Immanuel Kant Biography

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By trebon76
Words 329
Pages 2
Week 3 Dropbox Assignment

Immanuel Kant was born in Prussia (Germany) in 1724 and was a major contributor to the study of Ethics. He was known as a philosopher and scientist and was also very involved in the study of mathematics, astrophysics, geography and anthropology. He also wrote about metaphysics, morality, science, politics, and free will. However, it was his study of ethics for which he is best known. Kant played a major role in developing the theory of deontology (duty). The deontological theory says people should adhere to their obligations and duties when analyzing an ethical dilemma. In other words, a person will follow his or her obligations to another individual or society because upholding one's duty is what is considered ethically correct. Utilitarianism seeks to maximize happiness and pleasure, regardless of the action taken to reach the desired state of pleasure. Deontology differs from the theory of utilitarianism in that the ends do not always justify the means – meaning there are some actions that are always wrong to engage in, regardless of it producing a positive result. According to deontology, an action should be taken without regard to the outcome or consequences of the action. It assumes that people are rational and decisions should lack emotion and any consideration of the consequences. The goal of deontology is to produce more consistent decisions based on an individual’s sense of obligation to others or society. It seems that deontology relies too heavily on the belief that humans are rational and that a person’s emotions, personal biases, or self-interest not be part of action taken. It makes no room for the gray area in life or consideration for the result of the action taken. It tries to dictate morality while also placing constraints on free will. It seems to be very Puritanical in its rigidity. In addition,…...

Similar Documents


...The Groundwork of Metaphysics of Morals Immanuel Kant’s “Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals”, argues upon the basis of morality introducing the ideals of the categorical imperative as the central concept of moral philosophy. The definition of the categorical imperative leads Kant towards the critique of pure reason arguing that without a goodwill one can’t even be worthy of being happy. Kant introduces goodwill, treating people as means rather than ends and doing the right thing for the right reason. Making a distinction between science and knowledge and eliminating common sense on a route to the philosophical, Kant defines reason as reason a practical faculty to influence will and also being essential to will. Kant argument in the Groundwork focuses upon the basic idea of what makes a good person good. It is the possession of a will that is a way determined by, or makes decision based of moral law. This goodwill is supposed to be the idea of one who only makes decisions that she holds to be morally worthy, taking moral considerations in themselves to be conclusive reasons for guiding her behavior. This sort of disposition or character is something we all highly value. Kant believes we value it without limitation or qualification. Formulated by pure reason, the categorical imperative according to Kant underscores his argument. The value of a good will thus cannot be that it secures certain valuable ends, whether of our own or of others, since there value is......

Words: 597 - Pages: 3

Immanuel Kant

...Eric Melino Professor Ndovie PHI 101 3/7/13 Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher born in 1724 in Königsberg, Prussia. Kant was a solid albeit unspectacular, student. He was brought up in a Pietist household that stressed education that preferred Latin and religious instruction instead of mathematics and science. Kant lived a predictable life. He never married. Kant was a popular teacher and a modestly successful author before starting on his major philosophical works. He studied at the University of Königsberg. He is best known for his work in philosophy of ethics and metaphysics. Immanuel Kant “rejected the empiricists blank slate hypothesis on the grounds that the mind was not simply a passive receptacle of neutral sense data (Palmer 102).” He replaced some of these ideas with categories, which were formal and active features of the mind. Kant’s model of the mind can be broken down into three categories: the mind is complex set of abilities, the functions crucial for mental, knowledge-generating activity, and these functions called synthesis. “Kant held surprisingly strong and not entirely consistent views on the empirical study of the mind. The empirical method for doing psychology that Kant discussed was introspection (Brook).” Kant’s synthesis is broken down into three parts: apprehending in intuition, reproducing in imagination, and recognizing in concepts. Each of these three concepts relates to a different aspect of fundamental duality of......

Words: 635 - Pages: 3

Philosopher - Immanuel Kant

...Immanuel Kant A Famous Philosopher 10/21/2012 Kelley Huttar Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804): Immanuel Kant was a modern day German deontologist from Prussia and became one of history’s most famous Philosophers. A deontologist is someone who believes in acts that are strictly right or wrong. Kant was an influential thinker and one of the last philosophers of the Enlightenment era. However his work in epistemology (the study of knowledge) and theology (the study of religion) are still influential to current philosophers of our time. He was also known for his beliefs in ethics and his knowledge in astronomy. Kant was an independent person, meaning he did not let others influence his way of thought. He created his own moral values and acted alone in his findings and did not look for outside criticism. He believed that other people’s emotions and view towards a subject could impact one’s moral values and behavior. He was admired by his friends for this quality, and because of this he became famous for the concept known as the categorical imperative (Evers). Theory Developed and Its Example: Categorical Imperative: Kant developed a theory on morality that is known as the categorical imperative. This theory implies that one should only act on his or her own morals. Kant believed a person has a duty to be moral in every sense as he believed this was a moral requirement. He also believed that an action one takes must be moral enough for the entire universe to......

Words: 2227 - Pages: 9

Immanuel Kant

...Immanuel Kant was born April 22, 1724 and died February 12, 1804. He lived throughout his life in what we know today as Kaliningrad, Russia. He is a well-known and studied philosophical researcher, lecturer, and writer whose main interests include epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, and logic. After learning of David Hume, Kant began to develop his own ideas of morals and values. Although Kant has many writings one of his greatest pieces is his, “Critique of Pure Reason” (1781). He is also well known for his moral cade, ‘The Categorical imperative’ and ‘Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals, and Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals.’ Knowledge Kant has many theories on knowledge in which are interesting, in my opinion. Kant states that, “In the order of time, therefore, we have no knowledge antecedent to experience, and with experience all of our knowledge begins, but although all of our knowledge gins with experience, it does not follow that it all arises out of experience.” I feel that knowledge and experience are connected but to have pure knowledge there are other sources other than experience. Kant calls these judgments or absolute truths,a priori.According to Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason, “Necessity and universality are sure criteria of a priori knowledge,and areinseparable from one another”. According to, a priori is “knowledge or justification id independent of experience”. For example, saying all......

Words: 872 - Pages: 4

Immanuel Kant

...Immanuel Kant was born April 22, 1724 in Königsberg, East Prussia, and its dominant language was German. Kant was born into an artisan family with modest means. His father was a harness maker, and his mother was the daughter of a harness maker. Kant's family was never destitute, but his father's trade was in decline during Kant's youth and his parents at times had to rely on extended family for financial support. In his youth, Kant was a solid, albeit unspectacular, student. He was brought up in a Pietistic household that emphasized intense religious devotion, personal humility, and interpretation of the Bible. Kant received a stern education that preferred Latin and religious instruction over mathematics and science. Kant attended college at the University of Königsberg, where his early interest in classics was quickly overtaken by philosophy, which all first year students studied and which encompassed mathematics and physics as well as logic, metaphysics, ethics, and natural law. Kant's philosophy professors exposed him to the approach of Christian Wolff. But Kant was also exposed to a range of German and British critics of Wolff, and there were threads of Aristotelian and Pietism represented in the philosophy faculty as well. Kant's favorite teacher was Martin Knutzen, a Pietistic follower who was influenced by Christian Wolff and the British philosopher John Locke. Kant released his first work, Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces in 1747, which......

Words: 489 - Pages: 2


...November 7, 2013 PHI 105 Reading Response #4 Kant In Immanuel Kant’s The Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals, deontological or the right/logical thing to do is laid out through different categorical imperatives. Kant believes logically there is always a right thing to do. There are obligations that must be done without looking at consequences and only looking at that specific moment in time to decide whether or not good motivations are being practiced. I think that acting in the right way at one moment in time is difficult to achieve without looking at consequences, the end result should be taken into account otherwise people could be making vital mistakes in their life. Kant states that every person has a duty and that your responsibilities cannot look at the consequences, you must only act on the right thing to do first. In class we discussed the idea of euthanasia, for example if someone asks you to mercy kill them then technically that would be your new duty, at least in the eyes of Kant. You cannot think whether or not this will ease them of their pain and end their life, this would be looking at the consequences. According to Kant, if someone asks you to do something and you agree to it that is now something you must uphold to. This is clearly an example of not looking at the consequences, but I think the end result should be taken into account here. Living in that moment and performing mercy killing would have a terrible end result, there are so many other......

Words: 599 - Pages: 3

Immanuel Kant and Hume, David

...PhilPapers Bibliography Kant and Hume on Morality First published Wed Mar 26, 2008; substantive revision Sun Aug 12, 2012 The ethics of Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) is often contrasted with that of David Hume (1711–1776). Hume's method of moral philosophy is experimental and empirical; Kant emphasizes the necessity of grounding morality in a priori principles. Hume says that reason is properly a “slave to the passions,” while Kant bases morality in his conception of a reason that is practical in itself. Hume identifies such feelings as benevolence and generosity as proper moral motivations; Kant sees the motive of duty—a motive that Hume usually views as a second best or fall back motive—as uniquely expressing an agent's commitment to morality and thus as conveying a special moral worth to actions. Although there are many points at which Kant's and Hume's ethics stand in opposition to each other, there are also important connections between the two. Kant shared some important assumptions about morality and motivation with Hume, and had, early in his career, been attracted to and influenced by the sentimentalism of Hume and other British moralists. The aim of this essay is not to compare Hume and Kant on all matters ethical. Instead, we examine several key areas of ethics in which we can reasonably see Kant as responding to or influenced by Hume, or in which comparisons between their theories are particularly interesting. There is more here about Kant than Hume but we......

Words: 24372 - Pages: 98


...reason. It is important to note that Kant began a new way of looking at knowledge. He believed that we could know the world through reason in a prior synthetic way. This was a complete change from how the world had been view previously and was known as Kant’s Copernican revolution. In essence Kant believed in two separate worlds of knowledge: noumenal and the phenomenal worlds. The noumenal world is the world as it truly is without being observed. It is fundamentally unknowable because the act of observation changes the very thing that we observe. It is as though human beings have a specific set of spectacles that cannot be taken off and like the proverbial rose tinted ones they change our perception of the world around us. This personalised view of the universe is the phenomenal world. However, what is key to explaining Kant’s moral argument is the fact that reason is the tool that can be used to know the true nature of the universe as it does not and cannot change. Kant’s moral argument focuses on reason, good will, duty and the notion that we ought to strive towards moral perfection. It begins with the claim of two things that have him in awe: the starry heavens above; and the moral law within. This moral law for Kant was universal and objective. An example of this might be seen in the wide scale agreement that murder or torture is wrong. There seems to be agreement across cultures that certain actions are intrinsically wrong. This, for Kant, suggests that there is a......

Words: 2616 - Pages: 11

John Stuart Mill vs. Immanuel Kant

...John Stuart Mill vs. Immanuel Kant The aim of this paper is to clearly depict how John Stuart Mill’s belief to do good for all is more appropriate for our society than Immanuel Kant’s principle that it is better to do what's morally just. I will explain why Mill’s theory served as a better guide to moral behavior and differentiate between the rights and responsibilities of human beings to themselves and society. Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill are philosophers who addressed the issues of morality in terms of how moral customs are formed. Immanuel Kant presented one perspective in The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals that is founded on his belief that the worth of man is inherent in his skill to reason. John Stuart Mill holds another belief as presented in the book, Utilitarianism, which is seemingly conflicting with the thoughts of Kant. What is most unique about the ethics of morality is the idea of responsibilities to particular individuals. According to both Mill and Kant, moral obligations are not fundamentally particularistic because they are rooted in universal moral principles. Both philosophers have made great impacts in their niche areas in the field. An analysis of their theories may help develop a better understanding of them and their theories. Mill holds an empiricist theory while Kant holds a rationalist theory. Kant explains morality through forms that he believes are essential to free and sensible judgment. Mill’s utilitarian approach...

Words: 2175 - Pages: 9


...We tend to make flawed judgements both intentionally and unintentionally in our lives that we later regret and may even come to realization that they were morally incorrect. In order for us to make moral judgments upon our actions, Immanuel Kant provides a guideline for which actions are morally commendable in his text, “Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals”. He believes that an action is morally right when it is motivated by duty alone. Kant introduces the concept of rational beings, in which he defines it as beings with the capacity to act in accordance with the representations of laws or a will (4:412). According to Kant, we are considered to be imperfect rational beings, in which our rational capacities are influenced by various incentives, and therefore, we must be governed by a moral command that will tell us how to act accordingly with the law. In a broad sense, the law is equally valid for all rational beings, and ought to follow is what Kant refers to as the “moral law” (4:227). And the moral command can exist in two forms, either hypothetical or categorical, but only one of which is ideal for the purpose of the moral (4:412). Hypothetical imperative tells us to exercise our wills in respect of our desire for personal ends, and it follows a form: “if you want achieve a goal A, you ought to do B”. For instance, if you want to pass the chemistry exam, then you ought to study for it. Although hypothetical imperative can be universally valid, it cannot be a moral...

Words: 1213 - Pages: 5

Immanuel Kant

...contents: A. COVER REPORT A.1 IdentifiCaTION DATA A.2 LIST OF REFERENCE DOCUMENTS A.3 BASIC DATA B. ConcepT B.1 charaCteristiCS OF THE BUILDING – ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENT CONDITION B.2 EFFECT OF THE EXISTING BUILDING ON THE OVERALL DESIGN B.3 LAYOUT AND OPERATION DESIGN – THE OFFICE BUILDING B.4 architeCtURAL DESIGN B.5 TRAFFIC C. ConcepT – THE OFFICE BUILDING C.1 charaCteristiCS OF THE BUILDING – ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENT CONDITION C.2 EFFECT OF THE EXISTING BUILDING ON THE OVERALL DESIGN C.3 LAOUT AND OPERATION DESIGN – THE OFFICE BUILDING C.4 architeCtURAL DESIGN C.5 TRAFFIC d. ConcepT – THE HOTEL BUILDING C.1 charaCteristiCS OF THE BUILDING – ASSESSMENT OF THE EXISTING CONDITION C.2 EFFECT OF THE EXISTING BUILDING ON THE OVERALL DESIGN C.3 LAOUT AND OPERATION DESIGN – HOTEL C.4 DESIGN C.5 TRAFFIC COVER REPORT 1 IdentifiCATION DATA Project: Location: Cadastre Area: Investor: Design Team: ……………………………. ……………………………. ……………………………. 2 LIST OF REFERENCE DOCUMENTS - elementary consultations with the investor - geodesic survey drawings – the existing condition - maps from IMIP 3 BASIC DATA Building A Area balance Lot area: Built-up area: Greenery: Compacted area: Total rough area of the over-ground floors Total rough area of the underground floors Total built-up space of the over-ground floors Total built-up space of the underground......

Words: 2447 - Pages: 10

Universal Law, Theory of Immanuel Kant

...Universal Law, Theory of Immanuel Kant Kantianism is one of the theories of ethics. The creator of this theory is Immanuel Kant. His central concept was categorical imperative. Universal law of this concept says that you should only act on maxims that you can will to become universal laws. I don’t think that this is a good test for determining what action is morally allowable. This test can be used for many situations, but it doesn’t always work. Each person is very individual, so we can’t say exactly what universal law said. The idea of Kantianism is all about acting on the basis of rules that everyone accepts, but not on the emotions or personal goals. Kant uses Universal law to make the test of those rules. To act only on maxims that you can will to become a universal law is the Universal Law Test. To make the test we have to know the maxim, which is always expressed as a general rule or policy. Maxim is your reason for choosing to act in a given way. Kant’s idea of that test is that if a maxim passes the Universal Law, then this action which passes the test is morally good. For example, if you will say “As a general rule, it is okay to buy sandwiches in school’s buffet because you are hungry”, ok yes, that passes the test. The Universal law said that you can buy sandwiches because everyone will accept that. But if you would say “As a general rule, it is okay to steal sandwiches in school’s buffet because you are hungry”, that would not pass the test. Not everyone......

Words: 1607 - Pages: 7

Immanuel Kant - Biography

...IMMANUEL KANT - BIOGRAPHY Dropbox Assignment #3 By Michael Johnson Darryl Sanborn Business Ethics (MGMT 368) 04/12/06 Michael Johnson Darryl Sanborn Business Ethics (MGMT 368) 04/12/06 IMMANUEL KANT - BIOGRAPHY Immanuel Kant was born in Königsberg, East Prussia in 1724. He attended the Collegium Fridiricianum when he was eight years old. He studied there for eight years. He then went into the University Of Königsberg, where he spent his academic career focusing on philosophy, mathematics and physics. When his father passed away it affected him strongly and he left the university. He earned his living as a private tutor. In 1755 he accepted the help of a friend and resumed his studies at the university. He received his doctorate in 1756. He taught at the university for 15 years, in the beginning his lectures were in the sciences and mathematics arenas. He would eventually also lecture most branches of philosophy. Even though he had a growing reputation as an original thinker, he did not gain tenure at the university until 1770. That is when he received his professorship of logic and metaphysics. [1] He continued writing and lecturing at Königsberg for 27 years. He attracted many students there due to his rationalist and hence, unconventional approach to religious texts. This led to political pressure from the government of Prussia, and in 1792, he was barred from teaching or writing on religious subjects by the King of Prussia, Fredrich......

Words: 855 - Pages: 4

Immanuel Kant and His Contribution to the Study of Business Ethics

...Chong Bland (Linda) Ken Maddox Business Ethics 4/09/2011 Week # 3 Drop box assignment Immanuel Kant and his contribution to the study of business ethics Immanuel Kant focuses mainly on the role of duty.   He believes that actions can be in accord with duty or be from duty.   Duty is defined as an action which we are obligated to perform out of respect for the moral law.   Moral law is practical reason, which is in every rational person, though some people are more aware of it than others.   Moral law is having the knowledge of the difference between good and evil, and an inner conviction that we should do what is good.   The concept of duty includes good will.   Good will is good without qualification; it is good in itself and good through willing alone.   It comes from an instinct within us and cannot be denied.   Good will can be seen in moderation, self-control and sober reflection.   There are things in everyday life that have to do with duty.   We are innately born with the capacity to learn right from wrong.   Every single human being is molded by their parents, teachers, and anyone else who is a part of their life, from there on is how we determine what is good and what is evil.   It is my duty to preserve my life.   This idea works because there are many people there are many people who hate their lives and yet they will still keep their life dear to them.   These people are not doing it for self satisfaction; it is just their duty to live on.   A......

Words: 1263 - Pages: 6

Immanuel Kant

...CONTEMPORARY CONTROVERSIAL ISSUE Immanuel Kant and Euthanasia Euthanasia is defined the painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma. The topic of whether euthanasia is morally or ethical wrong has been argued for decades. In those arguments, philosopher Immanuel Kant’s theories have always been cited. Based on Kant’s Deontology theory, the outcome of an action is not relevant to morality; the only right thing is to do what reason dictates. His categorical imperative states: Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law” (McLachlan, 2009, p70.). Thus as a rational being, man cannot to formulate a maxim to give other’s right to take his life because of he is in a terrible condition. This kind of maxim will not form a universal law thus it should be removed and replaced with a more reasonable maxim. If we will such maxim, we will end in hypothetical imperative not categorical. In addition, Kant explained the practical imperative further in his categorical imperative second formulation: “act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only” (McLachlan, 2009, p73.). Thus, if humanity is an end, no man has the right to take his life even in whatever condition he finds himself Overall, Kant’s theory is very influential in the argument of euthanasia ethical issues. Based on...

Words: 523 - Pages: 3

Baby Shima Floor 88 - Roadblock Hatiku MP3 | Kraazehh | 주간 인기 토렌트