Geo Thermal Energy

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By 1681satya
Words 2615
Pages 11
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY -Energy from the earth
AUTHORS:
V M Satyajith Mahesh
B.Tech III-II Year B.Tech III-II Year
E-Mail: 1681satya@gmail.com E-Mail:sci_mahesh@yahoo.co.in
Ph:9492211985 ph:9030253736 MAHAVEER INST. OF SCIENCE AND TECH. AFFILIATED TO JNTU
ABSTRACT:

Geothermal Energy is the energy from the Earth. What could be more natural or plentiful? The source of geothermal power is the heat contained inside the Earth; heat so intense that it creates molten magma. There are a few different types of geothermal energy that can be tapped. "Some geothermal systems are formed when hot magma nears the surface (1,500 to 10,000 meters deep) directly heats groundwater." The heat generated from these hot spots flows outward toward the surface, manifesting as volcanoes, geysers, and hot springs. Naturally-occurring hot water and steam can be tapped by energy conversion technology to generate electricity or to produce hot water for direct use. "Other geothermal systems are formed even when no magma is nearby as magma heats rocks which in turn heat deeply-circulating groundwater." In order to maximize the energy gleaned from these so-called "hot dry rocks," geothermal facilities will often fracture the hot rocks and pump water into and from them in order to use the heated water to generate electricity.

INTRODUCTION:

Geothermal energy was first discovered in the seventh century, when mines dug were found to be actually hotter than the surface. This was assumed to be resulting from a heat source located inside the earth, termed Geothermal Energy. Both Romans and Chinese used geothermal…...

Similar Documents

Geothermal Energy

...Geothermal Energy EM 530 – Energy, Economics & the Environment Josh Marder – Nicole Glick – Ali Yasir – Giovanni Rumbolo 4/20/2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS Problem Statement: Introduction: Page 2 Page 2 Past and Present Uses: Page 3 Energy: Economics: Environment: Risk Analysis: Recommendations: Page 7 Page 19 Page 28 Page 32 Page 34 1 PROBLEM STATEMENT There is a looming energy crisis in the United States, as the country is currently relying on a finite supply of fossil fuels. This energy crisis, along with economic growth and environmental stability must be sustained by developing alternative, renewable energy sources. Population is expanding at a geometric rate and each doubling will increase energy demand that will far exceed supply. China and India have recently developed into industrialized nations and several more will follow. Many leading scientists describe the “tipping point” for carbon dioxide emissions as having already passed, meaning it could be too late for renewable energy options to have an impact (McKibben, 2008). However, until the full impact is determined, scientists worldwide should be developing energy alternatives, in order to help stabilize the environment, secure national policy interests and boost to the economy. Geothermal energy represents a sizeable, renewable power source and is one of several alternative energy options that should be utilized. In order for this technology to be able to move forward with any success, it must achieve......

Words: 10392 - Pages: 42

Thermal Power

...lCH1002 Energy Management in Chemical Industries Thermal Power Plants Dr. M. Subramanian Associate Professor Department of Chemical Engineering Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering Kalavakkam – 603 110, Kanchipuram (Dist) Tamil Nadu, India subramanianm@ssn.edu.in 20-July-2010 Rankine cycle layout 20-July-2010 M Subramanian Rankine cycle 20-July-2010 M Subramanian Rankine cycle with reheat Power plant operation • Rankine cycle with reheat – to reduce the formation of water droplets in turbine, and to increase the efficiency of the cycle. • In order to maximize the efficiency of a steam power plant it is desirable to operate as high a temperature as possible in the super-heater. However, above about 650oC various forms of metal fatigue become significant due to very high temperatures and pressures that the walls of the boiler tubes have to withstand. • A typical 500 MW coal-fired plant consumes around 250 tonnes of coal an hour. Efficiency of Thermal Power Plant • The efficiency of a Rankine cycle is usually limited by the working fluid. Without the pressure reaching super critical levels for the working fluid, the temperature range the cycle can operate over is quite small: turbine entry temperatures are typically 565°C (the creep limit of stainless steel) and condenser temperatures are around 30°C. This gives a theoretical Carnot efficiency of about 63% compared with an actual efficiency of 42% for a modern coal-fired......

Words: 1293 - Pages: 6

Thermal Physics

...THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER Heat is a form of energy that is transferred from a hotter to a colder region by one or more of the following methods conduction, convection and radiation. When heat is given to a body one or more of the following may happen (i) Increase in temperature (ii) Increase in length ( area, volume) (iii) Change in state of the body Solid Liquid Liquid Gas (iv) Change in chemical composition (v) Change in electrical properties (vi) Change in colour TEMPERATURE. Temperature is a measure of the Heat energy that a body contains or a measure of the Kinetic energy of the molecules of the material. By heating a material the kinetic energy of the molecules of the material also increase. The temperature also controls the direction of flow of Heat Energy. Heat Energy always flows from a higher temperature to a lower temperature. S.I. Unit of temperature is Kelvin. The Kelvin scale and the kelvin are named after the Scottish physicist and engineer William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (1824–1907). Unlike the degree Fahrenheit and degree Celsius, the kelvin is not referred to as a "degree" it is written K. The Kelvin and the degree Celsius are often used together, as they have the same interval, and 0 Kelvin is -273.15 degrees Celsius. Thermometer. A thermometer is an instrument for measuring temperature. To calibrate a thermometer two temperature called FIXED POINTS are......

Words: 2312 - Pages: 10

Nuclear Energy

...Nuclear Energy and its importance in context of India Every single atom in the universe carries an unimaginably powerful battery within its heart, called the nucleus. This form of energy, often called Type-1 fuel, is hundreds of thousands, if not million, times more powerful than the conventional Type-0 fuels, which are basically dead plants and animals existing in the form of coal, petroleum, natural gas and other forms of fossil fuel. I. Terminology - Nuclear fission –splitting of atoms to produce energy in the form of heat. Uranium a naturally occurring radioactive metal - only element in which fission(splitting off nucleus) can take place easily, setting off a chain reaction or a self-sustained splitting of atoms. The atoms of Uranium are the largest and the heaviest known on earth so its nucleus is unstable. Besides uranium, plutonium can undergo fission. Fertile material – composed of atoms which do not undergo induced fission themselves but fissile material can be generated from them by irradiation in a nuclear reactor. E.g. U- 238 gives plutonium 239, TH- 232 gives U-233, and U-234 gives U-235. Criticality – When the chain reaction takes place for the first time in a nuclear electricity reactor, it means the reactor has reached its first criticality. Moderator – used to slowdown neutrons surrounding the fuel core of the reactor,e.g.Light water, heavy water (D2O) Pressurised Heavy Water reactor (PWHR) –fuel used is natural uranium. Heavy water is both coolant and...

Words: 2000 - Pages: 8

Thermal Conductivity

...A Study of Thermal Conductivity of Corn Cob Ash Blended Cement Mortar. A.A. Raheem, Ph.D.1* and Prof. D.A. Adesanya2 1 Civil Engineering Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. 2 Building Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. E-mail: raheemayinde@yahoo.com* Telephone: 2348033928991 ABSTRACT This study investigated the thermal conductivity of corn cob ash (CCA) blended cement mortar. Nine classes of CCA blended cements were employed with the CCA content ranging from 0% to 25%. The 0% CCA replacement involved the use of normal ordinary Portland cement and it served as the control. The mix proportions of cement: sharp sand used were 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 with water-tobinder ratio ranging between 0.26 and 0.29. Thermal conductivity test was performed using 50 x 50 x 15 mortar cube specimens cast in wooden moulds in pairs. The steady state heating method involving the use of three – blocks of brass was used for conducting the test with a heater made of nichrome wire wound round a ceramic rod. The final temperature difference obtained over a period of continuous heating for eight hours was used in determining the thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of CCA-blended cement specimens decreased steadily as the CCA percentage increased. For 1:1 mix proportion; the 0 thermal conductivity decreases from 1.80W/m C 0 to 0.69W/m C when the CCA percentage replacement increases from 2% to 25% as 0 against the control value of 2...

Words: 2727 - Pages: 11

Renewable Energy

...Smith ENGB 5142 The Role and Challenges of Renewable Energy Energy is readily available everywhere and comes in various forms. Our universe was created when an infinitely large ball of energy suddenly collapsed and appeared as a small single speck that still contained vast amounts of energy and very low volume. Energy is a property of matter that allows life to occur. Energy sources can be transferred. Stated more eloquently in the First Law of Thermodynamics, “Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but can change form.” Capturing different forms of universal energy and transferring them for purposeful use is essential for the progress of modern life. Transferring energy sources in methods of energy production is at the root of every developed nation and its renewability is central to economic development. How can we capture and redirect different forms of energy for more practical use? There are numerous ways to do this; many of which are commonplace around the world today. Acquiring certain forms of energy for use may require mining, drilling, combustion technology, photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, and other technologies. In the following paragraphs we will explore the vast world of energy by looking at the disadvantages to nonrenewable energy and taking an in-depth look at renewable energy sources and exploring the challenges associated with employing these types of sources in an effort to create energy sustainability in our world. We will also seek......

Words: 3779 - Pages: 16

Energy

...Energy Portfolio management (Like Financial Portfolio management) is the Key to solving today’s and the future’s energy issues….. by Doug Story I believe it has been determined and accepted by almost everyone in the financial management industry and by those of us that invest or have our jobs supply financial instruments such as IRAs, Roth IRAs, 401Ks, etc for our retirement that it is imperative that our financial portfolio be diversified in such a manner that when part of the portfolio drops in value other parts of the portfolio will climb so that we may maintain, protect and continue to grow our funds in preparation for retirement. For example, why was the ENRON collapse such a disaster to most of the employees at ENRON? ENRON management had put pressure on everyone in the company retirement program to put all of their retirement savings into ENRON stock, so when the stock collapsed from its record highs these employees lost everything. If many of the employees at ENRON had invested in a diversified portfolio most of the money they placed in their retirement accounts may have been protected from the collapse of the ENRON stock. What does “Diversified Retirement or Stock Portfolio” mean? Simply put it means having a retirement account that is spread out over a range of stocks, bonds, cash and even precious metals. If the stock market goes down, in theory the bonds and precious metals will stabilize or go up at a rate that equals or reduces the losses due to the......

Words: 1663 - Pages: 7

Green Energy

...Kavethkar Green energy is the need of the hour to sustain our energy requirements. Green energy includes natural energetic processes that can be harnessed with little pollution. Anaerobic digestion, geothermal power, wind power, small-scale hydropower, solar energy, biomass power, tidal power, wave power, and some forms of nuclear power (ones which are able to "burn" nuclear waste through a process known as nuclear transmutation, such as an Integral Fast Reactor, and therefore belong in the "Green Energy" category). Some definitions may also include power derived from the incineration of waste. In this report we have discussed on various dimension of non renewable energy resources and its impact on our environment. It is aptly said that “The Earth has enough to satisfy the Need but not the Greed of the Humans” We have gone beyond boundaries, now if we look back the results of our greed is appalling for us. The below sections show the various examples of non renewable energy sector- Electricity Sector in India The electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 250.256 was of end July 2014. Out of which considerable amount, approx. 69.12% (172.986 GW), is generated from non-renewable energy source. India became the world's third largest producer of electricity in the year 2013 with 4.8% global share in electricity generation surpassing Japan and Russia. On 31st May 2014, in India, there was installation of Wind Power Capacity Project. Non-Renewable Energy......

Words: 6013 - Pages: 25

Solar Thermal

...SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY Solar thermal is a type of technology that is used for utilizing solar energy to get thermal energy. Solar thermal energy is a form of energy in which the sun is used to produce heat that can be used in a variety of ways. This technology has been used for generations and has been constantly improved by modern technology to expand it’s applications. SOLAR THERMAL GENERATION Solar thermal energy is a renewable energy source that converts the heat from solar rays into electricity by indirect means, using steam cycles. Several types of technologies can be used to generate solar thermal energy. Different designs are used as described below; Parabolic trough designs This design uses a curved mirrored trough that reflects the solar radiation directly to a glass tube containing the fluid which runs along the length of the trough. The trough is made to tilt in an east to west direction in order to maintain direct focus of the radiation on the pipe. To reduce convective heat loss, the receiver may be enclosed in a glass vacuum chamber. This design is suitable for operation within an average temperature range from 125º C to 400º C. Power tower designs In this design, flat mirrors are used to concentrate the light on top of a tower. This method is also called the Rankine cycle and it has the advantage of achieving higher temperatures. Dish designs In this design, a solar dish is used to concentrate the sun’s rays on the heating element that is placed......

Words: 1079 - Pages: 5

Thermal Heat

...be explained, a few more things need to be understood. Such as heat is the transfer of energy based on a temperature difference between two objects. Also that temperature is a measure of kinetic energy of the molecules in an object. Now the three types of heat transfer and first up is Conduction which is the transfer of energy in the form of heat by direct contact through excitement of molecules with driven by a temperature difference. Energy travels from a high to a low and the same thing happens with heat. When the high temperature molecules collide with the low temperature molecules, a transfer of energy occurs from the hot, more energetic molecules to the colder, less energetic molecules and this is recognized as conduction. Conduction is most prevalent in solids but it can also be found in liquids and gases. The rate at which heat is transmitted through a material by conduction depends on thermal conductivity which is a characteristic of a material and its mass. The easiest way to think of conduction is to hold a metal rod by one end and put the other over a fire. Eventually the hot energetic molecules from the fire will transfer to the cold, less energetic molecules of the metal rod and slowly creep up the rod to the cold end where it is being held and then move to the hand and cause burns. The second method of heat transfer is convection which is the transfer of energy through a circulating gas or liquid to or from a solid object. An example of......

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

Eco Geo

...Scope 1.4 Methodology 1.5 Limitations 1 1 1 1 2 2 2.0 What is Green Technology 3 3.0 Prominent Examples of green Technology 3.1 Solar Energy 3.2 Biofuels 3.3 Green Building 7 7 15 21 4.0 Conclusion 33 ii Economics of Geography and Environment (G101) Clean Technology: a greener aspect to development SUMMARY In a world of rapid growth, both in terms of economy and population, human beings have sought to influence the environment around them for a better, more efficient and easier life. The resources that we have used up from the environment have often been nonrenewable and in our heedless march to glorious comfort, we have ignored the consequences of the effect that we are having on the world we live in. With the results of our negative impact on nature coming around to haunt us, there have been a rising global awareness and movement to better ourselves. Green technology is a major part of it. Green technology is the application of the environmental science to conserve the natural environment and resources, and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement. The main idea behind green technology is to provide sustainable growth. That is, using resources from the Earth in a renewable fashion. The following report outlines some aspects of green technology and discusses three main ideas: Solar energy, Green Buildings, Biofuels. In the report, it has been discussed how each of these technologies are environmentfriendly, how they are......

Words: 7762 - Pages: 32

Renewable Energies

... Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, motor fuels, and rural energy services. Based on REN21's 2014 report, renewables contributed 19 percent to our global energy consumption and 22 percent to our electricity generation in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Both, modern renewables, such as hydro, wind, solar and biofuels, as well as traditional biomass, contributed in about equal parts to the global energy supply. Worldwide investments in renewable technologies amounted to more than US$214 billion in 2013, with countries like China and the United States heavily investing in wind, hydro, solar and biofuels. Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits. In international public opinion surveys there is strong support for promoting renewable sources such as solar power and wind power. At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20 percent of energy supply. National renewable energy......

Words: 7346 - Pages: 30

Energy Conservation

...Energy Conservation Preston L. Judd SCI/275 Environmental Science Axia College / University Of Phoenix April 10, 2011 Tisha Samosky It can begin simply by turning off a light switch as someone leaves a room or unplugging a device when not in use. From these small acts, the beginning seeds of energy conservation can be sown. Energy conservation has become one of the most hotly debated subjects in the world. Old power plants are struggling to keep up, sometimes causing power shortages or “brown outs”, and new power plants are being built, but most of the new plants still use the same technology as their predecessors. Some have even been ‘repackaged’ to appear cleaner in respect to exhaust, but they still pollute the atmosphere and use a dwindling source of fuel. Still others argue that fields of petroleum at deeper levels are more than sufficient to supply the world with oil1. The only real hope of the world is to either perfect some of the newer, greener power generation techniques such as wind, solar, or geothermal, or invent some new as-of-yet undiscovered method. Until that time, energy conservation is not just a good idea, it is a necessity. 1. The Population Explosion and Power Usage As the world’s population gets closer to the seven trillion mark (estimate as of April 2011 is 6,911,382,8582), the demand for power increases exponentially. The added strain on the generation facilities is causing rolling blackouts, or “brown outs”, in......

Words: 2083 - Pages: 9

Thermal Conductivity

...Abstract Our objective in this experiment was to measure the conductivity of a poor conductor, in this case, a thin piece of cardboard. By working out how much heat energy was allowed to pass from one block that had heat added to it and another block of which they were separated by a thin piece of cardboard. Our value for K, the thermal conductivity constant was 0.157 W.m-1.K-1 which was quite close to that of 0.21W.m-1.K-1 with a percentage error of 25.2%. Reference: http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/teach_res/db/d0005e.htm Introduction & Theory The concept of conduction involves the transferring of energy through a material that can be either a poor or weak conductor, in this case, heat through a poor cardboard conductor. We expect cardboard as a poor conductor to not effectively transport heat from one disc to another, as seen in Fig. 1. Fig. 1 The formula in which we work out the value of k for the cardboard is as such: dQ/dt = -k.A.dT/dx (1) In the above equation, dQ/dt is the rate of heat transfer and is worked out using the formula (2) as below. A is the area of the cardboard disc. dT is the difference in temperature between the two discs at the steady state temperature which is explained further in the experimental method. Finally dx is the thickness of the cardboard disc. Having taken all of our measurements we will plot a graph of the temperature against the time passed as seen in Fig. 3 we then were able to get dQ/dt using the formula: ......

Words: 876 - Pages: 4

Energy of Ukraine: Call to Investors

...Energy of Ukraine Challenges & Opportunities Ukraine has excellent natural reserves Natural Gas Reserves R: 1 Tcm, P: 20 bcm Uranium Reserves >100 years, P: 3000 kton Oil Reserves R: 900 Mton, P: 3 Mton Hard Coal Reserves R: 56 Bton, P: 28 Mton Challenges • • • • • War at East & Debt build-up (~1 bUSD) Loss of anthracite coal and thermal generation Dependence on Russia in gas supply Oil prices drop and pressure on margin in E&D State budget austerity and crises in national bank system • Cross-subsidies and disproportion in tariffs on gas and electricity • Manual mode of management in state enterprises Opportunities • • • • Diversification of supply: gas, coal, nuclear fuel De-monopolization: all sectors but nuclear Privatization: coal mines, thermal generation Cut energy consumption: metering, house isolation, ESCO market • Closeness of EU markets: integration and synchronization with bigger energy markets Mid-term Strategy • Efficient use of energy • • • • Mandatory metering of all utilities Market-based tariffs Preferential loans for house insulation Incentives to flatten intraday electricity consumption • Increase of domestic production • • • • • • Implementation of 3rd Energy Package Revision of tax regime Free access to geo-data Auction of licenses Gasification of coal Developing own production of nuclear power cells • Diversification of supplies • • • • Gas reverse & Hub ...

Words: 327 - Pages: 2

Móviles de prepago | dwonload lagu linkin park in the end | 2018 American Silver Eagle 1 oz Coin | Sealed US Mint Roll of 20