse of statistics......

Words: 1233 - Pages: 5

Bio Fuels

...already technically feasible and practicable (Mathews, 2008). Scientists are having their research on how to ease or solve these problems. The topic of biofuels is being more popular in the recent years because it has the most potential to be a significant source of energy. Biomass is providing a surprisingly large amount of the world’s energy – 10% of total global primary energy consumption (Energy Future Coalition, 2007). Advantages of biofuels Safety Biofuels are safe to handle and transport because they are biodegradable, much less toxic than even table salt (ten times), and have high flashpoints of about 300oF compared to gasoline and petroleum diesel fuel (diesel has a flash point of 125 F, for comparison) (Biodiesel Chemical Safety Data – Oxford University). Because of its safety, the number of incidence of severe vehicle fires can be reduced, and its safety making it to be one of the safest of all alternative fuels. Also, biofuels produce fewer by-products than conventional hydrocarbon based fuels after combustion or burning. The conventional hydrocarbon-based fuels will produced a greater output of some noxious by-product, for example, carbon monoxide. That means, biofuels could lead to less localized smog in urban centers (Charles et al). Energy security and saving money An opportunity of developing countries to enhance national energy security has been provided by biofuels, by reducing expenditures and dependence on fluctuated price of oil. For example,......

Words: 1326 - Pages: 6

Gross of Bio Fuel

...commodity prices have been due to reduced harvest levels during 2007 as the result of adverse climatic conditions, and flow-on effects of demands placed upon strategic reserve stocks. Increased oil prices and the weakness of the US dollar have also exacerbated these effects, including by pushing hedge funds to buy food commodities which, in turn, have increased prices in what can best be termed a ‘catch-22 situation’. The uncertainty of the adjustment of global supply (also due to natural constraints i.e. the natural cycles for harvesting) to the growing demand could contribute to the persistence of tensions in the global market of raw food materials and to increased sensitivity of prices to global shocks. A closer look at both recent price spikes and the relationship between commodity and food prices is of value in order to evaluate commentary that recent price rises are due to the higher demand of food-derived biofuels. There are a number of factors that have affected cereal prices during the last year, some of which are cyclical or short-term and induce volatility into the market; others are longterm and structural in nature, such as the expansion of the biofuels industry or increased demand from emerging economies. Feed and food uses continue to dominate cereals, sugar and oilseed markets, and there are simply too many factors affecting agricultural and soft commodities to make a close relationship between fuel and food. The persistent critique of biofuels’ impact upon......

Words: 13073 - Pages: 53

Fuel Cells

...Introduction A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bioreactor that converts chemical energy in the chemical bonds in organic compounds to electrical energy through catalytic reactions of microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. (Allen and Bennetto, 1993; Gil et al., 2003; Moon et al., 2006; Choi et al., 2003). It MFC structure consist of an anaerobic sections of an anode (negative) electrode and a cathode (positive) electrode which is separated by a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). It has been recognized for numerous years that it is possible to generate electricity directly by the use of bacteria in the breaking down of organic substrates. There has been a serious interest in MFCs among academic scientists as a method to generate electricity and hydrogen from biomass without the negative net carbon emission into the environment. Applications of MFCs can be used in the breaking down of organic matter at wastewater treatment facilities. They have also been considered in the use as biosensors for biological oxygen demand (BOD) monitoring, electricity generation and Biohydrogen. On the negative side Coulombic efficiency and Power output are considerably affected by the types of microbe in the anodic chamber of the microbial fuel cell, Configuration and operational conditions. Presently, practical applications of MFCs are limited because of its power density level being low of several thousandths mW/m2. Many efforts in improving the performance, reduced construction and operating......

Words: 1744 - Pages: 7

Fuel Subsidy Removal

...FUEL SUBSIDY REMOVAL AND THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY (A CASE STUDY OF ABAKILIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, EBONYI STATE) BY NKWAGU OLUCHI WINIFRED PA/2008/182 DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT AND SOCIAL SCIENCES CARITAS UNIVERSITY, AMORJI-NIKE, ENUGU. ENUGU STATE AUGUST 2012 1 TITLE PAGE FUEL SUBSIDY REMOVAL AND THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY (A CASE STUDY OF ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, EBONYI STATE) BY NKWAGU OLUCHI WINIFRED PA/2008/182 A RESEARCH PROJECT PRESENTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (B.SC.) DEGREE IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, CARITAS UNIVERSITY, AMORJI-NIKE, ENUGU, ENUGU STATE. AUGUST 2012 2 CERTIFICATION This is to certify that Nkwagu Oluchi Winifired with Registratoin Number PA/2008/182 has successfully carried out a research work on “Fuel Subsidy Removal and the Nigerian Economy (A case Study of Abakaliki Local government Area, Ebonyi State.) in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor of science (B.Sc.) degree in Public Administration ---------------------------------Mr. M. O. Ugada (Project Supervisor) -------------------------Date --------------------------------Mr. M. O. Ugada (HOD Public Adminstration) ---------------------------Date -------------------------------External......

Words: 26167 - Pages: 105

Access 2007

... Microsoft® Office Access 2007 ™ ALL-IN-ONE DESK REFERENCE FOR DUMmIES ‰ by Alan Simpson, Margaret Levine Young, Alison Barrows, April Wells, Jim McCarter Microsoft® Office Access 2007 ™ ALL-IN-ONE DESK REFERENCE FOR DUMmIES ‰ Microsoft® Office Access 2007 ™ ALL-IN-ONE DESK REFERENCE FOR DUMmIES ‰ by Alan Simpson, Margaret Levine Young, Alison Barrows, April Wells, Jim McCarter Microsoft® Office Access™ 2007 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies® Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc. 111 River Street Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774 www.wiley.com Copyright © 2007 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Legal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572-4355, or online at......

Words: 190131 - Pages: 761

Fuel Resume

...humphrey3@us.army.mil (334)425-0340 james.humphrey@fluor.com Skills and Abilities ● Maintained and operate petroleum equipment ● Performed fuel sample testing ● Received, stored, and ship petroleum fuel products ● Perform operator maintenance ● Ensured proper handling of fuel products ●Ensure proper segregation of product ● Performed technical fuel functions ●Takes appropriate action to correct problems Employment Fuel Distribution Foreman Fob Joyce, Afghanistan Fluor Intercontinental (contractor) Secret Security Clearance May/10- Present Perform fueling operations. and maintains fuel distribution systems and facilities as required. Visually inspects samples of fuel, and checks gravity and flashpoint. Gauges tanks for water, temperature, and fuel levels. Receives, stores, transfers, and issues fuel. Receives fuel by tanker. Perform daily PMCS on fuel Bags. United States Army Fort Benning, Georgia ......

Words: 335 - Pages: 2

Work Injury Benefits Act, 2007 - Kenya

...The Work Injury Benefits Act, 2007 THE WORK INJURY BENEFITS ACT, 2007 ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS Section PART I ― PRELIMINARY 1―Short title and Commencement. 2―Interpretation. 3―Application. 4―Meaning of employer. 5―Meaning of employee. 6―Meaning of dependant. PART II ― OBLIGATIONS OF EMPLOYERS 7―Employer to be insured. 8―Registration of employer. 9―Employer to keep records. PART III― RIGHT TO COMPENSATION 10―Right to compensation. 11―Accident outside Kenya. 12―Accidents during training for or performance of emergency Services. 13―Special circumstances in which Director may refuse award. 14―Special circumstance in which the Director may order compensation. 15―Employee requiring constant assistance. 16―Substitution of compensation for other legal remedies. 17―Claims against third parties. 18―Threats and compulsion. 19―Compensation not to be alienated. 20―Compensation not to form part of deceased employee’s estate. PART IV― REPORTING OF ACCIDENTS 21―Notice of accident by employee to employer. 22―Notice of injury or accident by employer to Director. 1 The Work Injury Benefits Act, 2007 23―Inquiry by Director. 24―Particulars in support of claim. 25―Employee to submit to medical examination. 26―Claim for compensation. 27―Lapse of right to benefits. PART V― COMPENSATION 28―Compensation for temporary total or partial disablement. 29―Expiry of compensation for temporary total or partial disablement. 30―Compensation for permanent disablement 31―Amendment of First Schedule.......

Words: 11091 - Pages: 45

Alternative Fuels

...Charlotte Yee Alternative Fuels SCI 207 Brad Wells May 9,2012 In today’s world the environment is polluted with many pollutants that are harmful to the environment and also to humans. Most of these pollutants are from our vehicles, from the trash that we stockpile, then turn them into ski parks. With gasoline becoming scarce and an abundant amount of pollution in the environment, we should make sure transportation companies enforce and search for better ways that we can use alternative fuels for a cleaner and safer environment when we use our automobile as transportation. There are several fuels in the world that claim to be safer and cleaner that what we use now. In this group some of these are hydrogen, biodiesel, ethanol, and natural gas. There are other options for different energy sources including solar powered energy and electric powered energy. Right now hybrid vehicles are the most popular when it comes to modern day cars. There are car companies that are begining to offer these cars such as Chevrolet, Mazda, Lexus, Mercury, Ford, and Saturn. Car companies today are offering hybrid cars that still use gasoline but at lower rate than that of totally gasoline fueled cars, this is a good start but there needs to be a more reliable form of fuel to use. A hybrid car is an automobile powered by a cross of two different power sources. The hybrid cars today are gasoline-electric......

Words: 2045 - Pages: 9

Charming: Hoàng Tử Đào Hoa Charming | Krishnadasi | Bonobono