Health Studies, Early Briton and the Nhs

In: Science

Submitted By snorgate1
Words 1494
Pages 6
The W.H.O. (World Health Organisation) defines health as, “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease infirmity” (1948). This definition stands to this present day, and is the most commonly referred to by health professionals and text books.

Before the 1700’s popular belief of illness and disease would have been the presence of evil spirit or curse interned inside the patient. Trepanning was a method where a hole was drilled into the skull of the patient to let the evil spirits leave the body…………….wies and semmille?????

The biomedical model of health views the body as a machine; if it becomes dysfunctional it can be fixed. The biomedical model which was developed predominantly in Western Europe, between the late 1700’s to the late 1800’s, is based on research and discoveries, using scientific methods. Thus leading to the belief that illness was caused by bacteria, viruses’, genetic predisposition, trauma or degenerative conditions. These could be treated with medication, surgery based firmly on the scientific understanding of the physiology and bio-chemistry of the human body.
This model lead to vast advances in medicine, for example, cures for many of the pre-war diseases such as Typhoid, Tuberculosis and Cholera were developed. However, this definition of health has been criticised for its one dimensional approach as it focuses purely on the physical aspects of the patient and fails to take account of the psychological, social, and environmental factors concerning the individual. The model suggests that the mind cannot influence the body; instead it reacts in an involuntarily manner to prevent the invading pathogens…This implies that the individual is passive and therefore not responsible for one’s own health, it is beyond their control. With this in mind the medical profession maintain…...

Similar Documents

Study on Health Insurance Schemes in India

...STUDY ON PUBLIC SPONSORED HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEMES IN INDIA Abstract The main of this study is to analyse the public sponsored health insurance models in India. The main aim of government sponsored health insurance schemes is to assist the BPL families in catastrophic health expenditure and thereby provide them access to quality health care. This report goes through the working procedure of health insurance schemes, especially Rajiv Aarogyasri (Andhra Pradesh), Vajpayee aarogyasri (Karnataka) and Chief Ministers Comprehensive health insurance scheme (Tamil Nadu) and analyse how far they succeeded in their respective aims. Introduction Health insurance as a measure to uplift the living standard and improve the status of the poor has become popular recently in India. The health care system in India was dominated by private sector, which accounts for about 60% of hospitalisation and 80% of outpatient treatment as per NSSO survey on health care (60th round). This can lead to huge out of pocket expenditure by households on health care. Even though the idea of health insurance was an earlier concept, to use this as a measure to ease the burden on health expenditure by public (especially the poor) became popular from last five-six years, when both central and State governments introduced various publically funded health insurance schemes. This is evident from the fact that there is a steep increase in population covered under insurance from 75 million in 2007 to 302 million......

Words: 4514 - Pages: 19

Health Study Guide

...Public Health PH 100 Study Guide - Exam 4 Chapter 14 At the moment of conception you become genetically male or female Age that fully mature sperm develop-about age 15 Define menarche: Puberty- Females Aging women in their forties and fifties Decline in reproductive hormone production Define Menopause: the decline and eventual cessation of hormone production by the female reproductive system. Define gender identity: recognition of one's gender Define androgynous: Androgyny- blending of both masculine and feminine qualities. Male gonads hang in a sac outside the body because the body cavity is too warm for proper sperm development Conception occurs in the fallopian tubes Chapter 15 The human sexual response patterns- Excitement stage- arousal stage Plateau stage- leveling off of arousal immediately before climax Orgasm stage-neuromuscular tension is released Resolution stage-return of the body to preexcitment stage Differences between men and women during sexual response patterns Women are multiorgasmic Women reach orgasms as quickly as men during masturbation Define bisexuals:attracted to both genders Define transexualism: a person who rejects his or her biological sexuality Celibacy is the self-imposed avoidance of all sexual intercourse Anal Intercourse Greater danger of transmitting HIV than during penis-vaginal intercourse Can be performed by heterosexual......

Words: 733 - Pages: 3

Health Studies who it affects and the impact on health. Include reference to two sources of epidemiological data to support your description. The group I am going to focus is Native American a segment of the population which includes American Indians, Alaska’s indigenous populations, and Native Hawaiians. They are extremely at risk at tobacco smoking .The rate of Tabaco smoking is extremely high in that group than many other cultural groups. According to lung cancer alliance organisation, leading diseases causes of death for Native Americans in 2006 are the disease that are usually caused from smoking such as Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases, lung cancer, heart attack, asthma, kidney cancer, liver cancer and diabetes . When an individual in the community smoke, people around them are also affected because when someone smoke , people near that person can easily pick up smoke as well which may lead to respiratory problem from hailing all that smoke. FIGURE. Lung cancer incidence,* by race/ethnicity and and U.S. census region - c --United States, 1998--200 2. Discuss the influence of cultural traditions and habits within the group that contribute to the health issue. High rate of tobacco......

Words: 1149 - Pages: 5

Leadership in the Nhs patient care is delivered. Throughout a community placement I endeavoured to improve my leadership skills and made use of an action plan to do this. I will make use of Gibbs (1988) reflective cycle to evaluate and reflect on this process. Gibbs is a simple and effective method of reflection and will allow a focus on the event and give a clear structure to the commentary and will also allow an action plan to be formulated to ensure the process is ongoing. Description During a placement with the district nursing team I identified leadership skills which I felt I needed to improve, which were achievable and relevant to nursing practice. I also took into consideration the leadership qualities framework from the NHS institute of innovation and improvement ( NHS institute for innovation and improvement,2005) this highlights a number a important aspects of leadership such as empowering others, collaborating with others and leading change through people. I felt that these were important and the skills which I would develop should be based around these concepts. The skills that were chosen were, coaching, identifying learning needs of colleagues and communication within the multi disciplinary team. I felt that these skills were relevant to nursing practice due to the commitment to lifelong learning which nurses make (NMC,2008) leadership in nursing should have a positive effect on the care given and in discussion with my mentor I concluded that these skills would have......

Words: 2208 - Pages: 9

The Health Nut Case Study

...The Health Nut Case Brief In this situation I would recommend Bregmann and Bury consider declaring bankruptcy. At the outset, it is clear there is not enough cash and the situation is vital and urgent. When you consider that The Health Nut in early January 2006 had $21,000 in bank loans and approximately $25,000 in credit card debt and at the time of purchase from the previous owners the business was purchased for $22,000, it is obvious that there is an overreliance on debt. At the end of the first year when sales were half of what had been projected in the business plan, it is an ominous sign and maybe they should have reevaluated at that point in time due to the gross miscalculation. Gross Margin in 2005 was approximately 40.83% ($46,547/$114,007), in 2004 it was 29.72%, and in 2003 was 24.88%; this shows that over the years more of each dollar of sales is being used to service The Health Nut’s other costs and obligations. The Debt to Equity ratio for 2005 was (0.9) [$49,421/($52,776)]. The company’s negative net worth is troubling because it is indicative that The Health Nut has been losing money for some time. By proactively looking into Chapter 11 bankruptcy, they will be able to do it on their own terms and have better cooperation with the creditors without risking losing their home. Chapter 11 bankruptcies have also been seen as a way of ‘restructuring’ and The Health Nut may be able to continue operating with some help....

Words: 268 - Pages: 2

Mental Health Case Study

...Running head: CASE STUDY LS Mental Health Case Study LS Nicole Castro College of Southern Nevada Division of Nursing Mental Health Nursing Clinical NURS 243C-S10 Micki Lin Mongogna-Alarcon, MA, BSN, RN October 18, 2010 Mental Health Case Study DM Demographic Data: LS is a 44 year-old female of African and Hispanic decent. She was born in California but moved to Las Vegas as a teenager. She stated that she attended Clark High School and went to a “stewardess college” in California. She worked as a stewardess for 4 years and quit in 1986. Her father was African-American and her mother is Hispanic. She has 4 brothers and 2 sisters. She is married and lives with her husband and his son in their private home. She has two children, fathered by her ex-husband, who are now in custody of LS’s mother. Her children were taken away from her, by the court, due to her abuse of drugs and alcohol. LS stated that her father abused alcohol and that all of her brothers and sisters abused drugs and were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. LS stated that she started noticing symptoms of what she thought was depression 6 years ago but was diagnosed with bipolar disorder in 2005. Her chart stated that she has had an 11 year history of bipolar disorder. Presenting Problem: LS stated that she had not been taking her medications for four days because her husband forgot to pick up her medications from the pharmacy. However, her chart stated that she was off of her......

Words: 7435 - Pages: 30

Health Study

...Health Studies Group Presentation Reflective Essay Description We were placed into groups and tasked with planning a presentation on our given lifespan age group which was Adolescents. The presentation was to choose a health issue that we felt was relevant to our age group and then promote that health issue taking into account who it was aimed towards. My group consisted of myself, Charlene, Connie and Sue. We spent some time during class to plan and prepare and then had time outside of college to get together and discuss our presentation. We then had a morning on the day of presentations to finalise our plans. Feelings My initial feelings were of worry, stress and pressure over the amount of time we were allocated during class to prepare. Initially our group was made up of five people to include Louise. However, she left the course shortly after we were set the assignment and this added to my feelings of worry as to whether our presentation would be of a good standard. We didn’t have much class time to prepare as most of my group have outside commitments such as children to think about and prioritise I was concerned we wouldn’t be able to spend much time preparing and that this would affect the quality of our presentation. I had a few concerns over working with a certain group member as she had been involved in an altercation involving race and I didn’t want this issue to affect me directly. Evaluation The good points of my presentation were the fact that we were...

Words: 359 - Pages: 2

Health Insurance Case Study

...Increasing health plan premium costs are a growing burden for the employers who choose to provide health insurance coverage to employees. For small business owners operating on limited budgets, these increases are even more significant. The passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) creates additional responsibilities for employers regarding the minimum requirements and pricing of insurance plans for employees. Employers make difficult decisions to determine how to continue to provide health insurance at a fair and reasonable price, without harming the small business. The case study by Spencer (2014) examines the options of small business owners, John and Liza, faced with a 25% increase in health insurance rates. Once it is determined that the increase is due to the age and health status of several employees, the owner must decide whether to penalize certain employees with increased contributions, or have all workers absorb the added costs equally. In addition, there is concern that hiring a potential new employee, Robert, will increase insurance rates even further due to the pre-existing health condition of his spouse. It is challenging to select an option that has a fair and balanced impact on the company and its employees. While financially it is easiest for the company to have each employee absorb the cost of the premium increase, this is not a fair option if premium increases for all are due to the lifestyle factors of a small representation. There is an increased risk......

Words: 1396 - Pages: 6

Mental Health Case Study

...Case study Daniel Seavey Phoenix University Josh is a 27 year-old male who recently moved back in with his parents after his fiancée was killed by a drunk driver 3 months ago. His fiancée, a beautiful young woman he’d been dating for the past 4 years, was walking across a busy intersection to meet him for lunch one day. He still vividly remembers the horrific scene as the drunk driver ran the red light, plowing down his fiancée right before his eyes. He raced to her side, embracing her crumpled, bloody body as she died in his arms in the middle of the crosswalk. No matter how hard he tries to forget, he frequently finds himself reliving the entire incident as if it was happening all over. Josh has been plagued with nightmares about the accident almost every night. He had to quit his job because his office was located in the building right next to where he was meeting his fiancée for lunch the day she died. The few times he attempted to return to work were unbearable for him. He has since avoided that entire area of town. Normally an outgoing, fun-loving guy, Josh has become increasingly withdrawn, “jumpy”, and irritable since his fiancé’s death. He’s stopped working out, playing his guitar, or playing basketball with his friends – all activities he once really enjoyed. Josh suffers from Post traumatic stress disorder (ptsd) Josh would be better suited with secondary care and Psychotherapy to help talk about the issues he faces and help him find better ways to cope......

Words: 379 - Pages: 2

Nhs Case Study

...National Health Service Case Study 3 National Health Service Case Study 3 Aisha Awhashi 130200137 Latifa BinJarsh 120100068 Sheikha Kharbash 130200138 Aisha Awhashi 130200137 Latifa BinJarsh 120100068 Sheikha Kharbash 130200138 Q1) NHS (National Health Service) has succeeded in encouraging employees to the cultural change through implementing several plans: first, they come up with national programmes which focused on the commitment to improving employees working lives by providing rewards trusts and they are ranked to 3 levels, the gold is (practice plus), which demonstrate that a trust is implementing improving working levels (IWL) across the whole organization in all staff groups. NHS set a goal that is all the organizations are expected to achieve practice plus by demonstrating best practice in a variety of areas, so we can understand from this statement that NHS is trying to motivate the organizations and employees to do their best. Moreover, many improvements that have been implemented as part of IWL are the appointment of a communication manger and schema (plan) to improve attendance at work, because they were facing some problems with the absence. Other initiatives include changing the role of a member of a staff to training and education co-ordinator, for example on of the employee helped another how to read and write, also some plans to develop a support group as part of the induction programme for medical staff.......

Words: 971 - Pages: 4

Global Health Studies

...George Mason University College of Health and Human Services BS COMMUNITY HEALTH—GLOBAL HEALTH 2015-2016 Catalog Year Date_______________ G#__________________________ Student____________________________________________________ Daytime Phone___________________________ E-mail_____________________________________________________________  Pending AP scores  Course recommendations made without copies of transcripts/transfer equivalency worksheet. FALL SEMESTER Fall Course COMM 100 Public Speaking (F,S,#) or COMM 101Interpersonal & Group Interaction ENGH 101 Composition (F,S,#) HIST 100 History of Western Civilization or HIST 101 Foundations of Western Civilization (F,S,#) Natural Science (lab) Fall Course SPRING SEMESTER Credit Grade 3 3 3 Credit Grade 4 GCH 300 Introduction to Public Health Elective 3 3 ENGH 302 Advanced Composition (F,S,#) GCH 310 Health Behavior Theories GCH 332 Health and Disease GCH 360 Health and Environment GCH 335 Applied Health Statistics Fall Course GCH 411 Health Program Planning and Eval GCH 412 Fundamentals of Epidemiology GCH 405 Global Hlth Interv: History and Systems Elective ANTH 381 or PHIL 344 or SOCI 390 or COMM 304 Credit GCH 205 International Health (F,S,#) Natural Science (lab or non-lab) Social Science Information Technology GGS 101 Major World Regions Grade 3 3-4 3 3 3 4 BIOL 124 Hum Anatomy and Physiology I (F,#) or RBHS 270 Hum Anatomy and......

Words: 439 - Pages: 2

Mental/Behavioral Health Case Study

...Jade July 26, 2015 Mental/Behavioral Case Studies My 57-year-old client, Mr. Speed, has recently been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. At this time, he seems to be in the early stage of the disease, and I feel that he would benefit from medication and therapy. He lives with his wife, and both of them are employed full time. He would like to continue working and living life to the fullest. Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia, is a brain disease that progressively destroys thinking skills and memory. Although the cause of this disease is unknown, researchers believe that the accumulation of the protein amyloid in the brain may contribute to its onset. Although most individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease are 65 years of age and older, it is not uncommon to develop the disease at a younger age, like my client, Mr. Speed. Early-onset Alzheimer’s has been known to affect people in their 50’s.Jade Galvan HCS/245 July 26, 2015 Mental/Behavioral Case Studies My 57-year-old client, Mr. Speed, has recently been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. At this time, he seems to be in the early stage of the disease, and I feel that he would benefit from medication and therapy. He lives with his wife, and both of them are employed full time. He would like to continue working and living life to the fullest. Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia, is a brain disease that progressively destroys thinking skills and memory. Although the cause of this......

Words: 322 - Pages: 2

Nhs England

...=The National Health Service (NHS) is a publicly financed organization created by the government to give free or low cost good healthcare to all legal residents of United Kingdom launched in July 1948, a principle that remains at its core. The aim of this essay is to examine the objectives of NHS, how it carries out its services and its external factors. The National Health Services is divided into four geographical regions, which are: * NHS England * NHS Wales * NHS Scotland and * NHS North Ireland. In this essay, my key focus is NHS England. It is a self-governing organization, with close contact to the government. Its main responsibility is to prioritize and set direction of the NHS to improve health care services for people of England. The NHS establishes enabling environment for health care services and staff to ensure highest quality of care through effective utilization of available resources with best outcomes for individuals within communities and society for now and future generations. NHS is structured into different sections to make-work more identifiable to whom to go to when need arises. There is the secretary of state for services (SSS) and the department of health (DH). The SSS is generally responsible of all the work while the DH is in charge of all the social and health care funding of England and the tactical leadership. The mission of NHS is good healthcare should be available to all, regardless of the wealth. With the expectation......

Words: 2539 - Pages: 11

Health Studies

... But while those bullied earlier in life seemed to respond normally to provocation, people bullied for the first time late in puberty are more withdrawn and sensitive to violence. There are also sex differences between those bullied for the first time during puberty, with females more likely to react aggressively when provoked and males are much more likely to turn to alcohol to escape bad situations. Effects of Bullying The effects are likely to be related to the developing stress hormone system, which matures during puberty, he concludes. Studies show abnormal stress responses in adult animals that experience social stress or aggression from other animals during puberty.Episodes of depression are higher in victims and bullies compared to students who were not, serious suicide ideation and attempt. Current Statistics Percentage of students bullied in school by grade level Responses to Student Bullying Depending on the study, researchers have found that teachers intervene in bullying situations between 10% and 20% of the time. According to one survey, 25% of student reported that teachers intervened, but 71% of teachers reported that they intervened all the time. Four Markers of Bullying: Imbalance of power, Intent to harm, Threat of further aggression, Terror. Types of Bullying People subjected to either verbal or physical bullying are known to be at greater risk for developing depression, anxiety disorders or to behave violently. But not everyone reacts in this...

Words: 1334 - Pages: 6

Uop Health Case Study

...University of Phoenix Material Appendix E Part 1: Case Study Read the following case study about Gayle and Patrick. You may also click on Audio: Thinking It Over if you prefer to listen to the case study. After reviewing the case study, answer the questions on below. Gayle and Patrick have been in a monogamous marriage for 7 years. During a medical checkup, Gayle finds that she is HIV positive. Because she has not been sexually active outside her marriage and has never injected drugs, received a blood transfusion, or been hospitalized, she is quite certain that Patrick must have infected her. When she calls the local health clinic to discover if Patrick has been tested for HIV, they tell her that this information is confidential. She does not want to confront Patrick for fear that he may not be infected and she will have to explain her own infection. Audio: Thinking It Over This is a difficult situation for Gayle to find herself in. She has to deal with two very large issues— she's infected with a life-threatening virus and she's living with doubt and fear about her partner. Since she’s quite certain he transmitted the virus to her, he most likely is infected. How did he become infected? In what behavior did he participate that put him at risk, and eventually put her at risk as well? Why didn't he tell her about it? Why didn't he have himself tested to make sure he was HIV-free? Most people in such cases would be angry with their......

Words: 772 - Pages: 4

wizytówka | Marvel's Cloak Dagger | Good Vibes (12)