Haitian Revolution

In: Historical Events

Submitted By sashalee1
Words 8437
Pages 34
Fighting for freedom



Major slave revolts


OBJECTIVES At the end of the lesson, students should be able to: a) Identify the key figures in the Berbice (1763), Barbados (1816), Demerara (1823) and Jamaica (1831) revolts. b) Explain the causes of any three major slave revolts. c) Describe the nature and consequences of any three major slave revolts.

CAUSES a) Inhumane treatment by white personnel (such as managers, overseers, bookkeepers) of the enslaved population. b) Inadequate provisions for daily existences supplied on the estates – the enslaved population had meagre rations and whenever there were shortages they would be adversely affected. NATURE & CONSEQUENCES a) The revolt began on Plantation Magdalenburg on the Conje River on February 23, 1763. b) By March 1763, the revolt had spread to the Berbice River. The enslaved peoples were able to capture several plantations along the river and Coffy played an instrumental role in this area. c) Coffy committed suicide in May 1763 – the fight for freedom, however, still continued. d) The colony was controlled by blacks for 10 months, showing the active thrust by blacks to end the system of chattel slavery.

John and St George. b) By April 15, 1816 there was the declaration of martial law - Bussa was killed during the fighting. More than 170 slaves were killed and more than 200 were excuted; another 100 enslaved peoples were exiled to Sierra Leone. c) There was severe damage to the sugar industry as over 20 per cent of the country’s sugar crop was destroyed.

estate in St James, it escalated into an open revolt. Spread to several parishes such as Trelawny, Hanover, Westmoreland and St Elizabeth. b) Last major revolt in British Caribbean before emancipation; 100 slaves…...

Similar Documents

The Significance of the Haitian Revolution for the Practice of Contemporary Theory.

...The significance of the Haitian Revolution for the practice of contemporary theory. 1. Introduction Philosopher Peter Hallward claims, “If the French Revolution stands as the great political event of modern times the Haitian Revolution must figure at the most decisive sequence of that event” (Hallward, 2004:2). From a historical perspective, it is important that one recognises the significance of this event. The Haitian Revolution was a struggle for self-determination against colonial imperialism and slavery but it was also so much more than that as it was a struggle for the liberation of the African mind too. The Haitian Revolution influenced thinkers such as Peter Hallward and Alain Badiou, C.L.R. James as well as pan-Africanist thinkers such as Marcus Garvey and later Franz Fanon himself. In this paper I will analyse the Haitian Revolution not in a historical context per se but rather by examining its significance on the practice of contemporary theory. My argument in this paper is that the Haitian Revolution as an empirical event challenged many assumed theoretical universalities and in so doing has made contemporary theory ever more useful in terms of making sense of the world and uncovering hidden truths. For the purpose of this paper, theory as a concept as well as the practice of theory as process needs to be discussed in detail. Theory as a concept can best be understood as a system of ideas that are meant to explain a facet of existence. Thory can be very......

Words: 2437 - Pages: 10

Revolution in Colonies

...During the French Revolution the colony of St.Domingue now known as Haiti furnished almost two-thirds of France’s trade. Motivated by not only slave labor but fertile soil they produced several things such as sugar, coffee, and cotton on their main land France. By 1789 this colony along with Jamaica became not only the richest European colony but the main supplier of the world’s sugar and coffee which made it one of the most flourishing slave colonies in all of the Caribbean. The French Revolution of 1789 gave light to the Haitian Revolution of 1791. This revolution would soon lead to the emancipation of slavery and Haiti becoming the first republic to be ruled by African ancestry. The revolutions success can be accredited to several Haitian heroes but the most notable, Toussaint L’Overture. When the French Revolution began in the colony of St. Domingue there were four separate distinct groups of people. The first group being the white people who made up approximately 20,000 of the population and were further more broken down into two groups: The Planters and The Petit Blancs[3]. In comparison and contrast The Planters and The Petit Blancs were opposite. The Planters were wealthier, owned plantations and slaves, as far as politically they wanted independence, in the sense of the United States. On the other hand, the Petit Blancs were less powerful, often had very few slaves and were less independent-minded as far as Haiti’s independence and were more loyal to the French.......

Words: 1989 - Pages: 8

Haitian Culture Paper for Nursing 305

...Haitian Culture ORIGINS OF CULTURE The Republic of Haiti is a Caribbean country that shares the island of Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic. It is approximately 500 miles from Key West, Florida. It was first settled by the Spanish in the late 1400s, during the era of Columbus. After the entrance of Europeans, Hispaniola's indigenous population endured near-extinction, in what is perhaps the worst case of depopulation in the Americas. A generally believed hypothesis indicates the high mortality of this colony in part to Old World diseases to which the native people had no immunity due to a lack of exposure to the European diseases. A small number of Taínos, the natives to the island, were able to stay alive and set up villages elsewhere. Spanish attentiveness in Hispaniola began to diminish in the 1520s, as more profitable gold and silver deposits were found in Mexico and South America. It was the decreasing interest in Hispaniola that allowed the French to create a colony in the early 1600s. French buccaneers created a settlement on the island of Tortuga in 1625, and were soon united with like-minded English and Dutch privateers and pirates, who formed a anarchistic international community that survived by marauding Spanish ships and hunting wild cattle. Before the Seven Years' War (1756–63), the economy of Hispaniola slowly expanded, with sugar and coffee becoming important export crops. After the war the colony underwent rapid expansion. In 1767, it exported 72......

Words: 3138 - Pages: 13

Haitian Revolution Effect on Slavery

...The uprising of nearly 100,000 slaves in Saint-Domingue from 1791-1804 was the largest insurrection of slaves in history. The Haitian Revolution resulted in the creation of the first successful independent freed slave state in the world, a fact that rocked the socio-political, economic, and moral foundations of the Caribbean.[1] However, in the period following the Revolution, there is a noted increase of slavery in the Caribbean as a whole. Did the success of the Haitian uprising merely serve as a lesson for Caribbean planters and reinforce the slave society? To answer this question one must examine the factors that led to the Revolution’s success both externally, in the European metropoles, and internally, in the psychological and socio-political dynamics of Caribbean societies. Therefore, the Haitian Revolution appeared to impede abolition in the Caribbean in the short term because it reinforced white stereotypes of African savagery and inferiority, convinced planters of the danger of liberal and abolitionist ideals, and created a large void in the coffee and sugar markets which other colonies quickly filled by introducing more slave labor. While these effects should not be minimized, they were merely the logical aftershock of the tumultuous events in the established racial hierarchy. Ultimately, the Haitian Revolution was a major turning point in abolitionist history because it restructured the balance of power in the Caribbean thereby allowing a political gap for......

Words: 1961 - Pages: 8

Zombies, Vodou, and the Haitian Culture

...zombie come from the Vodou religion and Afro-Haitian culture. The practice of the Vodou religion originates in Africa. The name comes from Vodun, the God of the Yoruba people, who occupied the African kingdom of Dahomey in the 18th and 19th centuries. Vodou spread west in the early 19th century, when African slaves were forcefully shipped to Haiti and other islands of the West Indies. When the slaves arrived, they were baptized into Roman Catholicism, but it was difficult to maintain their faith due to the lack of Christian infrastructure at the time. The slaves reverted to their roots and secretly practiced Vodou while still attending mass. The Roman Catholic influence still remains present today and it is not uncommon for a person who practices Vodou to worship the Christian God. The Vodou religion has managed to gain a bad reputation through inaccurate publications and various media sources. These sources portray it as an evil religion that engages in human sacrifice, cannibalism, and torture. However, these descriptions are actually false. Vodou is considered a cult religion, which simply refers to their system of ritual worship and possession. “Rituals of animal sacrifice as well as trance dances forge and maintain a bond with the gods” (Van Voorst, 2013, p. 55). These rituals are performed are performed by current members as well as initiates who are first being introduced. It is estimated that 80-90% of Haitians practice Vodou. Vodou also has a......

Words: 1566 - Pages: 7

Causes Ofthe Haitian Revolution

...THE CAUSES AND EFFECT OF THE HAITIAN REVOLUTION The Haitian Revolution represents the most thorough case study of revolutionary change anywhere in the history of the modern world. In ten years of sustained internal and international warfare, a colony populated predominantly by plantation slaves overthrew both its colonial status and its economic system and established a new political state of entirely free individuals—with some ex-slaves constituting the new political authority. As only the second state to declare its independence in the Americas, Haiti had no viable administrative models to follow. The British North Americans who declared their independence in 1776 left slavery intact, and theirs was more a political revolution than a social and economic one. The success of Haiti against all odds made social revolutions a sensitive issue among the leaders of political revolt elsewhere in the Americas during the final years of the eighteenth century and the first decades of the nineteenth century. Yet the genesis of the Haitian Revolution cannot be separated from the wider concomitant events of the later eighteenth-century Atlantic world. Indeed, the period between 1750 and 1850 represented an age of spontaneous, interrelated revolutions, and events in Saint Domingue/Haiti constitute an integral—though often overlooked—part of the history of that larger sphere. These multi-faceted revolutions combined to alter the way individuals and groups saw themselves and their place......

Words: 4578 - Pages: 19

Atlantic Revolutions

...Chapter 17 Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes 1750–1914 MARGIN REVIEW QUESTIONS Q. In what ways did the ideas of the Enlightenment contribute to the Atlantic revolutions? • The Enlightenment promoted the idea that human political and social arrangements could be engineered, and improved, by human action. • New ideas of liberty, equality, free trade, religious tolerance, republicanism, human rationality, popular sovereignty, natural rights, the consent of the governed, and social contracts developed during the Enlightenment, providing the intellectual underpinnings of the Atlantic revolutions. Q. What was revolutionary about the American Revolution, and what was not? • The American Revolution was revolutionary in that it marked a decisive political change. • It was not revolutionary in that it sought to preserve the existing liberties of the colonies rather than to create new ones. Q. How did the French Revolution differ from the American Revolution? • While the American Revolution expressed the tensions of a colonial relationship with a distant imperial power, the French insurrection was driven by sharp conflicts within French society. • The French Revolution, especially during its first five years, was a much more violent, far-reaching, and radical movement than its American counterpart. • The French revolutionaries perceived themselves as starting from scratch in recreating the social order, while the Americans......

Words: 969 - Pages: 4

Atlantic Revolutions

...Atlantic Revolutions, 1600-1825 The revolutions of the eighteenth century have their origins in political and cultural developments of the seventeenth century. Of course, they were also products of all of major developments the European conquest of the Americas, the rise of kingdom states and empires, the tremendous wealth that resulted from the expansion of global trade, and the development of colonial cultures and societies in the Americas. Scholars call these cultures and societies creole societies, because they blended elements of European, native American, and African culture and society. Developments in England, 1641-1688 But revolutions are also inspired by ideas, and ideas that we may take for granted today had much of their start in England. Political conflict in Great Britain was a common theme of the seventeenth century. In 1641, a civil war led to the execution of the king (Charles I), and the establishment of a republic, what was known as the Commonwealth. Politics and religion both played a part in the Civil War, with the English nobility and wealthy commoners (whose interests were represented in Parliament, England’s legislature) wanting a greater say in how royal revenues were raised and spent. This republic quickly became a military dictatorship, and the old king’s son (Charles II) was invited back. But when Charles II died, the next king soon ran into trouble with Parliament, who feared that this king, James II, wanted too much power for himself. So......

Words: 2326 - Pages: 10

The Haitian Revolution

...The Haitian Revolution was influenced initially by events in France, especially the French Revolution of 1789. According to Yvette Taylor Kanarick in Caribbean History Core Course, “The events unfolding in France were to profoundly affect the course of the St.Domingue revolution.”1 On August 26, 1789, the newly convened Estates General passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. France was divided into a rigid oppressive social class system just as St.Domingue. The first and second classes were made up of the clergy and the nobility, the third class was made up of all others from lawyers down to peasants. This unequal class structure created the atmosphere for the oppressed persons to fight for liberty, equality and fraternity. Upon the outbreak of the French Revolution, the people of St.Domingue, who were also French subjects, demanded their share of the slogan of liberty, equality and fraternity. This demand resulted in several conflicts between the different classes, which will later impact the revolt of the enslaved persons in the colony. The different classes were fighting for different reasons. The white plantocracy wanted equality with the whites in France and to rid themselves of the royalist bureaucracy to which they were subjected. The free coloureds on the other hand wanted equality with the whites politically and socially as well as an end to discriminations against them, while the enslaved people just simply grasped the opportunity to seek their......

Words: 2228 - Pages: 9

Haitian Ethnic Food

...Haitian Food July 15, 2014 The typical meal I chose to represent is called Morue and its origins is from the Haitian ethnicity. Morue is a meal usually eaten at dinner time alongside Sauce Pois Rouge (red pea soup) which is served with rice, and drank with Ginger & Cinnamon tea. To make Morue, you need: 1 lb. of salt cod (morue), water as desired, 1 small diced shallot, 1 small diced onion, 1 cup of olive oil and 1 hot pepper. To prepare this meal, “add the cod in a saucepan and cover with water. Let boil over medium-high heat. Drain the cod and soak in cool water. Shred the boiled cod. Drain and set aside. In a skillet, heat the oil and sauté the remaining ingredients. Add the cod and sauté lightly for 2-3 mins (Recipes, 2014).” Traditional Food Common foods that Haitians eat depends on the time of the day. For breakfast, a Haitian may eat very light. Bread, butter and coffee which gives them energy to work and is easy to digest is what they may consume. Lunch is typically the largest meal of the day and will consist of heavy starches, like cornmeal, boiled foods, rice, beans, potatoes and a type of meat. The typical traditional Haitian food is Creole. Creole is a mix of Spanish, French and African foods. Haitians believe in consuming and not consuming a variety of foods to maintain their health. For example, teenagers with acne issues, will most likely not drink acidic drinks, like soda and orange juice. After preforming strenuous activity or an action......

Words: 640 - Pages: 3

Haitian Cholera Experience

...and by the evening of my arrival at J/P Haitian Relief Organization housing in Port-au-Prince, more than 21,000 people were infected, with 1,250 deaths. Early the next morning, J/P HRO co-founder Sean Penn received a call from Paul Farmer, MD, PhD, of Partners in Health, who said, “If you don’t send us any of your doctors and nurses you have available, people will die.” So our team of seven (four nurses, two translators and our driver/security guard) set off on the three-hour drive along broken roads through the beautiful, rugged mountains and countryside to Hopital Ste. Therese in Hinche. I believe we were all shocked by the world we entered. Triage and short-term oral rehydration tents were staffed by Cuban and Mexican physicians and nurses, and three additional tents (men’s, women’s, children’s) and an old church served critical patients requiring IV rehydration. Each facility held up to 24 patients. The cholera treatment center was fenced off, and an attendant sprayed our shoes with a bleach solution upon entering or exiting. The church was downwind from the pit where medical waste, patients’ clothing and trash were burned. The heavy canvas tents had tarp floors that were wet from the nonstop mopping of human waste. Tree roots and old foundations underneath presented trip hazards. Cots and cholera beds were crowded inside. Our combined medical team had four U.S. RNs, two Canadian RNs, one U.S. physician and a small Haitian nursing staff. We became adept at......

Words: 773 - Pages: 4

The Haitian Revolution and Its Affects on the Population of New Orleans

...Ryan Williams 10/27/15 Refugees of the Haitian Revolution and Their Impact on New Orleans Regions of Southwest Louisiana possess a very distinct culture that are commonly accredited to the French. Although this may be true it is also true that this area is strongly influenced by the refugees of Saint-Domingue during the Haitian Revolution. The Haitian Revolution occurred from 1791-1804, during this period thousands of refugees fled from this Island to other parts of the Caribbean. Eventually, New Orleans became the final stop for many of these refugees. The mayor’s report of January 18, 1810 published in the Moniteur de la Louisiane shows a chart shows the racial movement of 1809 compared to the population of Orleans Parish in 1806 and 1810 by racial caste. This is important because the influx of Haitian refugees further amplified the division of the already existing caste system in New Orleans among slaves, whites, and free persons of color. This account of the refugee’s racial classification was very important during this time because the three main groups had different ranking in the caste systems, yet played pivotal roles in the development of New Orleans. According to Fiehrer “Saint Domingue took the form of an uneven triangle of power distribution, with the rich and officialdom at the top, the affranchise (free men) at one corner and the modest whites at the other. Excluded, from political participation at least, were the over half-million slaves” [Fiehrer.11].......

Words: 977 - Pages: 4

The American, French, and Haitian Revolutions: Causes and Consequences

... Stephen Moore AC1101673 HS250 World Civilizations II Lesson 3: Assignment 3 15 August 2015 The American, French, and Haitian Revolutions: Causes and Consequences The world in the 18th century was in turmoil. Not so much politically as it was philosophically. For centuries the power of government had rested in inheritance and tradition. The king was king by birth and divine right. People were content to accept their lot. You took what life gave you and did the best you could with what you had, but all that was about to change. Starting around the turn of the 17th century, works by philosophers such as John Locke, Voltaire, David Hume, Emmanual Kant and others began making their way into the libraries of the common people. The ideas about government and its existence were starting to be questioned. The government, the philosophers preached, existed to serve the people, not the other way around. If and when a government fails to be of benefit to its people, then said subjects have the right to abolish the current government. It was this idea, along with the teachings of all men are created equal that would eventually lead to the revolutions that would dominate the end of the 18th century and on into the 19th century. Called the "shot heard around the world" by Ralph Waldo Emerson in his poem “Concord Hymn”, a bullet fired in Concord, Massachusetts in 1775 is credited by many as the official start of the American revolutionary war. In reality,......

Words: 2559 - Pages: 11

Haitian Voodoo

...Myths and Rituals Haitian Voodoo is a complex religion from African descent. This olden religion is weighed by much negative stereotyping, which often link this practice to evil doings and malevolent behaviors. Voodoo embraces the belief of spirits and a direct line of communication through possession and rituals. This religion believes in spiritual intervention on their behalf. Voodoo embodies various religions and its influences to untimely bring together voodoo It combines bits of culture from other African religions, thus making it complex, religions such as Christianity, specifically Christian Catholicism. It can be considered holistic based on the intertwining connection of supernatural and physical heeling. Voodoo believes in many spiritual forces, it consists of one major creator Bondye who does not intervene in any aspect of a person physical of spiritual life. Main worship then passes on to Loas; they differ from saints and angels in which they are not prayed too they are served. Loas are believed to be responsible for different aspects of human such as fertility, youth and beauty. Voodoo has many rituals in order to promote spiritual intrusion, communication and worship. Rituals may include singing and dancing, it involves but is not limited to animal sacrifices, zombification, etc. In this religion there are priests who are as supposedly chosen by dead ancestors. In Haitian Voodoo the practice of zombification is known to be far from folktale to......

Words: 662 - Pages: 3

Haitian Revolution

...The hataina revolution 1700s- the French colony os saint domingue is the most lucrative colony in the world, at this time, more lucrative than the 13 colkonies. It’s slave- produced tropical crops- sugar, rum, cotton, tabacoo and indigo—generated w/ wealth. Near the end of the 18th century, 500,00- 700,000 people maily of western African origin were enslavd by the fench That was until one of the greatest leaders was born (baby cryis) Whats his name? His name is T L … years later On --- an unraise was started (sound of uprise) booko did a ceronmny after he said ----- was the begin of the revolution News speard quickly about the revolution(boat) -out of breath – did you hear about whats going on in Haiti what do you mean no ? the slaves are revolting . They are tired od being mistreated. Hey that gives me an idea may weshould revolt as well (revolt noise) Equipment’s (children laughing) Boy I tell ya aye. Yal children don’t know how good yal have it. A time ago black Caribbean people were not allowed to play and have fun. Fun?> what that is? Work, work , work and more work is more like it. If it wasn’t for that beautiful country called Haiti many countries properly would have still been slaving away like their ancestors. What do mean what I’m talking bout? Come , come, come let me update yinna. Oh hello. I guessing you want me to tell you the story as well. It all started during the 1700’s It’s was during this time that the French colony of saint......

Words: 291 - Pages: 2

Nighteye H7 160W LED Fog Light Bulbs Car Driving Lamp DRL 6500K White High Power | Hamlet (28) | Economics Study Guide - 980 Words