Indian Literature

In: English and Literature

Submitted By patrick143
Words 949
Pages 4
Indian Literature

I. Geographical & Historical Background
India - situated North of the equator - covers on area of 3.28 million square kilometers. - population is 970 million. - 7th largest country in the world in land area.
4 Main Regions 1. Himalayan Mountain Wall 2. Near-level Indo-Gangetic Plain 3. Dessert Region 4. Southern Peninsula
Large Plateaus & Valleys 1. Kashmir 2. Kulu
Himalayas - comprises three almost parallel ranges interspersed with large plateaus & valleys.
Aryan Race - fair-skinned, Sanskrit-speaking, warlike & nomadic.
Dravidians - aborigines of India. - dark-skinned, peaceful& gentle.
Aryans gave: 1. Vedic literature 2. Sanskrit epics 3. Hindu religion 4. Caste system
18th Century - The Modern Period of Indian literature began with the colonization of India by British.

Great Period of Indian Literature (Dynasties) 1. Maurya 2. Gutpa 3. Mughal

II. Religious Works

A. Poetry - the oldest sacred literature of India is found in their four vedas.

Veda - means knowledge, par excellence. - sacred spiritual knowledge. - mass literature w/c grew up in the course of many centuries & was orally handed down from generation to generation.

The Four Vedas
1. Rig-Veda - (c. 1400 B.C.) - known as the Veda of stanzas. - an anthropolgy of 1028 hyms in praise of various gods. - prevailing religion is Hindu Pantheism. - chief object of the worship is Brahma, the ethernal self-existant god. - most notable single poem in this collection is the Creation Hymn.

2. Sama-Veda - Book of Chants(1100 B.C.) - consist principally of liturgies, of which most are repetitious of hymns in the Rig-Veda. - an anthology of the Rig-Veda literature.
3. Yajur-Veda - Prayer Book (1200 B.C.) - liturgical & repetitious of the Rig-Veda but contains many original…...

Similar Documents


...historical periods are reflected in literature. National and tribal sagas, accounts of the origin of the world and of customs, and myths which sometimes carry moral or spiritual messages predominate in the preurban eras. The epics of Homer, dating from the early to middle Iron age, and the great Indian epics of a slightly later period, have more evidence of deliberate literary authorship, surviving like the older myths through oral tradition for long periods before being written down. As a more urban culture developed, academies provided a means of transmission for speculative and philosophical literature in early civilizations, resulting in the prevalence of literature in Ancient China, Ancient India, Persia and Ancient Greece and Rome. Many works of earlier periods, even in narrative form, had a covert moral or didactic purpose, such as the Sanskrit Panchatantra or the Metamorphoses of Ovid. Drama and satire also developed as urban culture provided a larger public audience, and later readership, for literary production. Lyric poetry (as opposed to epic poetry) was often the speciality of courts and aristocratic circles, particularly in East Asia where songs were collected by the Chinese aristocracy as poems, the most notable being the Shijing or Book of Songs. Over a long period, the poetry of popular pre-literate balladry and song interpenetrated and eventually influenced poetry in the literary medium. In ancient China, early literature was primarily focused on......

Words: 590 - Pages: 3


...Christine Dickinson 9 February 2010 Literature in Real Life To be honest, even as a young child, my heart never much gravitated towards my academic education but more so towards the things I could physically wrap my hands around. It was later in life when the idea of certain concepts motivated me to further my actual academic education while continuing the hands on entrepreneurial education I was obtaining from my many years in retail. I have always lacked the over-achiever attitude when it came to my schooling but when it came to an opportunity to advance in a career that had multiple benefits I was more than willing to learn all the in and the outs. Some people are blessed with a head start on their education with parents’ who take the time to teach the sound of each letter and number but that was not the case for me. My father worked outside the home to provide while my mother ran a small nursery business just outside the back door. My brother and I left to learn life by a hands-on approach. We had a few books, nothing overwhelming, but the one I remember most was Mother Goose. This book was my favorite it had oversized pages half the size of me at the age of three, each page with an array of color, but the words were just insignificant marks at the bottom of the page intended for someone else to use. I entered into elementary school with an overwhelming knowledge of animals, trees, flowers and plants yet I struggled to recognize the different letters and......

Words: 1592 - Pages: 7


...Literature Review Topic: Comparative studies of two brands (Sony India & Samsung India - FPTV) In past 5 years Indian Television market has witnessed drastic changes intensity of competition, promotional schemes and deferred payment option. Indian TV market has long moved from Black & White TV’s to color CRT TV’s to LCE TV’s to LED, smart LED and now OLED TV’s. The entrenched position of Indian companies such as Videocon, BPL and Onida have challenged by MNC’s like Samsung, Sony, LG, Sansui etc. The trends and opportunities within the India market predict that by 2012, LCD TV shipments will surpass those of CRT TVs in India. India has the second largest population in the world and an annual GDP growth rate of more than 8 per cent from 2002 to 2012, with a TV market that is projected to be 1.3 crore (13 million) units in 2010. CRT TV accounts for 92.9 per cent of those units in 2010, followed by LCD TV with 6.6 per cent and PDP TV with 0.5 per cent. However, Display Search finds that the India flat panel TV market is just at the beginning of a real growth curve, with Y/Y growth of more than 100 per cent expected for each of the next five years. Growth will be driven by enhanced purchasing power, the digital broadcast (DTH, IPTV, STB cable) transition as well as consumer awareness and affordability of flat panel TVs. India's growing upper middle class is projected to be the greatest source of LCD TV purchasing power. Display search analyses the favorable......

Words: 473 - Pages: 2


...The British Colonization in Indian Introduction East India Company, also known as The Honorable East India Company, British East India Company, was a joint-stock company established by the British. On Dec. 31th, 1600, the company was chartered by the Queen Elizabeth as the Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies (Chaudhuri, 2006). The charter in fact gave East India Company a monopoly right for twelve years. During its rule in India, the company not only owned economic monopoly but also assisted the British to realize military expansion. There will first be a discussion about how East India Company assisted British to realize its military expansion in India. Following that, there will be a discussion on how East India Company works as an economic tool of colonial expansion for Britain. Finally, there will be a discussion on how East India Company finally led to the backwardness of the country as well as disaster of the local people. Military expansion The British colonization in India is actually a military expansion, which not only struck some other foreign colonial powers but also led to the elimination of local rulers (Nicholas, 1992). As a result, the colonization in fact had made a preparation for the later centralization of authority. The French army was defeated in the Seven Years’ War in India. As a result, the French no longer dear to expand its power in India, which also prevented the development of its industrial revolution....

Words: 1670 - Pages: 7


... Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 What is Theory? 1 What is Literature and Does it Matter? 18 Literature and Cultural Studies 42 55 Language, Meaning, and Interpretation Rhetoric, Poetics, and Poetry Narrative 82 94 69 Performative Language Identity, Identification, and the Subject 108 Appendix: Theoretical Schools and Movements 121 References 133 139 Further Reading Index 145 Chapter 1 What is theory? In literary and cultural studies these days there is a lot of talk about theory – not theory of literature, mind you; just plain ‘theory’. To anyone outside the field, this usage must seem very odd. ‘Theory of what?’ you want to ask. It’s surprisingly hard to say. It is not the theory of anything in particular, nor a comprehensive theory of things in general. Sometimes theory seems less an account of anything than an activity – something you do or don’t do. You can be involved with theory; you can teach or study theory; you can hate theory or be afraid of it. None of this, though, helps much to understand what theory is. ‘Theory’, we are told, has radically changed the nature of literary studies, but people who say this do not mean literary theory, the systematic account of the nature of literature and of the methods for analysing it. When people complain that there is too much theory in literary studies these days, they don’t mean too much systematic reflection on the nature of literature or debate about the distinctive qualities of literary language,......

Words: 44695 - Pages: 179


...References for Literature Review (Final) 1. SMEs internationalisation Agndal, Henrik; Chetty, Sylvie. The impact of relationships on changes in internationalisation strategies of SMEs, European Journal of Marketing41. 11/12 (2007): 1449-1474. Etemad, H. and Wright, R.W. (2003), “Internationalization of SMEs: Toward a New Paradigm”, Small Business Economics, 20, 1-4. Ibeh, K.I.N. (2003), ‘Toward a Contingency Framework of Export Entrepreneurship: Conceptualisations and Empirical Evidence’, Small Business Economics, 15 (1), 49-68. Prashantham, S. and Floyd, S.W. (2012), “Routine Microprocesses and Capability Learning in International New Ventures”, Journal of International Business Studies, 43: 544–562.| Reuber, A.R. and Fischer, E. (1997), “The Influence of the Management Team’s International Experience on the Internationalization Behaviors of SMEs”, Journal of International Business Studies, 28 (4), 807-825. Sen, Arup; Haq, Kushnood. Internationalization of SMEs: Opportunities And Limitations In The Age Of Globalization, The International Business & Economics Research Journal9. 5 (May 2010): 135-142. Smolarski, Jan; Kut, Can., The impact of venture capital financing method on SME performance and internationalization, International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal7. 1 (Mar 2011): 39-55. falseZhu, hong; hitt, michael a; tihanyi, laszlo. The internationalization of smes in emerging economies: institutional embeddedness and absorptive capacities, journal of......

Words: 744 - Pages: 3


...1 INDIANS Donna Rose History204 Tami Depasse July 14, 2014 2 “Go West Young Man” (Greeley, H. 1865) and West is where we went. Which marked the beginning of the end of the American Indians way of life. A life that was once peaceful and prosperous for the Sioux Indians was about to change drastically. Throughout history, the Sioux Indians, had to fight physical and emotional battles, in trying to retain their land and dignity. Following a time line, the American Indians were treated unjustly, as I will show starting with the Bozeman Trail and continuing on with The Great Sioux Reservation, Custer’s expedition, Battle of the Little Big Horn, Ghost Dancers, Wounded Knee, Citizenship Act of 1924, The Indian Reorganization Act, and The American Movement(AIM). The terrains were rough, being brutal and forcibly tough, especially for the new settlers who came west, when there was talk of gold. John Jacobs and his partner John...

Words: 3069 - Pages: 13

Literature a student of english language and literature department. i want to join this cite in order to get some views relating to my homeworks. today while i was studying for my research paper about multiculturalism in america, i came across a piece of useful paper on this cite which i have thought i can be helpful for my paper. and i have wanted to read the rest of it. that is why i want to register into the cite. A self-styled "black, lesbian, mother, warrior, poet," writer Audre Lorde dedicated both her life and her creative talent to confronting and addressing the injustices of racism, sexism, and homophobia. Her poetry, and "indeed all of her writing," according to contributor Joan Martin in Black Women Writers (1950-1980): A Critical Evaluation, "rings with passion, sincerity, perception, and depth of feeling." Concerned with modern society's tendency to categorize groups of people, Lorde fought the marginalization of such categories as "lesbian" and "black woman," thereby empowering her readers to react to the prejudice in their own lives. While the widespread critical acclaim bestowed upon Lorde for dealing with lesbian topics made her a target of those opposed to her radical agenda, she continued, undaunted, to express her individuality, refusing to be silenced. As she told interviewer Charles H. Rowell in Callaloo: "My sexuality is part and parcel of who I am, and my poetry comes from the intersection of me and my worlds. . . . [White, arch-conservative senator] Jesse......

Words: 393 - Pages: 2


...Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American author and journalist. His economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, six short story collections, and two non-fiction works. Additional works, including three novels, four short story collections, and three non-fiction works, were published posthumously. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature. Hemingway was raised in Oak Park, Illinois. After high school he reported for a few months for The Kansas City Star, before leaving for the Italian front to enlist with the World War I ambulance drivers. In 1918, he was seriously wounded and returned home. His wartime experiences formed the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms In 1921, he married Hadley Richardson, the first of his four wives. The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent and fell under the influence of the modernist writers and artists of the 1920s "Lost Generation" expatriate community. He published his first novel, The Sun Also Rises, in 1926. After his 1927 divorce from Hadley Richardson, Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer; they divorced after he returned from the Spanish Civil War where he had been a journalist, and after which he...

Words: 694 - Pages: 3


...Indian Distributors Ltd. Prof. Ramesh Behl Indian Distributors Ltd. was originally started as a small trader who used to import goods from third world countries and sell these in India. Slowly, it expanded its business to an ‘Importing House’. It was established about fifty years back and, over the years, has built up a substantial nation-wide selling and distribution organization within India. Its headquarters is in Mumbai, but it has warehouses and Regional Sales Offices in Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Jaipur, Lucknow and Amritsar. Over and above the Regional Sales Officers, it also has Regional Sales Centres in all the major towns of all States of India. Although the business started purely as an importing business, it has created a strong selling and distribution network on the basis of imported product range. The existence of a strong distribution and selling network enabled them to take on distributorships of a wide range of Indian manufacturers. Today, they sell about 50% of indigenous manufactured products, while 50% products continue to be imported from other countries. The imported items of course involve license formalities, and a separate license section has been established (adjacent to the Delhi Regional Sales Office) to deal with these matters. License Section job is also to liaison with customs department and other agencies. Indian Distributors Ltd. markets several range of machines and other household consumable products. The machines range......

Words: 2012 - Pages: 9

Indian Literature

...Objectives: Objectives: At the end of the Discussion, the students will be able to: 1. Understand the Story of Krishna’s birth 2. Identify the Literary Elements of the Story. 3. Discover Indian Culture through their Literature. Read and Learn! Read and Learn! The Birth of Shri Krishna The birth of Krishna is in itself a transcendental phenomenon that generates awe among the Hindus and overwhelms one and all with its supra mundane happenings. Mother Earth, unable to bear the burden of sins committed b y evil kings and rulers, appealed to Brahma, the Creator for help. Brahma prayed to the Supreme Lord Vishnu, who assured him that he would soon be born on earth to annihilate tyrannical forces. One such evil force was Kamsa, the ruler of Mathura (in northern India) and his people were utterly terrified of him. On the day Kamsa's sister Devaki was married off to Vasudeva, an akashvani or voice from the sky was heard prophesying that Devaki's 8th son would be the destroyer of Kamsa. The frightened Kamsa immediately unsheathed his sword to kill his sister but Vasudeva intervened and implored Kamsa to spare his bride, and promised to hand over every new born child to him. Kamsa relented but imprisoned both Devaki and her husband Vasudeva. When Devaki gave birth to her first child, Kamsa came to the prison cell and slaughtered the newborn. In this way, he killed the first six sons of Devaki. Even before her 8th child was born, Devaki and......

Words: 978 - Pages: 4


...kumar Ph.d scholar in public administration, kurukshetra university Narender joon LL.M, Kurukshetra university kurukshetra INTRODUCTION: The most operational irritants to Centre State Relations springs in administrative sphere & they have led to most slanderous accusation against executive functionaries and decision makers. It is an area in which seemingly detailed provisions of the Constitution have not helped much. In the modern administrative age, administration plays a very significant role by way of enforcing the law of promoting socio-economic welfare of the people. The pattern of administrative relationship between the Centre and the State, therefore, assumes a great significance in developing country like India. The Indian Constitution contains more elaborate provisions regarding the administrative relation between the Centre and the States than are to be found in any of the three federation of the U.S.A., Canada and Australia. The Constitution lays down a flexible and permissive and not a rigid scheme of allocation of administrative responsibilities between the Centre and State. The scheme is so designed as to permit all kind of co-operative administrative arrangement between the two levels of Government. It is notable, however, that though legislative and judicial power is defined by the Constitution, this is not the case with the executive in our Constitution. Some Constitutional experts like Wade & Philips, try to define executive functions......

Words: 4462 - Pages: 18


...that motivation comes from the teacher in the classroom. Of course, motivation may be stimulated by home and may be influenced by peers, but the teacher is the main actor influencing a student's development of reading motivation. What can a teacher do? We offer six motivation practices that teachers can implement daily in the classroom. These practices can be brought into every lesson and directed to every student. Teachers do not have to wait for motivation to come from the outside. They can make it happen any time they want to implement one of these six practices. Research undergirds the impact of these practices on students becoming avid readers and on students becoming achieving readers. We provide examples of these practices from the literature and from our own experiences in our research and teaching. Motivations to read—interest, confidence, dedication Interest When we think of motivation our mind first turns to interest. Motivation is enjoying a book, being excited about an author, or being delighted by new information. Researchers refer to interest as intrinsic motivation. meaning something we do for its own sake. On a rainy day, we might rather read our favorite mystery than do anything else. We are not trying to get a reward when falling into a novel. Motivation also brings to mind the reward for success. Who doesn't like to win a trinket for hitting the target with a dart at the State Fair? Who doesn't want to earn serious money for working hard in a career?......

Words: 11116 - Pages: 45


...Before the Mycenaeans arrived in the region, earlier "Greek" cultures worshipped ancient fertility goddesses probably related to Ishtar, Aphrodite, even Athena and Hera, and appear to have lived a rather peaceable, agricultural lifestyle (we assume this because archeological digs show these pre-Mycenaean people lived without military weapons or fortifications...until they were invaded by the Mycanaeans). In contrast to "the locals", the Greek legends we read celebrate war; this is the literature of military conquerors, so the Mycenaean people had as much in common with, say, the later Vikings as with the later philosophical, "civilized" Greeks: this is a culture of raiders, of looters and pillagers. From this perspective, The Iliad is a work of military propaganda that justifies Mycenaen control of the most valuable sea passage of age (the Bosporus), and The Odyssey justifies colonizing Italy and Sicily to the West. So, like the Hebrew scriptures -- or our own "Westerns" (cowboys/us vs. Indians/them) -- these Greek legends justify the invasion and domination of earlier "native" inhabitants. These Ancient (and even Classical) Greeks are best viewed as a culture rather than as a unified people or "nation". When we speak of "the Ancient Greeks" it's the same way we view “Western Culture” as referring to Europe, Britain, the USA, Canada, Australia. Achilles is a king in his own right, as is Odysseus, Menaleaus, Agamemnon etc., and Achilles goes to great lengths to......

Words: 7102 - Pages: 29


...The Mohawk Indians are a group of Native Americans indigenous to what is now New York, the Mohawks Is one of many of the remaining native tribes in the United States. The Mohawks are a farming culture known for their great battle skills and the organization of their political groups. The tribe gained their name which means “man eaters” from tribal enemies and Europeans . The tribe is a part of the original Iroquois Indian league were they shared the same culture and language. The Mohawks are notable for their longhouse dwellings, excellent craftsmanship, tribal music and storytelling (which is still a vital part of tribal life today). The Mohawk Indians are a group of Native Americans indigenous to what is now New York, the Mohawks Is one of many of the remaining native tribes in the United States. The Mohawks are a farming culture known for their great battle skills and the organization of their political groups. The tribe gained their name which means “man eaters” from tribal enemies. The tribe is a part of the original Iroquois Indian league were they shared the same culture and language. The Mohawks are notable for their longhouse dwellings, excellent craftsmanship, tribal music and storytelling (which is still a vital part of tribal life today). Religion The Mohawk people had their own religion were they worshiped the creator and the belief that all living things had a spirit which they honored and protected , the Mohawk people had......

Words: 415 - Pages: 2

Tirage de tête signé Lupano : L'homme qui n'aimait pas les armes à feu 4 TBE | Watch Now | Watch movie