Good Boy

In: Business and Management

Submitted By serikmm
Words 2352
Pages 10
23-25)Учение о химическом процессе называется химической кинетикой. появление хим. кинетики было обусловлено переносом физических представлений в химию. первые кинетические исслед. были проведены в рамках хим. статики. Статика химии развилась намного раньше, чем динамика. Бертолле сделал выводо том, что реакции идут не до конца, а до определенного предела, после которого устанавливается равновесие. Именно химическое равновесие явилось первым объектом исследования химической статики. Уже с первых шагов эта новая область химии вступила в противоречие с её з-нами (з-ном постоянства состава и кратных отношений). Потребовались годы, в теч. кот. накаплив. док-ва обратимости реакций, чтобы учение о хим. равновесии стало в ряд с др. разделами химии. Только в 1861 г. Менделеев осмелился ввести понятие об обратимости в свой учебник «Орг. Хим».
Широкое признание идей химической статики произошло в результате создания количественной теории химических равновесий Гульдбергом и Ваге в 1864-1867 годах. После ознакомления с идеями Бертолле пришли к выводу, что химическое действие веществ пропорционально их массам.Эта зависимость, представленная в математическом виде, получила название здм. Они рассматривали химическое равновесие не как статический, а как динамический процесс.
Химическая динамика получила наиболее полное развитие в работах Вант-Гоффа. он опубликовал книгу “Очерки по химической динамике”, в которой обосновал важнейшие положения теории химической кинетики. Он опирался на выведенное Гульдбергом и Вааге выражение здм. Вант-Гофф впервые определил состояние химического равновесия как следствие равенства скоростей прямой и обратной реакций.
В химической динамике есть понятие времени. А. Вильямсон, который интерпретировал состояние химического равновесия с помощью молекулярно-кинетической теории, писал: “В статике мы изучаем явления в момент покоя, в динамике же мы…...

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