Human Body Structure

In: Science

Submitted By jecykonza
Words 1548
Pages 7
Ćelija / cellula , ae , f / je najmanja strukturna i funkcionalna jedinica organizma , odvojena ćelijskom membranom od okoline.
PODELA
EUKARIOTE -čovek i PROKARIOTE-bakterije
GRAĐA
EUKARIOTE imaju : 1. MEMBRANU 2. NUKLEUS 3. CITOPLAZMU SA ORGANELAMA

ĆELIJSKE ORGANELE-Su potopljene u citoplazmu tj nukleoplazmu
MEMBRANSKE :Nukleus,Mitohondrije,Golđi aparat,Lizozomi, Peroksizomi , Endoplazmin retikulum
NEMEMBRANSKE :Ribozomi , Centriol ,Nukleolus ,Hromozomi

U citoplazmi mogu da se nalaze i inkluzije:glikogen,lipidi,pigmenti,kristali.
Pored ćelijskih organela / endocitozni i egzocitozni put / postoje i specifični odeljci : - ćelijski korteks - citocentar - bazalni deo - apikalni deo - lateralni deo
- Sve ćelije potiču od : zigota i imaju isti genom , samo se tokom diferencijacije ćelija eksprimiraju različiti geni.
- U zavisnosti od funkcije , ćelije imaju različit oblik i veličinu
- Ćelije istog tipa ne moraju imati iste funkcinalne osobine
Mikrosredina menja karakteristike ćelije
Veličine su od 5 - 150 mikrometara
Većina ćelija je polarizovana

* ĆELIJSKA MEMBRANA
- Predstavlja metabolički aktivan omotač koji odvaja citoplazmu od ekstracelularnog prostora Predstavlja selektivan transportni filter
Poseduje : hormonske , imune i druge receptore
Ima troslojnu organizaciju
STRUKTURA MEMBRANE
Osnovna struktura je : kontinuirani fosfolipidni dvosloj : * fosfatidilholin * fosfatidiletanolamin * fosfatidilserin * sfingomijelin
Prisutni su i : * holesterol koji povećava stabilnost membrane * glikolipidi koji obezbeđuju interakciju ćelije sa spoljnom sredinom
- proteini : integralni i periferni

INTEGRALNI PROTEINI-
Inkorporirani direktno u…...

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