Health and Sports Psychology Review

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By bfmorris
Words 1628
Pages 7
Health and Sports Psychology Literature Review
November 9, 2015

Health and Sports Psychology Literature Review
According to Brown & Mahoney (1984), sports psychology beginnings is in the motor of learning and motor performances. One of first publications in the U. S. was on the way spectators viewed competitive bicycling (Brown & Mahoney, 1984). Sports psychology focuses on the knowledge from kinesiology and psychology. Sports psychology involves all of the psychological aspects that are includes in sports. This includes how psychological aspects affect performance, along with how sports can affect the mind and body. Health and sports psychology identify how psychological factors impact health, as well as the aspects of sports. Sports psychologists can employ shaping and chaining, reinforcement schedules, and one-trial learning techniques in teaching new technical skills among athletes.
Shaping and Chaining Before identifying how shaping and chaining can be employed to teach new technical skills to athletes, sports psychologists have to understand each process of shaping and chaining. If a behavior does not take place, it is not associated with an individual’s performance or listed in the abilities that he or she is able to perform. Shaping can be used to add behaviors that can help athletes perform, effectively and efficiently. Shaping can identify a behavior that is not present yet and work towards the retrieval of that specific behavior. Rules for shaping consist of identifying or analyzing the desired or needed behavior, reinforcing the estimates close to the behavior to work towards building it up, and observing the results. In sports, shaping can help athletes reach their targeted behavior and perspectives, expanding their skills. For example, athletes that struggle with leg strength and confidence can start by…...

Similar Documents

Sport Psychology

...purchasing the newest clothing line might influence the way people perceive us. Hardly a day goes by without sport professionals, psychologists and sport commentators warning us of the dangers of image “psyching your self out” while all the time making sure their own images are presented in line with the appropriate conventions (Forrester, Michael A. 2000). Our thoughts (images) can trigger neural and muscle pattern activity in corresponding parts of the body. As a part of the body is thought about in action, neural activity increases in that location. Perhaps, in some way, neural pathways appropriate for that skilled movement are strengthened.” By this rationale, I have an example on how we could visualize (image) tasks to improve performance by imagery, such as healing an illness or losing weight (Shackell, E. M., & Standing, L. G. 2007). I strongly agree that (images) are triggered in the body to give the person natural patterns on completing an activity. I’m currently a personal trainer part time and use mirrors, visual aids or metal imagery to help assist my clients with attaining their goals. For example: -Diet (imagery pre and post body weight) losing weight. -Proper form and technique while performing exercises. (This will increase neurological pathways to increased skilled movement). -Short and long term cardiovascular goals (preventing potential illness/health risks). I believe that all of these examples have one thing in common; they are all......

Words: 426 - Pages: 2

Psychology and Sports

...The Psychological Effect of Injury Sanjay Arikupurathu Nova Southeastern University Introduction to Psychology Dr. Davis September 24, 2013 An injury can have a variety of impacts on a person’s life. There are many factors that come into play when determining the severity of an injury including, gender, age, and location on the body. An injury to oneself can be heartbreaking and can affect more than your physical state. They affect your mental and emotional well-beings as well, and create a reluctance to perform certain activities if these states become too fragile. If you are not trained mentally to persevere even during the toughest times, you may be forced to abandon the things you love doing. The time you need assistance the most is when you are coping and rehabilitating from an injury. Your support system is what will determine if you can return to full strength from your injury, no matter the severity. For most people, an injury limits only your social activities. But for some, an injury can derail their entire life, and extinguish the things they are most passionate about. When an athlete suffers an injury, it can be a major setback in their career and livelihood. An injury to an athlete truly tests their mental toughness because it affects their ability to cope and rehabilitate as well as return to the field/court. The type of injury can range from something minor such as sprain or a bruise to a crushed bone or torn ligament. The age and type of...

Words: 1220 - Pages: 5

Sports Psychology

...In Psychology there are sever key relationships with the mentality of a performer a sporting performance. One important factor is anxiety. Anxiety according to Weinberg and Gould is “a negative emotional state characterized by nervousness, worry, apprehension and associated w/ activation or arousal of the body” There are two parts to anxiety that cover both the thinking, known as cognitive anxiety and the physical effects known as somatic anxiety. Examples of cognitive anxiety include negative self-talk such as telling yourself that you aren’t good enough, an inability to concentrate on the task at hand and constantly performing well in training but are struggling to translate that into a competitive environment. Somatic examples include sweating, constant need of the toilet, muscle tension, headaches, dry mouth, bad sleeping patterns and feeling ill. This list is not exhaustive. Another view on anxiety can be that of both trait and state anxiety. Sometimes we can refer to anxiety as a stable personality component and sometimes it can be a change in a mood state. State anxiety is defined by Spielberger as “An emotional state characterized by subjective, consciously perceived feelings of apprehension and tension accompanied by or associated with activation or arousal of the autonomic nervous system” Tests can be taken to assess your state anxiety and self-confidence known as the competitive state anxiety inventory (CSAI-2). It measures both cognitive and......

Words: 1369 - Pages: 6

Health Psychology

...HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY Health psychology is defined as the application of psychology to the relevant areas of health, disease and the health care system. Medicine and health psychology have many common themes and interests but they differ in their approaches. The primary focus of medicine is the diagnosis, treatment and cure of illness. The focus of health psychology goes beyond that of medicine to stress the prevention and enhancement of health. It expands the biological framework of medicine to also include psychological and social factors. The scope of health psychology is very broad because many theories and methods of psychology can be applied to health-related issues. Maes & van Elderen (1998) (cited in Gross, 2009) defines health psychology as “…a sub-discipline of psychology which addresses the relationship between psychological processes and behaviour on the one hand and health and illness on the other...”. Health psychology aims to understand, explain, develop and test theories by evaluating the role of psychology and its perspectives as factors affecting illness, predicting unhealthy behaviours and understanding and evaluating the role of psychology in the experience and treatment of illness. It also aims to put theory into practice by promoting healthy behaviour, preventing illness and thereby improving the health care system and health policy. For example, from programmes developed to help people reduce risk factors to their health, such as obesity and...

Words: 4240 - Pages: 17

Health Psychology

...Cultural barriers affecting the mental health of Indigenous people Cultural barriers certainly have a crucial impact in affecting the mental health of Indigenous people. This is evident as Indigenous people tend to have considerably high levels of stress and anxiety in their lives stemming from the consequences of trauma and grief of stolen generation and dispossession which is intricately linked to mental health and disorder (Craven, 2006).This common pattern of loss of culture, land, voice, family and dignity resulted in poor mental wellbeing for many Indigenous generations over the past century (Brown, 2001). However, problems still continue due to the inadequate research in the mental health of indigenous people. This results in mental illnesses being undiagnosed, undetected for Indigenous people, which makes them disadvantaged with from the rest of the population (Vukic, Gregory, Misener & Etowa, 2001). In addition, if they are diagnosed, they are assessed using Western mainstream methods, such as the DSM-IVclassification system, which does not suit their cultural differences and is culturally inappropriate (Craven, 2006).Also, being treated in the mainstream, it is evident that that their treatment will not be from an Indigenous perspective or worldview, and thus their underlying concerns will be ignored and overlooked (Valmae, Stephen, Melissa, Komla, 2007). There needs to be an understanding of Indigenous culture by healthcare professionals in the mainstream......

Words: 1731 - Pages: 7

Psychology and Health

...Psychology and Health Issues Program Review (Obesity) HCA/250 Beatrice Coulombe September 21, 2013 I have chosen to do my report on Obesity. In this paper I will include an introduction to Obesity and its psychology’s part in wellness. I will also include a present psychology training program in my City which trains people on Obesity. I will suggest any involvements to the chosen psychology education/awareness plan, together with building on the plan. The report will also include the identifying psychology wellness problem and explain what individuals/groups are most contaminated. The developmental, gender, and sociocultural elements, together with treatment methods which are out there for folks and groups will be talked about. After that, will be followed an explanation of wellness relevant behavior together with wellness relevant promotion methods. One more important aspect is the influence of lifestyle change which an individual can modify, and what changes in lifestyle requires in order to improve wellness together with avoiding ailment will be dealt with in this report. Obesity means excessive weight or to have too much extra fat. Whenever an individual is obese, they have extra body mass from water, fat, muscle or bone. Obesity is calculated through a body mass index (BMI). It is a listing of weight with regards to height of the body of a human which is used for kids, teenagers, and grownups (WebMD, 2012). An individual who has got a BMI between 25 and 29.9......

Words: 1570 - Pages: 7

Health and Psychology

...The Affects of health and psychology in the work place HCA/250 University OF PHOENIX 8/11/14 The relationship between health and psychology is well known throughout the U.S. More research is being done more than ever before and helping to provide more information on a person view on how they see themselves and overall health should be acknowledged when trying to change or sustain a healthy life. Studies are showing genetics, psychological, and where the person grows up is three main reasons why people become ill. Here is an example that would affect health and psychology in the work place would be what you eat every day. A person who leaves home without eating a healthy breakfast before they arrive at work him/her can become sluggish, moody, not completing the task at work and make others want to distant themselves away from them. Someone who is unable to do well at work due to poor food choices of not eating at all can defiantly jeopardize their health and lose their job. Examples of lifestyle choice that can enhance and prevent illness. The first thing would be to workout everyday this will help you to keep your weigh under control, prevent unwanted illness like diabetes, cancer stroke. Stroke today are a silent killer and you can actually be sleeping and die in your sleep. High blood pressure you can also prevent by eating all the right foods and reading labels looking for foods and drinks low in sodium. Foods that are processed or full of sugars is no good for a......

Words: 510 - Pages: 3

Psychology of Health

...Psychology of Health in the Workplace Psychology of Health in the Workplace To understand the relationship between psychology and health we must first understand what each term means. Psychology can be defined as the science or study of the mind and behavior. (“Webster, 2014) And according to “Webster” (2014) health can be defined as “the overall condition of someone’s body or mind. So how do these two relate? I believe the mind is a very powerful tool and can have a major effect on the body and how one feels. When researched the definition of “health psychology I found this definition, “Health psychology is a specialty area that focuses on how biology, behavior and social factors influence health and illness. (About Education”, 2014) This idea was very interesting to me, the fact that contagious and hereditary illnesses are not the only factors to our overall health. We now have to take into consideration our behavior, lifestyle choices, our surroundings and our mind when thinking about staying healthy. So what are some types of behavior or lifestyle choices that are bad for you? This may seem like a no brainer, but hygiene is a very important habit to create. Washing hands, body and brushing teeth daily help to fight off infectious diseases and help to keep the body strong and healthy. This is especially important when outside the home. At work, at the grocery store or even just pumping gas, germs are all around you. Washing your hands routinely is your best defense......

Words: 599 - Pages: 3

Psychology Critical Review

...A critical review: Chickens prefer beautiful humans by Ghirlanda, Jansson, and Enquist (2002) Ghirlanda, Jansson, and Enquist (2002) used both humans and chickens as participants. With the assumption that similar processes can develop in any nervous system, a comparison of these two species’ preferences to human faces was made, with the aim of determining whether human preferences arise from general properties of the nervous systems, or from face-specific adaptations. However, several methodological issues have been encountered and are discussed below. In their design, they used a set of seven faces as stimuli. These were increasing in femininity, ranging from exaggerated male traits to exaggerated female traits. Figure 1: Set of seven faces as stimuli (Ghirlanda et al., 2002) The experiment consisted of one training period and one testing period. During training, chickens were presented with, on a screen, only the average male and female faces for 10 seconds, or until these were pecked. Hens had to peck male faces, and cocks had to peck female faces in order to be rewarded with food, so the animals were taught to prefer the opposite sex. The training period lasted until the animals learned choice preference for the opposite sex faces, more specifically, when 75% of the total pecks were directed towards the rewarded face. Human participants, on the other hand, did not receive training, but were shown the set of faces, in a random order, once, before the testing......

Words: 1871 - Pages: 8

Psychology Review

...adjusting from my city’s culture to Manila’s culture. Another test that I took, the Rotter’s locus of control scale, explained why I tended to rely on myself than hope that things will get better by itself; I had an internal locus of control. I always knew that I was a very lively and spontaneous person. Having energetic and extrovert friends, I can say my environment affected me a lot in terms of my personality. Although my parents are very serious people, I had not grown up to be the same. Since I am half-Chinese, half-Filipino, I had a sort-of combination between the two cultures. I had a very happy approach to life (Filipino) and tended to show much emphasis on respect (Chinese). I think I have a behavioral approach on psychology because I can honestly say that my upbringing (nurture) affected me more than my heredity (nature) 2. The Nature of the Self I can say that I am a very sociable person. Of course, socializing is essential to learn the roles, culture, and norms of a society. However, apart from being a necessity, I take social interactions as something that is entertaining. Having a high degree of openness, agreeableness, and extraversion, I think I am able to interact with other people quite well. Self-esteem is one’s confidence in his/her worth or abilities. Basically, it is how much a person values himself. While, self-efficacy is one’s......

Words: 2165 - Pages: 9

Psychology and Health Issues Program Review

...Psychology of Health in the Workplace Psychology of Health in the Workplace Kristin Haimowitz HCA/250 January 22, 2012 Wakita R. Bradford Psychology of Health in the Workplace A good attitude can go a long way in making the place where you work a more tolerable place to be. Having a healthy lifestyle can make it easier to deal with the smaller problems that seem to happen on a day to day basis. Health psychology is concerned with understanding how biological, psychological, environmental, and cultural factors are involved in physical health and the prevention of illness. Due to recent advances in psychological, medical, and physiological research, it had lead to new ways of thinking about health and illness. This conceptualization, which has been labeled the biopsychosocial model, views health and illness as the product of a combination of factors including biological characteristics (e.g., genetic predisposition), behavioral factors (e.g., lifestyle, stress, health beliefs, and social conditions (e.g., cultural influences, family relationships, social support) (Marks, 2011). People have developed a field of health psychology that helps people deal with stressors that they are involved with at their workplace. Many experts perform research to help them solidify their findings. Occupational Health Psychology (OHP) has developed from these studies, and does research so that they can better understand the needs of people in their work settings. Also,......

Words: 462 - Pages: 2

Hca 250 Week 9 Psychology and Health Issues Program Review

...HCA 250 Week 9 Psychology and Health Issues Program Review Get Tutorial by Clicking on the link below or Copy Paste Link in Your Browser For More Courses and Exams use this form ( ) Feel Free to Search your Class through Our Product Categories or From Our Search Bar ( ) HCA 250 Week 9 Psychology and Health Issues Program Review Get Tutorial by Clicking on the link below or Copy Paste Link in Your Browser For More Courses and Exams use this form ( ) Feel Free to Search your Class through Our Product Categories or From Our Search Bar ( ) HCA 250 Week 9 Psychology and Health Issues Program Review Get Tutorial by Clicking on the link below or Copy Paste Link in Your Browser For More Courses and Exams use this form ( ) Feel Free to Search your Class through Our Product Categories or From Our Search Bar ( ) HCA 250 Week 9 Psychology and Health Issues Program Review Get Tutorial by Clicking on the link below or Copy Paste Link in Your......

Words: 2278 - Pages: 10

Health and Sports

...Health and Sports for Life Power Point Reports-must be no longer than 10 minutes! Late presentations =10 points off per week late Slides must follow this outline. Name: Date: Time: Sport: 1. Goals and objectives or rules of the sport or physical activity. How is this sport played? How is this activity performed? What does this sport or activity look like? (Use charts, videos, pictures). What equipment is used? Where can you participate in this activity? (20) 2. What are the skill-related (p.69) and health related components of physical fitness required to participate in this sport or activity? (10) DO NOT SAY “Anyone can do it” –this is an automatic zero for this section 3. Injury prevention (10). 4. What are the benefits of participating in this sport/activity in relation to the 6 Dimensions of Wellness in chapter 1? (20) Social Emotional Physical Spiritual Intellectual Environmental 5. What effect does this sport or activity have on the following health related components of fitness? Give a specific example of how each of the following health related components of fitness changes when regularly participating in the sport or activity you are reporting on (20). Cardio-respiratory endurance Muscular strength Muscular endurance ......

Words: 250 - Pages: 1

Sports Psychology

...Roles of a Sports Psychologist The areas sports psychologists teach vary from one person to another depending on their experience and qualifications. Below are the top roles of an applied sports psychologist, a person who helps athletes improve performance via mental training. Help athlete cope with performance fears - Sports psychologists can help athletes overcome their fears. Athletes can suffer from fear of failure, fear of embarrassment, or even anxiety within their performance. Athletes who are perfectionists, or highly dedicated to their sport, tend to be the athletes that worry too much about what other people think about their performance. Help athlete improve mental skills for performance - The most common role for a sports psychologist is to teach mental skills for enhanced performance. They can help athlete improve 3+e confidence in their game, focus on achieving goals and trust in athletic performance. These mental skills not only help athlete improve performance, but also help in other areas of their life. Help athlete mentally prepare for competition - Another common role of a sports psychologist is to help athletes to mentally prepare for not only practice but also competition. Help athlete return after injury - Returning to training after an injury can be tough for an athlete depending on the extent of their injury. A sports psychologist can help injured athletes cope better with the pressures associated with returning to a prior level of......

Words: 326 - Pages: 2

Sports Psychology

...Intro Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and experiences of organism in relation to the environment. Sports psychology is concerned with the psychological foundations, processes, and consequences of the psychological regulation of sport-related activities of one or several persons acting as the subject of the activity. Applied sports and exercise psychology involves the idea of theory and research into the field to those individuals such as coaches, fitness professionals, and athletic trainers about psychological aspects of their sports or activity. The ultimate goal that’s trying to be reached through applied sports and exercise psychology is to facilitate optimal involvement, performance, and enjoyment in sport and exercise. Throughout this literature review I will go into detail on what is it to be a sports psychologist, and what are their major job and the benefits of this practice. Many individuals get their masters or even undergraduate degrees in sports psychology. Today many schools don’t offer this option so you can also get a master’s in clinical psychology if you want to pursue the career of a sports psychologist. By giving detailed descriptions and the goals, steps necessary to take to become a sports psychologist, athletic trainer and many other careers you can get into. I found a few scholarly articles that help explain the ultimate goal of applied sports and exercise psychology. Is applied sports and exercise psychology necessary in enhancing......

Words: 2533 - Pages: 11

Seenda (3) | War & Politics | Thám Tử Lừng Danh Conan chap 793