In: Science

Submitted By dchicks
Words 900
Pages 4

Hydrocephalus is an anomaly which origins have been linked to both genetic and environmental factors. Saladin, (2007) has defined hydrocephalus as an abnormal accumulation of central spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain usually as a result of a blockage in the CSF flow and the subsequent reabsorption. The rate of occurrence of hydrocephalus varies by whom is asked; there are not any national registries therefore there is not a data base that can accurately depict a real number of people afflicted with this anomaly. Instances of hydrocephalus are not all associated with genetics, some other factors that have been documented are: congenital malformations, intercerebral hemorrhage, infection and maternal alcohol abuse. Two article will be discussed in the paper; one article is dedicated to genetics while the second article discusses environmental factors that have been associated with hydrocephalus.
Article 1 Genetics of human hydrocephalus
The article discusses that evidence is mounting that genetic factors play a role in the “pathogenesis of hydrocephalus”. Hydrocephalus has two forms; acquired and inherited. There are several documented instanced of genetic involved in hydrocephalus in animals, but the documentation that has been gathered to date is not as substantial in human hydrocephalus. “Hydrocephalus is considered complex and has multifactorial neurological defects.” It is believed that one of the possible causes is related to protein and signal disruption during the early development of the fetal brain. The article covers the documentation obtained on animals and believes that this is an initial phase in human research, but at this time human research has not developed into a significant number of studies. To better understand hydrocephalus and to develop better research tools, a large and diverse research study group will have…...

Similar Documents

Discuss the Use of an Assessment Tool When Caring for a Child and Their Family

...is by examining the skin as this is the easiest organ to view and the examination is non-invasive so therefore should not distress the baby. The skin can be a key indicator of if something is wrong. The nurses and I looked at the colouring, the texture, the nails, and looked closely for any presence of rashes. The skin regulates body temperature (Ross and Wilson 2010) therefore monitoring a baby’s temperature is an important part of caring for a baby. The skin is also the baby’s first stage of protection from infection forming a barrier between its self the outside environment. The head is another important indicator of what is going on within the baby. We examined the fontanel as this can swell or sink to show signs of dehydration or Hydrocephalus. A dry mouth can also be an indication of Dehydration. During birth the baby’s head can change shape due to the sutures in the skull (as seen in the diagram, Nucleusinc 2010) therefore it was important for us as nurses to check the sutures and the overall shape of the head and look for any bruising or swelling caused by trauma to the skull during birth. It was important to observe and record the baby’s activity eg Agitated, Alert, Active as this will forms the baseline for further assessments of the baby and could help identify any neurological abnormalities. The next stage of the physical examination was the eyes. A discolouration of the whites of the eyes could be an early indication of Jaundice and be a warning to start......

Words: 975 - Pages: 4


...Bussiness letter #2 By: Jason Anderson Bussiness Communication Aboriginal Community Development For: Laura Chartrand Due: November 6, 2012 November 2, 2012 Ms. Helen Sklarz Director of Development Spina Bifida & Hydrocephalus Association of Ontario P.O. Box 103, Suite 1006 555 Richmond Street West Toronto, Ontario M5V 3B1 Dear Ms. Kendzierski: Re: School Practicum Position While researching the AFM website, I discovered you are hiring practicum students for the position of Residential Care Worker. I know your facility is highly regarded, and I would be pleased if I were given the opportunity to do my school practicum for your organization during the months of May and June 2013. I am currently enrolled in the Aboriginal Community Development Program at Assiniboine Community College. The program is centered around First Nations and Métis issues, you learn how to refer individuals to appropriate services, assist in solving local problems, and organize activities that promote the Aboriginal way of life. I have been working with Brandon Community Options for the past year. During this time, I have come across many individuals who have been facing many forms of crisis in their lives. I have always managed to provide exceptional support to each and every client in complex situations. I understand this type of employment brings in a lot of stress which I am able to cope with. I am passionate about bringing happiness into other people’s lives......

Words: 282 - Pages: 2

Newborn with Special Considerations

... V. VI. VII. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The term hydrocephalus is derived from the Greek words “hydro” meaning water and “cephalus” meaning head. As the name implies, it is a condition in which the primary characteristic is excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain. I. II. The excessive accumulation of (CSF) cerebrospinal fluid results in an abnormal dilatation of the spaces in the brain called ventricles. This dilatation causes potentially harmful pressure on the tissue of the brain. Types  Hydrocephalus may be congenital or acquired. 1. Congenital hydrocephalus is present at birth, and may be caused be either environmental influence during fetal development or genetic predisposition. 2. Acquired hydrocephalus develops at the time of birth or at some point afterwards. This type can affect individuals of all ages and may be caused by injury or disease. Causes  Hydrocephalus is the result when the flow of CSF is disrupted when your body doesn't absorb it properly. CSF provides a number of important functions, including acting as a cushion for protection and transporting nutrients to the brain.  There are two main causes: a. Obstructive (non-communicating)  This type of hydrocephalus results from an obstruction within the ventricular system of the brain that prevents CSF from flowing or “communicating” within the brain. The most common type is a......

Words: 6588 - Pages: 27

Comments on Central Nervous System and Radiological Anatomy

...Brain tumors. • Enlarged brain cavities (ventricles) in patients with hydrocephalus. • Diseases or malformations of the skull. Contraindications: • Pregnancy • Very young children Risk Factors • Anaphylactic reaction to contrast medium • Malignancy • Varying radiation dose Ultrasound This can be used in children to: • Evaluate hydrocephalus, or an enlargement of the ventricles, a condition that can have a number of causes. • Eetect bleeding within the brain tissue or the ventricles. The latter condition is called intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). • Assess whether there is damage to the white matter brain tissue surrounding the edges of the ventricles, a condition known as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). • Evaluate for congenital abnormalities • Locate the site of an infection or tumour In adults, it can be used to: • Locate and evaluate tumor masses during brain surgery, facilitating their safe removal • Assess the risk of stroke in patients with sickle cell disease • Measure conditions affecting blood flow to and within the brain e.g stenosis and vasospasm Risk Factors: • There are no known risk factors. Magnetic Resonance Imaging This imaging technique is important in the diagnosis of: • Brain tumours • Stroke • Infections • Developmental anomalies • Hydrocephalus — dilatation of fluid spaces within the brain (ventricles) ......

Words: 2300 - Pages: 10

Slit Valves

...Abstract Background and Importance: Arachnoid cysts are common and account for approximately 1% of intracranial mass lesions. Most are congenital, clinically silent, and remain static in size. On occasion, an arachnoid cyst will increase in size over time and produce clinical symptoms due to mass effect or obstructive hydrocephalus. The mechanism of progressive enlargement of arachnoid cysts is controversial. A one-way slit or ball valve is often hypothesized as the mechanism responsible for enlargement. Clinical Presentation: We present four cases of communicating congenital suprasellar prepontine arachnoid cysts in which a slit-valve was identified in the wall of the cyst. All four patients presented with hydrocephalus due to enlargement of the arachnoid cyst. The slit valve was located in the arachnoid wall of each arachnoid cyst and was located in the midline directly over the main trunk of the basilar artery. We believe this slit valve was responsible for the net influx of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the cyst and thus responsible for cyst enlargement over time. We also present one case of an arachnoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa that had a small circular opening in the wall of the cyst but lacked a slit-valve. This cyst did not enlarge and required surgery because of cyst wall rupture and the development of a subdural hygroma with headaches. Conclusion: One-way slit-valves exist and are the mechanism of enlargement of suprasellar prepontine arachnoid......

Words: 3391 - Pages: 14

Premature Infant

...Extremely Low Birth Weight – BW less than 1000 grams Short term complications of Prematurity: NICU based Respiratory Distress PDA Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Late Onset Sepsis Grade III – IV Intraventricular Hemorrhage Necrotizing Enterocolitis Periventricular Leukomalacia ROP Long Term Complications of Prematurity: Outpatient Based Neurodevelopmental Disabilities – impaired cognitive skills, motor deficits, sensory impairments, vision and hearing losses, behavioral problems. Chronic Health Issues – RSV, asthma, feeding intolerance, surgical issues, poor weight gain, small head circumference, Strabismus, Umbilical Hernia, BPD, Apnea of prematurity, SIDS, GER, Anemia of prematurity, amblyopia, CP, Hydrocephalus, Inguinal Hernias Care for the Prematurity Infant: Although most NICU graduates are discharged from the NICU when their adjusted gestational age is near or at term, they differ in their medical needs compared to normal term infants. AAP guidelines state the following in regards to the role of the primary care physician. Communication with the neonatologist and family during the NICU stay. Transfer of medical records to the PCP. This decreases confusion for the parent regarding transfer of care. PCP will determine further management of care in regards to outpatient vs inpatient care. PCP needs to have knowledge of the existing medical problem and the ability to detect new problems......

Words: 739 - Pages: 3

External Ventricular Drains

...External Ventricular Drainage Intracranial pressure refers to the pressure exerted by the brain, blood and cerebrospinal fluid in the skull. The normal range for ICP measurement is 0-15 mmHg. The cerebral perfusion pressure indirectly reflects the adequacy of cerebral blood flow. The CPP is derived by a mathematical calculation subtracting ICP from the mean arterial pressure (MAP). The normal range for adults is approximately 60-100 mmHg or a mean of 80 mmHg. The optimal CPP for a given patient depends on the clinical condition. Clinical conditions that frequently result in an increased ICP are traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, brain tumor, meningitis and hydrocephalus. Increasing ICP causes decrease CPP, impaired autoregulation, hypotension, hypoxemia, cerebral ischemia, hypercarbia, hyperthermia and hypo/hyperglycemia. The goal of care is to prevent the secondary brain injury that results from increased ICP. An EVD (external ventricular drain) may be indicated in these cases. It is considered the most accurate ICP monitor while allowing for drainage of CSF. The procedure to place drain may be performed at the bedside under sterile conditions or in the OR. Nursing Considerations * Obtain pre procedure assessment to provide baseline data including vital signs, LOC, sensation and motor function, cranial nerve function and mental status. * Obtain...

Words: 548 - Pages: 3

Intracranial Pressure (Icp

...CSF volume that is achieved by altering CSF absorption or production and by displacement of CSF into spinal subarachnoid space. Alterations in intracranial blood volume occur through the collapse of cerebral veins and dural sinuses, regional cerebral vasoconstriction or dilation and changes in venous outflow. Tissue brain volume compensates through distention of the dura or compression of brain tissue. The ability to compensate for changes in volume increase continues, the ICP rises and decompensation ultimately occurs, resulting in compression and ischemia. ←ability to compensate limited if vol of CSF↑ and ICP ↑ ❑ There are several known conditions that can raise the intracranial pressure. They include space occupying lesions, hydrocephalus, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracranial infections, severe head injury, and hypoxic or ischemic events. These can lead to what is known as intracranial hypertension (elevated ICP). This may then lead to herniation of the brain, resulting in death of the patient. Cerebral Blood Flow: ❑ Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is the amount of blood in milliliters passing through 100 g of brain tissue in 1 minute. There is a difference in flow between the white and gray matter of the brain. The white matter has slower blood flow and the gray matter has a faster blood flow. The maintenance of blood flow to the brain is critical because the brain requires constant supply of oxygen and glucose. The brain uses 20% of the body’s oxygen and 25%......

Words: 3951 - Pages: 16


...and infections * Brain infections – Abscess, AIDS, malaria, meningitis, rabies, syphilis, tetanus, toxoplasmosis and viral encephalitis * Metabolic disorders – High blood levels of sugar or sodium Low blood levels of sugar, calcium, magnesium or sodium * Other disorders – kidney or liver failure, an underactive parathyroid gland, lack of vitamin B6 in newborns * Inadequate oxygen supply to the brain – cardiac arrest, carbon monoxide poisoning, drowning, near suffocation, vascularise * Structural damage to the brain – brain tumour, head injury, hydrocephalus, Intracranial haemorrhage, stroke * Abnormalities present or occurring at birth – birth defect, hereditary metabolic disorders like Tay-Sachs disease, Injury during birth * Fluid accumulation in the brain (cerebral oedema) – eclampsia, hypertensive Encephalopathy * Exposure to toxins – lead and strychnine * Withdrawal of a drug after heavy use – alcohol, general anesthetics, sedatives ......

Words: 379 - Pages: 2

He Nervous System

...Chapter 8 The Nervous System 1. Terms 1. Encephalitis—The inflammation of the brain or spinal coed tissue largely caused by a virus that enters the CNS when the person experiences a viral disease such as measles or mumps or through the bite of a mosquito or tick. 2. Hydrocephalus—An abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain that causes the ventricles of the brain to dialate, resulting in an increased head circumference in the infant with open fontanel(s); a congenital disorder. 3. Neuralgia—Severe, sharp spasmlike pain tht extends along the course of one or more nerves. 4. Narcolepsy—Uncontrolled, sudden attacks of sleep. 5. Dysphagia—difficult speech. 2. Pathologial Conditions 1. Anencephaly—An absence of the brain and spinal cord at birth, a congenital disorder. 2. Bell’s palsy—A temporary or permanent unilateral weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the face following trauma to the face, and unknown infection, or a tumor pressing on the facial nerve rendering it paralyzed. 3. Carpal tunnel syndrome—A pinching or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel due to inflammation and swelling of the tendons, causing intermittent or continuous pain that is greatest at night. 4. Cerebral concussion—A brief interruption of brain function, usually with a loss of consciousness lasting for a few hours. 5. Cerebral contusion--a small, scattered venous hemorrhage in the brain (or better described as a......

Words: 682 - Pages: 3

Communication Opnion Paper

...the sender will assumed that the receiver has understood the message and this may not be the case. How does the basic elements of effective communication differ from the basic rules of health care communication? The basic element of health care communication differs from effective communication because of the medical terminology use in health care communication. Words that are used during regular communication are not use in health care communication. For example, a patient may have water in his/her brain that is causing complications. When the doctor performs various tests and determines what is going on with the patient, he will tells the patient that he/she has hydrocephalus. After telling the patient the medical name for the diagnosis, the doctor will then explained to the patient the meaning of hydrocephalus which is water in the brain. Health care professionals have to communicate with patients appropriately to make sure communication between the two are effective and both understands each other. How might a provider encourage a reluctant consumer to communicate candidly? Consumers tend to hold very important information about their health from their provider making treatment complicated. Providers must develop a way to effectively communicate with consumers to be able to provide them with the best of care. The biopsychosocial approach is the best method that providers can use to ensure that a reluctant consumer communicate candidly. This approach is enables......

Words: 873 - Pages: 4

Appendix F

...threatening bacterial infection. 2. What structures and functions of the nervous system are affected by meningitis? Meningitis means swelling of three layers of membranes that protect the brain and nerves were the Cerebral fluid is located, collectively they are called the Meninges. the exact layers of are know as the Pia mater, Arachnoid and the Dura mater these are directly under where the bone is in the skull.This means that it can effect brain functions as well as nerves in the spinal cord depending what is causing the meningitis and how long the infection is allowed to persist various functions of the nervous system can be comprimised deafness, epilepsy, there can also be effects on ones ability to think. it can cause hydrocephalus which is an accumulation of water in the creases of the brain which could cause tunnel vision and convulsions. Its a condition that shouldnt be taken lightly but can be treated the treatment depends on whats causing the swelling. 3. What can be done to treat this disease? 4. For bacterial meningitis the treatment requires prompt treatment with intravenous antibiotics and cortisone medications. The doctor may order a broad-spectrum antibiotic until they can determine the exact cause of the meningitis. Infected sinuses or mastoids may also need to be drained. For viral meningitis most cases improve on it’s own within a few weeks. Treatment for mild cases is bed rest, plenty of fluids, over the counter pain medication for relieve...

Words: 811 - Pages: 4

Heart Review

...-which will= =and will= -use what part to listen= Crepitation/ TMJ syndrome= may indcate= TMJ= Causes of tracheal shift=it is maybe to due to * * * * * -is a = -what happens with the trachea= Hyperthyroidism= is the gland is= person is= weight= bowel movement= dieases= eyes= hair= feels= hypothyroidism= is lowers the- loss of- deficiency of- mostly in- person is- weight- feels- dieases- temperal artery should feel= should not be- can lead to if it is- thyroid gland is the must be- palpating for- if there is may indicate- enlargment of the thyroid will appear when.. neck ROM should not - if there is- carotid artery should not.. listen for.. look for.. may indicate.. hydrocephalus is caused by- acromegaly is due to bells palsy is affecting the parkinsons disease is decreses in it is a cushing syndrome is looks like brain attack is causes hashimotos thyroiditis is an mostly occurs in someone with.. mostly in.. fetal alcohlol syndrome is.. happens when.. effects the infants.. unit 4 eyes Myopia is the light rays .. Hyperopia=is the light rays.. Presbyopia =is mostly occurs with.. nystagmus= is weakness in.. infants= what should be seen if not what might it be pregnant= what happens to the eyes why should they not get perscibtions double vision- complication of the.. can also be due to ... burning itching eyes- can be due to.. Floaters=......

Words: 912 - Pages: 4

Spina Bifida

...surgery children with Spina Bifida were better able to walk when compared to children who received surgery shortly after birth. Patients who received Foetal surgery also scored better on test of motor functions within a year after Foetal surgery. They were less likely to need a shunt to drain fluid from the brain which was from a bioresearch study” “Stem cells are being used for treatment of Spina Bifida and it is seeing a life turning improvement which was posted in a press release of 2/3/10”. “A new treatment available today is donated umbilical cord blood stem cells and it is happening in China today as posted to a video of 2010”. “There is a new treatment for Hydrocephalus at Children’s Hospital in Boston. Dr. Warf developed an innovative surgical technique that has successfully decreased death from Hydrocephalus. This operation combines endoscopic third ventral colostomy called ETU which makes a new passageway for the fluid to escape the cavity of the brain, an endoscopes choroid plex vs cauterization called CPL which cauterizes the tissue that makes the fluid, thereby reducing its rate of production. Dr. Warf said this minimally invasive procedure avoids the need for shunts in most children appeared in the foreign press”....

Words: 908 - Pages: 4


...Coarcatation Q25.1 CHD,unspecified Q24.9 CHF I50.0 Dextrocardia Q24.0 DOLeft Ventricle Q20.2 DORV Q20.1 Endocarditis Infective I33.0 Heart Block I45.9 Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Q23.4 Hypoplastic Right Heart Syndrome Q22.6 Infarct I21.9 Kawasaki M30.3 Ligation of PDA Z41.8(5-387) Myocarditis I51.4 MR Q23.3 PDA Q25.0 Pericarditis 131.9 Phlebotomy Z41.8(5-380) Pulmonary Atresia Q25.5 (artery) Rheumatic Carditis I09.9 Rheumatic Fever I00 Rheumatic Heart I09.9 TOF Q21.3 VSD Q21.0 Mitral Stenosis I05.0 Neurology APCD D68.4 Autism F84.0 Bact Meningitis G00.9 Bell’s Palsy G51.0 BFC R56.8 CNSI G96.9 Cerebral Concussion S06.0 Dandy Walker Q03.1 Epilepsy Focal G40.1 General G40.2 GBS G61.0 Hydrancephaly Q04.3 Hydrocephalus G91.9 >Communicating G91.0 >Congenital Q03.9 >Obstructive G91.1 Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy G93.1 Kassabach-Merrit D18.0 Malfunction of Shunt T85.0 Meningocoele Q05.9 Meningoencephalitis G04.9 Myasthenia Gravis G70.0 Myelomeningocoele Q05.4 / HydrocephQ05.4 NEM Q01.1 Psychosomatic F82 Schizencephaly Q04.6 Seizure Disorder R56.0 >Generalized,tonic,clonic,atonic G40.3 >Complex,partial G40.1 >Neonatal Sz P90 Sleep Apnea G47.3 Status Epilepticus G41.9 SSPE A81.1 TBM A17.0+G01 Tuberous Sclerosis Q85.1 Ventriculitis G04.9 Viral Enceph A86...

Words: 695 - Pages: 3

Highway Dragnet | Ben Earl - Meister der Täuschung | Triple Tap