Futures of Correction

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Controlling Organized Crime
Lanika Alexander
January 20, 2013
David Thomas

Controlling Organized Crime The control of organized crime is an ongoing problem for law enforcement officials. Members in organized crime groups are becoming more sophisticated in the manner in which they commit crimes. Even though law enforcement officials have accumulated significant amounts of information in regards to the way in which organized crime groups are structured, the methods of operation, the history and activities of the groups there is still gaps in the information needed to combat these groups sufficiently. Laws and different legal limitations stand in the way of law enforcement officials as well in the fight against organized crime groups. The prosecution of organized crime groups will have to be evaluated to determine a more efficient route in removing these criminals from the community. To combat organized crime group’s law enforcement needs to better understand why these groups exist. Two theories are relevant to understanding the behaviors of those associated with these groups. The rational choice theory is the theory that suggests that people are free agents which possess the ability to make rational choices in almost all aspects of his or her life. Organized crime members are viewed as people who have free will and the capability to make rational choices in regard to his or her involvement in crime and wrongdoings. With this theory in mind people who still make the decision to commit crimes should be dealt with harshly and swiftly to try to deter him or her from making these same type of decisions on the future. The rational choice theory does not look at a person’s background or his or her upbringing only the likelihood of that person to be a rational thinker so his or her crime should be based on the pleasure-pain principle. This…...

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Future of Corrections

...not wasting tax payer dollars. A big future trend that should be implemented in all of our nation’s prisons is work. If more and more inmates are coming into the prisons then they should make themselves useful. Prisoner these days sit around all day and have nothing to do and this can cause a lot of problems within the correctional facility because the inmates get bored. Work programs would be an ideal way for inmates to spend their time. Instead of an inmate sitting in his or her cell for eight hours, why can’t they spend that time working? Work programs can help inmates get used to working and develop job skills and work ethics. This can give inmates the courage and help they need to be confident in the fact that they can find work when they get out of prison. Industry programs can also be very cost effective for the prisons. If prisons where to start their own wood working shops or automotive shops that could bring their own income in then it would take a lot off from the tax payers’ dollars. It is not right for a normal law abiding citizen to have to pay for a criminals meals in prison. Prisoners get treated to well these days and that is a reason why the incarceration rate is growing. To some if not most of the inmates don’t mind being in prison because they get fed and they don’t have to worry about anything in the outside world. ......

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...Corrections and Approaches Ann Pierce AIU Online Abstract There are different correctional theories in the judicial system. Some may work better than others. Likewise, there are traditional forms of punishment and nontraditional ones also. Some of these approaches work better than others. Corrections and Approaches There are different correctional theories in our judicial system today. While some may punish only and others deter from committing crimes all have a common goal, that is to make offenders think twice about reoffending. Retribution Theory In the retribution theory punishment is seen as deserved, justified and required by the offender’s behavior. The main goal of this theory is vengeance; In other words, to get “revenge” for wrongs done. In the public’s eyes and political policy making it is still the primary goal of sentencing (Schmalleger, F. 2012). Incapacitation Incapacitation put simply means making the offender unable to reoffend. It is the use of imprisonment or other means to keep the offender from committing another crime. This is the second goal of sentencing. It is to protect innocent members of society from criminals that may cause them harm. Unlike retribution is requires only restraint of the offender. This is the basis for the movement towards “prison......

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...States has the highest documented incarceration rate in the world. There were 86,927 held in juvenile facilities as of the 2007 Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement, conducted by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. There were only 70,792 juveniles in juvenile detention in 2010. The key difference between adult and juvenile incarceration is the focus on rehabilitation for underage offenders, as opposed to punishment for adult convicts. Facilities for juveniles are run very differently, and people in such jails and prisons have access to different kinds of services and support. Minors are not imprisoned with adults until after they reach the age of majority, and this isolation supports the mission of preventing future crimes and giving juveniles a second chance at successful social integration. People believe juvenile offenders need discipline and support to prevent a return to crime when they get out. Juvenile incarceration facilities share some qualities in common with adult prisons, but inmates have access to education, incentive programs, and more social services and support. Drug treatment in such facilities, for example, tends to be more readily available. Inmates in a juvenile incarceration facility usually have a very tight schedule, set to impose discipline. Like adult inmates, they work around the facility on tasks like cleaning and maintenance and may also perform other tasks. Many nations require that juveniles receive an education......

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...polices, courts, and corrections. Each component will be defined according to the criminal justice system. Police are people that keep the community in peace with issues and are in charge of regulating the crime and affairs within their city limits. Each police force follow the same laws in there state. But in every city is different on how they enforce it and the leniency. Then you have the federal police agencies which would be the FBI, NSA, DEA, CIA, ATF, DHS, SS, and U.S. Marshals. They all do the same thing but they do it in higher law which deals with the Federal laws and there stand point. The Criminal Justice System is in place to enforce the law in a public order. Which it protects people from crimes and harm. The courts deal with people that have broken the law set in place of the system. Which are the offenders that go in and whatever they are being charged with the judge or the jury determine the sentence depending on what the case is. The courts also do more than that. They also help out with getting warrants and information for an arrest which then goes back on the police to do their job to bring the justice of peace. Corrections depends on the service of corrections you talk about because you have probation, parole, juvenile corrections, and social services. This area of people keep the offenders in line with things they have to do to meet requirements in order to go back in live like everyone else. Also the people that are in corrections also can have......

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...Evolution of Corrections The history of punishment and the development of a system to detain offenders has evolved continuously over the centuries. The implementation of the Pennsylvania and Auburn system has set a foundation for the corrections system we use today. Having inmates perform labor during a prison sentence has contributed to the ongoing change over time of the prison system and in a way that has contributed to the rehabilitation of offenders. One might find it quite interesting to see how society and its evolution has greatly changed the system we use to punish offenders. History of Punishment Punishment for wrongful acts have dated back many centuries and could have began shortly after the beginning of the human race. One of the earliest know penal codes dates back to 1780 B.C. and is known as the Code of Hammurabi. This code was established by King Hammurabi during his reign of Old Babylon. The different types of punishment have changed greatly over the centuries. Punishments that were accepted by society in the early centuries are viewed as inhumane in our society today. The earliest responses to crime were brutal when compared to punishments in the society of the 20th century. Punishments such as torture, beatings, branding, and mutilation were accepted centuries ago. Although there are some countries that still accept some of these forms of punishment, most societies today would deem it inhumane. In today's society one is innocent until......

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...Dan Sullivan Criminal Justice November 25, 2013 Massachusetts Corrections “The Massachusetts Department of Correction is responsible for operating the prison system of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, US Massachusetts houses over 11,400 inmates (about 1,925 are serving life sentences) throughout 18 correctional facilities [2] and employs over 5,200 employees (about 4,000 of whom are correctional officers). The MA DOC also has a tactical unit, a fugitive apprehension unit, a gang intelligence unit, a K-9 team, a Special Reaction Team (SRT), and a Tactical Response Team (TRT). Both of these tactical units are highly trained and are paramilitary teams. The Massachusetts DOC is the largest law enforcement agency in the state of Massachusetts with a staff of 5,200, 4,000 of which are sworn officers. The agency is headquartered in Milford, Massachusetts and headed by Commissioner Luis S. Spencer” ("Massachusetts Department of Correction") “The Department provides a variety of religious services, which are supervised and coordinated by chaplain staff. Volunteer clergy and community churches assist chaplains in the provision of services. Chaplains provide regular religious services, religious education and pastoral care. In addition, chaplaincy services include Bible Study, Prayer Groups, Christian Fellowship, Christian Twelve Step, Parenting Groups, Family Religious Services, Religious Seminars and Holiday Observances. The Department recognizes that Chaplaincy Services are...

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...also targets aspect about an offender that is thought to cause the offender’s criminality, such as his or her attitudes, cognitive processes, personality or mental health, social relationships to others, educational and vocational skills, and employment; these interventions are intended to make the offender less likely to break the law in the future,” (Cullen, T,. F, & Gendreau, P, 2000). The goal of these programs is to prevent the individual from repeating the same crimes. If they were to commit further crimes, the individual would represent an additional cost to society. Recidivism incurs substantial courts fees and related costs. It also means that the ex-prisoner would fail to return to society as a functioning and productive individual (a net contributor) and instead continue to represent a severe drain on public resources (a burden on the nation’s finances). The benefits of reducing recidivism By reducing recidivism through prison treatment and rehabilitation programs, society sees a reduction in the overall crime rate. This drop in crime means that less money needs to be spent on building new prisons, employing more correction officers and police officers, and supporting the affiliated enforcement and legal systems. One difficulty is that, with many variables, it can be difficult to reliably quantify these savings. Cost-benefit analyses were attempted by S Aos et al (2001) in a study titled The Comparative Costs and Benefits of Programs to Reduce Crime. A key......

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...Development of Corrections Women’s prisons before the 1800’s were just as bad as the men’s prisons. The women were often treated like servants and were abused just as the men prisoners were. The only exception to the abuse was pregnant women, but after the women gave birth, they were abused. The prisons were also monitored and watched over by male wards and the women prisoners were mixed in with the male prisoners. By being mixed with the male prisoners the women not only suffered from verbal abuse from the other prisoners and the wardens in the prison, they suffered from sexual abuse. Women prisons have changed since then. They have been separated from men’s prisons and are monitored by women wardens. These prisons were also changed from the traditional prison look to a look that comforts the women in the prisons. The three basic arguments that supported the separation of juvenile prisoners were “the penitentiary regimen was too hard on tender youth, juveniles would learn bad habits from older criminals and be embittered by the experience of confinement and adolescents could be reformed if they were diverted early enough into institutions designed specifically for people their age” (Foster, 2006). If there were no distinction between adult and juvenile prisons there would be children who would possibly get punished as adults and there could be adults who would receive lighter sentences due to the leniency towards juveniles. The purpose of prison......

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Future Corrections

...Future of Corrections Heather Rhodes Angie Guzman Lady Cruz Jessica Olguin University Of Phoenix CJA/394 February 8, 2012 There has been a great amount of change in the philosophy and practices of sentencing and corrections in the past 30 years. In the first seven decades there was a strong emphasis on rehabilitation that lasted until 1970’s. The focus on rehabilitation gave way to the focus on fairness and justice which was considered the “just deserts” model. Then the sentencing practices moved on toward a crime-control model which became extremely popular in the 1980s and 1990s. These changes lead to the sentencing practices that are used today and focus on four major goals; retribution this refers back to the just deserts model meaning that people who break the law deserve to be punished. The three other goals deterrence, incapacitation and those most favored one rehabilitation all of these have their own effective emphasizing methods used to protect the public. The get tough on crime perspective is where the sentencing stage is at currently this has caused an increase in prison populations. As the population and the population of minority groups in the justice system continue to grow it is likely that we will move toward a treatment orientation, and community corrections will be enhanced and expanded. Retribution is one of the first philosophies corrections followed. This model refers back to the just desserts model, basically that people who......

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