Gender Identity Among African Americans

In: People

Submitted By shagon86
Words 1280
Pages 6
Gender Identity Among African Americans Danny Tarantino
University of Phoenix
The African American Experience
SOC/338
Tara Lake
May 20, 2013

In 1619, when the first African slaves arrived in the New World, their race's hardships in the new continent began. One can say that early American history is as much the story of African Americans as it is of the Whites. Only their story is about slavery and oppression and lives lived under the control of others. Centuries and many generations later, their story is written while the shadow of oppression has never left them. One would most likely see this perspective from the stories written and shared by the Black males. But this experience was shared by the Black women as well and their actions, their perspectives, and choices helped shape what would be a liberating movement in a fight for Civil Rights and equality. In the fight for Civil Rights - they were pushing for reforms on two fronts: Civil Rights for being African-American and equal rights for women. They inhibited two minority platforms - that of women and that of being African-American. They fought for it however and as a result, African American women today enjoy freedoms and opportunities that those before them did not.

One of the key figures in the African American women’s movement was Mary McLeod Bethune. Something of a Matriarch, she possessed a dynamic and even aggressive personality. Not particularly well read, she was a forceful speaker who could grasp and absorb ideas that gave support to her own interests (Holt, 1964). She was a pioneering figure for civil rights and education, working to provide education and opportunities to African-Americans believing that education is the route to progress and empowerment. She was born to former slave parents in 1875 and joined them working in the…...

Similar Documents

Elements of African American Identity

...Elements of African American Identity The Pre slavery Era brought Africans from their homes and to the United States in 1619. The Africans were sold to white settlers in Virginia as servants who had the same legal status as white servants. Slavery took place over a span of 300 years, from the 16th century to the 19th century. Slavery practices varied by state or by region (Deep South versus border South). The experience of the slave may have differed depending on the plantation size, the number of slaves involved and the convictions of the individual slaveholder. Slavery in North America delivered the harshest form of social relations to ever exist. Slaves were considered property and not humans. The plight of the slave was doomed to extreme 12-15 hour working days and often deplorable living conditions. African American slaves were beaten, whipped and even murdered, but they kept the spirit to survive. History shows that slaves tried to revolt, always to the detriment of the participants. When the slaves saw that revolting would never work, they sought ways to escape. One such way of escape was the Underground Railroad. The Underground Railroad was an organized effort to assist slaves attempting to escape. The Railroad was believed to have been incorporated in 1804. The Railroad was operated in defiance to the Fugitive Slave Laws and white abolitionists assisted the slaves in their cause. By the middle of the 19th century, slavery had become a......

Words: 852 - Pages: 4

African Americans

...African Americans: The Role of Race Abstract The Following Essay defines and integrates the role race plays on the African American culture in their family values and politics in comparison to the Anglo American Culture. The United States has become increasingly diverse in the last century. While African American families share many features with other U.S. families, the African American family has some distinctive features relating to the timing and approaches to marriage and family formation, gender roles, parenting styles, and strategies for coping with adversity. African cultures, slavery, slave rebellions, and the civil rights movements(circa 1800s-160s)have shaped African American religious, familial, political and economic behaviors. The imprint of Africa is evident in myriad ways, in politics, economics, language, music, hairstyles, fashion, dance, religion and worldview, and food preparation methods. In the United States, the very legislation that was designed to strip slaves of culture and deny them education served in many ways to strengthen it. In turn, African American culture has had a pervasive, transformative impact on myriad elements of mainstream American culture, among them language, music, dance, religion, cuisine, and agriculture. This process of mutual creative exchange is called creolization. Over time, the culture of African slaves and their descendants has been ubiquitous in its impact on not only the dominant American culture, but on......

Words: 1369 - Pages: 6

Gender Identity

...The origins of gender, like the origins of human nature, are sometimes said to lie in biological determination, sometimes in social construction. Feminist theory began with criticising biological determinism and its portrayal of women, and inevitably emphasised the social construction of gender. However, seeing gender or human nature as wholly or mainly socially constructed seems to deny the biological processes which comprise our physical experiences of ourselves, and it is this omission which has recently led some writers (both feminist and antifeminist) to lay stress on the significance of biology in human behaviour and its development. These two opposing views of the origin of behaviour are still dominant, despite various attempts to emphasise how biology and social context might interact to produce, say, gender differences: this continued dominance of the nature/nurture duality has considerable political relevance to feminism, and has contributed to the rise of the New Right ideology concerning, for example, the natural role of women and the family. Gender-role development is one of the most important areas of human development. In fact, the sex of a newborn sets the agenda for a whole array of developmental experiences that will influence the person throughout his or her life. The often controversial study of the development of gender is a topic that is inherently interesting to parents, students, researchers, and scholars for several reasons. First and foremost,......

Words: 1248 - Pages: 5

Hiv/Aids Among African-American Population

...regardless of age, gender, race, location, religion or sexual orientation. The first case of AIDS was reported in 1981 in Los Angeles, California and 1 month later 26 more cases of Kaposi Sarcoma in young homosexual men in New York and California were reported reports of cases continued to rise. In retrospect sporadic cases may have occurred in the United States and other parts of the world as much as 2 decades earlier but the worldwide epidemic became apparent in the 80’s. Since the epidemic began in 1980, an estimated 1,129,127 people in the USA have been diagnosed with AIDS. The number of people living with HIV rose from around 8 million in 1990 to 34 million by the end of 2010. The overall growth of the epidemic has stabilized in recent years and the annual number of new HIV infections has steadily declined. Today, many scientific advances have been made in HIV treatment and we understand much more about the condition. There are laws to protect people against HIV despite this; stigma and discrimination remain a reality because people are ignorant and negligent about various aspects of HIV especially protecting themselves and others from HIV. This was the main reason I chose this topic. African Americans are the racial/ethnic group most affected by HIV. Compared with members of other races and ethnicities, African Americans account for a higher proportion of HIV infections at all stages of disease from new infections to deaths. In 2009, African Americans comprised 14% of......

Words: 784 - Pages: 4

Gender Identity

...races. Additionally, gender and race are two very related identities that undoubtedly intersect in daily lives as well as in popular culture, so considering them together is of great importance when considering standards of beauty (Lind, 2004). Overall, examining racialized representations of female beauty norms in popular culture is significant because what is valued as beautiful in the society is an important indictor of what is generally valued in society as a whole. It also shows how popular culture’s construction of race is pervasive and prevailing in all cultural industries. The purpose of this paper is to look critically at how beauty norms and standards have become a raced concept in Western popular culture. It will attempt to show how various forms of popular culture misrepresent or under-represent women of color when portraying what it means to be beautiful. Secondly, there will be some emphasis put on how dominant White ideologies of beauty affect young women of color and their self-esteem or self-concept. In what follows will be an assessment of five peer-reviewed scholarly articles that help to support and elaborate on the purpose stated above. Each article will be summarized and then critiqued. The various articles included look at distinct ways women of color are mis-or-underrepresented in mediums of popular culture that promote beauty. Additionally, some of the articles examine how adolescent women of color, such as Asian and Latina Americans, assess their own......

Words: 3876 - Pages: 16

Asthma Among African Americans

...to the chest tightness, shortness of breath, wheezing and coughing. Asthma is the most common chronic disease affecting people today. Asthma is described as an epidemic rather than and endemic because it is not restricted by age, sex, racial group or region. Asthma is widespread throughout the world but higher rates of prevalence are seen in African Americans. Asthma can affect anyone, despite the development of new treatment options; asthma remains a major health problem in the United States. According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), about 15 million Americans have or carry a diagnosis of asthma and it is the third leading cause of preventable hospitalizations in the United States. About 500,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths occur annually from asthma, and the mortality rate continues to rise. This rise is especially dramatic in the African-American community, despite the absence of a known racial preference for asthma. It is now well established that under treatment and inappropriate treatments are the leading contributors to asthma morbidity and mortality in the United States. The African-American community is the most affected from these two factors, and these sobering statistics should convince all of us who care for asthma patients that we could be doing a better job (Blackhealthonline.com). Although the exact cause of asthma is unknown, researchers linked genetic and environmental factors as causes for asthma. “Ethnic......

Words: 1586 - Pages: 7

Self Identity and Self Esteem in African American Children's Literature

...The formation of self-identity is a process each of us must go through on our journey to adulthood. The development of a system by which to lead our adult lives is difficult for all children, but especially for African American children. In addition to defining their personal character, they must define themselves in terms of their culture and nationality – African American and American. One of the ways in which black children create their self-identity is through the illustrations they see in the literature they are exposed to. We look to African American children’s books to help promote self-esteem, cultural identity, and pride for African American children. As books are read to them, children concentrate on the images, and become subject to the impressions these images create. Children’s books that are authentic to African American culture, physicality and intelligence are few and far between. With consideration to our theme, “Black Literary Contemplations on Thomas Jefferson and Western Enlightenment Ideologies of Race and Humanity” and Thomas Jefferson’s Query XIV, it is my belief that the images in children’s literature are important to development of self- identity and esteem in African American children. In Query XIV, in his comparison of whites and blacks, Thomas Jefferson commented on the beauty of whites and blacks, and critiqued blacks because of their “immovable veil of black” and lack of flowing hair. He then stated that black men favored white women over......

Words: 1523 - Pages: 7

Gender Identity Among African

...Gender Identity among African Americans Teresa Rucker SOC/338 10/29/13 Dr. A. McDaniel When defining Gender Identity it is said to be a person’s inner sense of being male or female and this sense usually developed during early childhood as a result of parental rearing practices and societal influences and strengthened during puberty by hormonal changes (Dictionary.com). This journey will examine the gender identity among African Americans and highlight the importance of African American women to the women movement. An African American woman will be chosen and a discussion will be done on her importance to the women movement era. Then the journey will end with a discussion on the differences and similarities between African American female and male identity and how has female identity change in the last thirty years. In examining the gender identity among African Americans it is said to be that men exhibit masculine traits and women express feminine traits. Even though African American men and women experience devastating times during slavery their identity roles were different. Black males were the first slaves to be brought to the colonies because they were viewed as being valuable and do to their strength they could perform various duties like building and plowing. Black women were purchased to be field workers. Mainly they worked the fields and this was seen as domestic work for women slaves. In slavery the black women identity was also seen as an economic......

Words: 656 - Pages: 3

Heart Disease Among African American Women

...Heart Disease among African American Women Ciatta Jones, RN Excelsior College Abstract Heart Disease remains the number one killer among women. However, African American women have a higher rate of heart disease than any other ethnic group or demographics and subsequently have an increased mortality rate among other nationalities. They are disproportionately outnumbered when it comes to the obesity rate, stroke and diabetes amongst other groups such as the Caucasians and Asian’s. Contributing factors are decreased awareness and knowledge of heart disease, a low self perception regarding risk factors, ongoing behaviors that are not modified such as smoking, alcoholism, eating fried and salty foods and sometimes the inability to get to medical facilities and clinics. With more education about heart disease and an increased perception of risk, people’s minds will become transformed and will be motivated to modify risk factors related to heart disease. Differences in knowledge and comprehension levels are greater amid those that have a higher educational level. Continual health promotions, fairs, seminars and preventative efforts must continue for us to see positive outcomes associated with a desired behavior change. Keywords: African American, heart disease, women, risk factors, education Heart disease among African American Women The death threat of heart disease is greater than that of AIDS and breast cancer collectively. It is the number one killer of women...

Words: 3067 - Pages: 13

Gender Identity

...Deanna Hancock November 24, 2014 Literature Review: This article is discussing the role of gender identity in an adolescent's growing of age. This is an important part of their lives. Gender identity started coming around in the 1970's where there were more homosexuals and more health concerns related with their population. This gave the community a larger conflict to study and having to learn to cope with the growing numbers of homosexuals in the area. Most people believe that the result of their homosexuality came about from their childhood experiences. Studies show that it is more common for a child who was abused at home is more likely to become a homosexual than not, this is the behavior that results in health concerns such as HIV/AIDS. Studies have also shown that sexual desire can occur with the developments of puberty. This can make for problems with a growing adolescent making them more depressed and more outcast from the crowd due to their homosexuality. Trends show them becoming more stressed due to the identity confusing they are going through. When they decide to 'come out' and tell their peers and families about their homosexuality, it can typically not become a good result. It can make for verbal or physical abuse, loss of social relationships, and feelings of rejection. Parents play an important role in their child's coming out because they need to be the one's that are going to support them. The parent will be their guard when they are going through......

Words: 1988 - Pages: 8

Health Disparity Among African-Americans

...Health Disparity Among African-Americans Melissa Swanson Grand Canyon University Family Centered Health Promotion NRS-429V-0506 Sandi Coufal February 8, 2015 Heath Disparity among African-Americans The United States is a melting pot of cultural diversity. For a country that was founded by individuals fleeing persecution, it has taken us many years to grant African-Americans equal rights, and even longer for those rights to be recognized. Despite all the effort to eliminate inequality in this country, health disparity among this minority group remains a significant issue. Research in this area has pointed to several key reasons for this gap that center on differences in culture, socioeconomics, and lack of health literacy. The CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Report of 2011 shows the average American’s life expectancy at 78.8 years, while the average African-American should expect to live only 75.3 years. The statistics gathered by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) are striking in painting the health status of African-Americans in this country. African-American infants have a mortality rate twice that of Caucasian infants. The CDC recognized that African-Americans lead the nation in death rates from heart disease and stroke, as compared to any other ethnicity. The United States Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health presented data in 2012 showing that African-American adults have a 40% higher rate of hypertension and a 10%......

Words: 1899 - Pages: 8

A Gender Comparison of Resiliency Among Older African American Katrina Survivors

...          A Gender Comparison of Resiliency among Older African American Katrina Survivors Name Institution Date           A Gender Comparison of Resiliency among Older African American Katrina Survivors The hurricane Katrina is rated the fifth most deadly hurricane in the history of the United States. The period of the hurricane witnessed massive destruction of property besides lost of lives. In addition to thee various forms of loss that became manifested in the period of the menace, a number of cases of psychological torture were reported due to the fear of the unknown. The coast regions reported high number of these cases with the coast line extending from central Florida to Texas experiencing the highest cases of destruction and situations of general turmoil. In connection to the harsh situations experience in this period, the reaction strategy among persons affected was different (Lawson, 2010).  The manner in which persons reacted to this calamity depended on a number of factors among the ethical group, gender, geographical region besides other aspects that became highly central in the nature of the reactions. In most instances, copying strategies were adopted in order to help persons effectively adapt to the situations that also involved designing possible measures for curbing the adverse effects of the hurricane. Among the group of persons that were highly affected by the calamity was the African American community. A key attribute to this was the large number of......

Words: 1466 - Pages: 6

Health Promotion Among African Americans

...Health Promotion among African Americans Diversity in the nursing profession with caring for patients and their cultures is a very demanding concept for nurses when it involves providing health promotion and sickness prevention based on knowledge. This can be a daily challenge that must be faced with expertise to care for the various style of cultures and beliefs within communities. This paper will focus on African Americans and how this diverse population is recognized in health care Health Status of African Americans The population of African Americans in the United States is approximately 40.8 million (http://www.cdc.gov/minorityhealth/index.html, 2015). African Americans leading reason of death is cardiac disease, cancer, and strokes. The largest death rate is from cardiac disease and stroke compared to other minorities and populations along with the largest percentage of high blood pressure among adults aged 65 and older is 40% of this group. Secondly, obesity among women of African American nature is 58% compared with Mexican American people and the white population. Ultimately, obesity with both male and female adults is common in this minority with 38% of African Americans being prone to this condition. Diabetes is twice as large among this minority then white adults. The HIV infection rate is highest for African Americans compared to other racial minorities. Blacks have the largest death...

Words: 1007 - Pages: 5

Biracial Identities Within the African American and White Communities

...Biracial Identities within the African American and White Communities Black enough, white enough, light or dark enough are just a few aspects to a biracial individual’s physical perception. For many with one ethic background, understanding who and what they are tends to be reflections of the expectations that are held by society. Those who carry a dual ethnic background have dealt with many expectations of identification not only by society but by standards upheld culturally as well as a parental influence in regards to exposure to both ethnicities. From early interactions of blacks and whites, a slave master and his slaves operated with a purpose to erase blacks from society and purify the American race. These actions transitioned the views of biracial individuals into a focus of passing through society as color was essential and being too dark was detrimental. Historically, self identification and association with specific ethnic backgrounds were dismissed to fit society’s standards causing one to identify as more white than black. Passing through the early 20th century became an important component to a person deriving from the African American and White communities. Jim Crow laws and other governmental provisions denied many African Americans opportunities in everyday life because of their darker skin causing a huge jump for those who were biracial; black and white to take advantage of their light skin to “pass” in order to get through society. Light bright skin just...

Words: 2587 - Pages: 11

Gender Identity

...differentiation and gender idenity. This paper will explain the interaction between hormones and behavior, and how these interactions affect the the determination of gender identiy. The sexual behavior of humans are shaped and influenced by cultural factors that leads human sexuality to be expressed in various ways through many cultures historically. The biological factors in sexual differentiation are very important to the human because it allows a person to grasp and understand the complexities and problems that are involved in human sexual conditions. The premature stages of sexual differentiation after birth are influenced by environmental factors. Once the child advance from childhood and into young adulthood the influences of biological, environmetal, and culture has an effect on sexual differentiation. According to Ault and Brzuzy (2009), gender identity is a multifaceted system of ideas surrounding masculinity and femininity, in terms of the roles prescribed to men and women by society, and how they relate to maleness and femaleness in relation to the self. Gender identity is presented through behavioral expressions of masculinity and femininity, feelings surrounding the body as a sexual, and individual perceptions regarding how others will respond to expressions of gender (Ault & Brzuzy, 2009). Gender refers to humans ability of awareness and reaction to biological that is determined by biological, psychological and sociological factors. Gender is......

Words: 966 - Pages: 4

Alias - Die Agentin (2) | Groove Adventure Rave | It is Well (Live)