Individual Theories

In: Other Topics

Submitted By anneke2327
Words 1134
Pages 5
Individual Theories

Anna Braaf-Dore

CJS/240

May 22, 2016

Amy Griner

Individual Theories

Specific deterrence focuses on the individual in question. The aim of these punishments is to discourage the criminal from future criminal acts by instilling an understanding of the consequences. General or indirect deterrence focuses on general prevention of crime by making examples of specific deviants. The individual actor is not the focus of the attempt at behavioral change, but rather receives punishment in public view in order to deter other individuals from deviance in the future. Proponents argue that the death penalty is a "general deterrence" to the acts for which the death penalty may be imposed, e.g. first degree homicide. The belief is that if we live in a society where the publicity and common knowledge of the death penalty being the consequence of certain crimes then this will deter others from committing those crimes in the future. By definition, the death penalty cannot be a specific deference. This would require the criminal to be alive in order to be deferred from committing the act again in the future. If the death penalty is imposed, this is an impossibility; he's already dead. Situational Crime Prevention Situational Crime Prevention' (SCP) is the name given by criminologists to crime prevention strategies that are aimed at reducing the criminal opportunities which arise from the routines of everyday life. Such strategies include 'hardening' of potential targets, improving surveillance of areas that might attract crime (e.g. closed-circuit television surveillance), and deflecting potential offenders from settings in which crimes might occur (e.g., by limiting access of such persons to shopping malls and other locales). Juvenile delinquency is still one of the biggest issues of our society. The immediate…...

Similar Documents

Individual Theories

...Individual Theories Stacey Simmons University of Phoenix July 29, 2012 History has proved over time that there are two types of young adults in the world, those who make the decision to be successful and those with the “I don’t care attitude “and intrigue with the life of criminal behavior. The reasons that young adults make the choices that they do vary greatly in difference. Three of the reasons mentioned by young adults as to why they choose the bad road involves having a horrible younger life, peer pressure and even the excuse of boredom. We have young adults who choose to entertain criminal behavior therefore, we must also have in turn a system that can be measured in the deterrence of criminal behavior among youth. Our current system does not seem to be as effective in improving this rising problem. To effectively be able to deter some of this criminal activity in youth, we need to gather information on why a youth chooses to be involved in this type of behavior, and there are many theories to this question. One of those theories is labeled as the Genetic Theory. The genetic theory states that criminal behavior is inherited just as hair color or eye color is. It is theorized that embedded in these offenders is a genetic code that causes them to make certain decisions and be involved in criminal behavior. This theory also states that anyone can look at a child’s parents and determine whether or not the child is going to be an offender. ...

Words: 777 - Pages: 4

Theory

...Theory “Adlerian Psychology focuses on people's efforts to compensate for their self-perceived inferiority to others. These feelings of inferiority may derive from one's position in the family constellation, particularly if early experiences of humiliation occurred; a specific physical condition or defect existed; or a general lack of social feeling for others was present (Adler, n.d.)”. These feelings in society guide the professional behavior that makes up the theory of criminal justice is a crucial part of criminal justice system, and the ethics that make up moral principles of right and wrong, administration that distributes burden and stresses common good in our legal system. We are, faced with ethical issues every day and must deal with components that make up our involved system in a professional manner. The administration of criminal justice, especially the policing of society and individual rights requires professional behavior in certain situations and may often for those on the outside looking in to find it difficult to handle. The criminal justice system has obligations of making moral judgments of what is right or wrong and must be done professionally and with the use of critical thinking. Because law enforcement its successes and failures are often judged by society vise right and wrong the system is under great scrutiny even from those that manage the system, and understand the stresses involved. The relationship between theories, and how they are......

Words: 1462 - Pages: 6

Theory

...Application ORIGINAL XXX 1541-5147 ARTICLES International of Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory and Standardized Nursing Languages in a Case Study of a Woman With Diabetes IJNT Malden, USAJournal Inc Blackwell Publishing of Nursing Terminologies and Classifications Application of Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory and Standardized Nursing Languages in a Case Study of a Woman with Diabetes This paper aims to illustrate the process Coleen P. Kumar, RN, MSN, CNS, is Assistant Professor of Nursing, Kingsborough Community College, Brooklyn, New York. Introduction As the average lifespan is extended, more individuals are coping with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, which has reached epidemic proportions with more than 20 million people in the United States having this diagnosis (Gordois, Scuffham, Shearer, Oglesby, & Tobian, 2003). The American Diabetes Association (ADA) estimates that a million people will be diagnosed of diabetes every year (2004). Long-term complications of diabetes are costly to both the individual and the healthcare system. Over the past decade, diabetes research has focused on pharmacological approaches and lifestyle interventions to the illness (Odegard, Setter, & Iltz, 2006). Recent evidence in the forum of diabetes care revealed a need for healthcare professionals to assess and empower individuals in the self-management of this illness. For the purposes of this case study, health assessment by nurses was defined by Fuller and Schaller-Ayers (2000) as a......

Words: 5056 - Pages: 21

Theory

...I. What is a concept? a. A building block of a theory, can be a few of them, b. abstract ideas that cannot be visualized. Such as pain or coping or social support. You can have an idea in your mind of what these are but you cant actually touch any of these. Can you touch social support? You can probably touch a part of your body that may feel some sense of pain but the actual concept itself cannot be touched. c. Tend to be universal which means they apply equally to everything related. d. Concepts tend to be the basic elements of propositions (or statements that result from reason). If you remember geometry they had the proposition they had the “if A equaled B and B equaled C.Does A equal C.” That is the idea of what propositions are and they take concepts and build on them to create these statements to help define whatever we are discussing such as theory, research study. e. Help to integrate unrelated phenomena into a hypothesis which creates research. Critical to have very defined concepts and the concepts needed to be created into hypothesis so that you had something to study. That is critical when we discuss concepts and research i. Phenomenon is any even that can be experiences via senses, it is observable and can be seen. ii. Proposition: closed sentence or statement 1. Like geometry: If A=B and B=C, then A=C 2. Tend to be true or false 3. Content of beliefs and or......

Words: 998 - Pages: 4

Individual Theories

...Individual Theories CJS/240 10/06/2014 Juvenile delinquency is one of the largest issues dealt with in our society today. The immediate assumption to this issue is that individuals lacking a good lifestyle and low social class are more likely to commit any type of crime. But then there are those individuals with the same life situation who are law-abiding citizen, and sometimes end up obtaining a college degree. There are also those individuals who come from an established household with good parenting and a proper upbringing who commit crimes. The question is why do some juveniles commit crime while others who are in the same situation do not? Many experts believe the answer to juvenile misbehavior is on the individual itself, and not the social or economic level. Considering this, there are two different major theories about juvenile crime. Psychodynamic theory places it emphasis on the notion that one of the main causes of juvenile delinquency is children’s abnormal personalities that were created and developed in earlier life. This psychodynamic approach states that traumatic experiences during early childhood can prevent the ego and superego from developing properly, therefore leaving the Id with greater power (Palmerin, n.d.). The Specific deterrence theory refers to the effect that punishing one wrongdoer has on preventing others from committing offenses in the future. To determine the effect one has to ask what most individuals will believe will happen......

Words: 854 - Pages: 4

Ops 571 Individual Assignment Apply the Learning Curve Theory Part 2 2

...This file OPS 571 Individual Assignment Apply the Learning Curve Theory Part 2 2 includes overview of the following parts: 1. Process Performance Data Initial Report (1st Day) Scenario 0 Process of Waiting Line for Customer Capacity Report Costs Formula for Usage, 2. New Simulation Process Scenario 1 (Week 1-2) Changed process has following Configuration: 3. Impact of new configuration on business of Pizza Scenario 2 (Week 3-4) Capacity Report 4. Process of Waiting Line for Customer Scenario 3 (Week 5-6) Capacity Report 5. Scenario 4 (Week 7-8) Process of Waiting Line for Customer Capacity Report Costs 6. Week 7-8 Capacity Report Customers Costs Business - General Business 1.  Individual Assignment: Apply the Learning Curve Theory ·  Review the Pizza Store Layout simulation. During your review, examine the process in this simulation. Play it at least twice, and pay attention to the learning curve. Do not worry about the statistical control in this assignment. ·  Submit five to ten points of process performance data for the performance metrics identified in the Pizza Store Layout simulation. ·  Write a paper of at least 700 words in which you consider an alternative to the process. How might you apply the learning curve concepts to test the alternative against the......

Words: 333 - Pages: 2

Individual

...that … or Recent reports (Napier 1993a, 1993b) indicate that … Note: When using two studies by the same author in different years, paraphrasing is essential. Place in chronological order—oldest first. Ideas by Napier (1993b) were implemented … Note: You may use direct quotes when using the sources separately. Add a, b, c, etc. to differentiate between works in the same year by using the alphabetical order of the title. A. Carter (1999) proposed that class size seriously limited creativity in the lower school. Further investigation proved there were notable weaknesses in this claim (Carter, T 1999). Note: As a general rule, it is advisable to paraphrase in this instance. Group dynamics has been identified as … (Johnston 1993). Or A recent theory (Johnston 1993:5) on group dynamics states that ‘…’. Bradford (1992), Curtis (1983), and Graham (1997) all agree … Or Recent studies (Bradford 1992; Curtis 1983; Graham 1997) agree that … Brown, P., 1982, Corals in the Capricorn group, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton. Brown, P., 1988, The effects of anchors on corals,Central Queensland University, Rockhampton. Napier, A., 1993a, Fatal storm, Allen & Unwin, Sydney. Napier, A., 1993b, Survival at sea, Allen & Unwin, Sydney. Works by different authors— same family name—same year Carter, A., 1999, Issues in Australian education, Cherokee Publications, Brisbane. Carter, T., 1999, Creativity in the classroom, Watkins & O’Hara Publishers, Darwin. Second or later edition......

Words: 4032 - Pages: 17

M2 – Discuss Two Major Theories of Ageing in Relation to the Development of the Individual

...Unit 4 Developing through life stages - Health and social care level 3 M2 – Discuss two major theories of ageing in relation to the development of the individual In this assignment I will be discussing two major theories of ageing; I will be referencing this information from a previous assignment. I believe that my mother will disengage from the community as she gets older. As my mother gets older her health will deteriorate even more, and she already struggles to leave the house by herself now. My mother health has had a big effect on her personality, I can see my mother giving up now and she’s only 47. It’s a big worry that she won’t bother to try to become part of the community and totally distance herself from her surroundings. I believe that my mother will move out into the countryside when I leave home. This only worries me more as if she moves out into the countryside she really will be secluded, as she will be surrounded by fields not people. If my mother does decide to do this she will be leaving what remains of the family behind, the visits would decrease over time as it just take too long to get there and no one has that amount of time to spend travelling. It would very hard for my mother to travel to far places as she may get dizzy and it may be painful for her to sit for a long period of time due to ageing. Therefore, this will affect him from socializing with other people. My mother has not been able to work for a while now due to her......

Words: 602 - Pages: 3

Unit 1 - Individual Project - Introduction to Macroeconomic Theory

...Unit 1 - Individual Project - Introduction to Macroeconomic Theory Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/unit-1-individual-project-introduction-macroeconomic-theory/ Assignment Details Assignment Description Weekly tasks or assignments (Individual or Group Projects) will be due by Monday and late submissions will be assigned a late penalty in accordance with the late penalty policy found in the syllabus. NOTE: All submission posting times are based on midnight Central Time. In economics, they say a picture is worth a thousand words. Below, you will find two scenarios. Your assignment is to discuss the situation by writing the solutions, and then show the solutions and how you got here in one or more graphs or flowcharts. Scenario One Supply and demand are foundational concepts in understanding economic theory. Whether you are a coffee drinker or not, you have been tasked to examine the impact of supply and demand when dealing with the coffee retail industry. A few companies probably come to mind. Pick a major coffee retailer, and then contemplate what has been happening to both the supply and demand for this product. Next, analyze the following scenario that deals with what happened in the coffee industry at the beginning of the last decade: In the early part of the last decade, there was an overproduction of coffee. The price dropped so low that producers' costs were higher than the market price. The reason this happened was that market......

Words: 4383 - Pages: 18

Theory of Theory

...Modern Times and Marxist Criticism Marxist Criticism revolves around the theories and ideologies of Karl Marx. While his work is still commonly studied and referenced, I have found some of his principles to be outdated. Marx lived from 1818 until 1883, so, his principles are based on what was going on during his lifetime. In nearly two hundred years, some ideologies of Marxist Criticism don’t fit the social norm as well as they did in his time. Ideologies such as religion, consumerism, and rugged individualism have grown with society and don’t have the same effect as they once did. In Marxist Criticism you will find one of Marx’s ideologies to be religion. Religion is an ideology that helps to keep the poor satisfied with their lot in life, or at least tolerant of it, as a tranquilizer might do. (Tyson, 59) With religion being a major part of many people’s life in the 1800’s his view on its role in society as the “opiate of the masses” is different now that it is the twenty-first century than it was during the nineteenth century. In centuries prior religion would include the conviction that the poor, if they remain nonviolent, will find their reward in heaven. (Tyson, 59) While that ideology was extremely relevant in Marx’s time, religion today isn’t a requirement, it isn’t expected thus making it outdated. While religion is still widespread, it has become common to not be religious at all. A growing number of people are identifying as Atheist or Agnostic, choosing......

Words: 1098 - Pages: 5

Individual Theories

...Individual Theories By: Eleanore Krzeminski CJS/240 Michelle Wilson Eleanore Krzeminski When dealing with the adolescents we must think about how the life in which they have grown up with has in fact affected them in any way. Some adolescents have lived abusive lives with only one parent. Some of the younger children have been in situations that one would never dream of. There are many different reasons why some adolescents choose to commit crimes and why some of them choose to live the life that is not full of crimes. Even though most have been in similar circumstances each still have the choice of life. We often think of those who commit crimes as a person who makes stupid choices. However, one must sit down and think about all perspectives that an adolescent has had to deal with in a lifetime. There are three theories that result in criminal behavior. In this paper I will discuss the following theories; behavioral, neurological and psychodynamic. The behavioral theory is a sense of individuals who in fact learn by observing how other people react to their behaviors. This could be due to past experiences that the adolescents have had to deal with and overcome. Also, living a life where rewards and punishments were a big deal in the household. For example we reward our children if they eat all of their dinner we choose to give them desert. This is a reward in which is deserved when doing what was told to do. However if the food is not gone the child makes that......

Words: 599 - Pages: 3

Unit 1 - Individual Project - Introduction to Macroeconomic Theory

...Unit 1 - Individual Project - Introduction to Macroeconomic Theory Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/unit-1-individual-project-introduction-macroeconomic-theory/ Assignment Details Assignment Description Weekly tasks or assignments (Individual or Group Projects) will be due by Monday and late submissions will be assigned a late penalty in accordance with the late penalty policy found in the syllabus. NOTE: All submission posting times are based on midnight Central Time. In economics, they say a picture is worth a thousand words. Below, you will find two scenarios. Your assignment is to discuss the situation by writing the solutions, and then show the solutions and how you got here in one or more graphs or flowcharts. Scenario One Supply and demand are foundational concepts in understanding economic theory. Whether you are a coffee drinker or not, you have been tasked to examine the impact of supply and demand when dealing with the coffee retail industry. A few companies probably come to mind. Pick a major coffee retailer, and then contemplate what has been happening to both the supply and demand for this product. Next, analyze the following scenario that deals with what happened in the coffee industry at the beginning of the last decade: In the early part of the last decade, there was an overproduction of coffee. The price dropped so low that producers' costs were higher than the market price. The reason this happened was that market......

Words: 4383 - Pages: 18

Individual Theories

...Individual Theories CJS/240 December 3, 2011 Asharian Moore Individual Theories In today’s society, we have two types of juveniles that re being brought up in this world, the ones who make wise decisions and the others who have and I do not care attitude. The ones who make wise decisions want to be successful and an up right citizen of society while the other ones are complete opposite and would rather spend his or her time planning crimes. There are many reasons why juveniles make the decisions they do and it varies from boredom, their upbringing, and the groups they have chosen to hang out among, these groups may peer pressure one into committing a crime, while other groups are busy studying and getting ready for their futures. We as society have to figure out why these groups of juveniles decide to make the wrong decision and become involved in petty crimes. We need to gather information on why juveniles choose to involve themselves in criminal activities; there are many theories to this question. One of these theories is Biochemical; this can govern an individual’s behavior and personality, “including levels of aggression and depression” (Siegel and Welsh, 2009, p. 81). Biochemical can happen from the time the individual is conceived if their mother has taken harmful substances while being pregnant. While the mother has been using harmful substances she has also damaged her baby, this can lead to antisocial behavior in juveniles. An individual may even have......

Words: 769 - Pages: 4

Analytical & Individual Theory

...Analytical Theory & Individual Theory Amanda Unruh PSY 405 August 6, 2012   When people hear the term “psychology”, most of them probably think of Sigmund Freud, who was the founder of the psychodynamic approach to psychology. The psychodynamic approach is still widely used today to understand relationships between people, the interaction of drives and forces inside a person (especially the unconscious), and distinguish the different structures of the human personality. Karen Horney developed the Psychoanalytical Social Theory and Alfred Adler developed the Individual Theory, which are two theories that have proved to be interesting from the readings. (NNDB, 2012) Alfred Adler was an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist who was known for being the creator of Individual Psychology. He believed that the patient must be treated as a “whole person” where he emphasizes how individuals tried to combine feelings, thoughts, attitudes, values, and actions to accomplish their goals. His theory indicates that man’s main thoughts and behaviors are a result of his determination for superiority and power, which can be compensating for any feelings of inferiority (individual psychology, 2012). (NNDB, 2012) Adler’s theory based personality off of the order of birth, gender, and the age gap among siblings. He believed that individuals come up with a childhood story about themself that leads their views and choices throughout life, and being able to cooperate with other people......

Words: 1035 - Pages: 5

Theories

...the Hypodermic Needle Theory and Uses and Gratification Theory. Hypodermic Needle Theory The "hypodermic needle theory" implied mass media had a direct, immediate and powerful effect on its audiences. The mass media in the 1940s and 1950s were perceived as a powerful influence on behavior change. The theory suggests that the mass media could influence a very large group of people directly and uniformly by ‘shooting’ or ‘injecting’ them with appropriate messages designed to trigger a desired response. Several factors contributed to this "strong effects" theory of communication, including: - the fast rise and popularization of radio and television - the emergence of the persuasion industries, such as advertising and propaganda - the Payne Fund studies of the 1930s, which focused on the impact of motion pictures on children, and - Hitler's monopolization of the mass media during WWII to unify the German public behind the Nazi party Uses and Gratification Theory explaining of media use Originated in the 1970s as a reaction to traditional mass communication research emphasizing the sender and the message. Stressing the active audience and user instead. Psychological orientation taking needs, motives and gratifications of media users as the main point of departure. Uses and gratification theory assumes an active audience, which chooses the text it consumes and where individuals have reasons for consuming these texts. Uses and gratifications theory attempts to......

Words: 359 - Pages: 2

Futurama.La.Bestia.Con.Un.Miliardo.Di.Schiene.2008.iTALiAN.DVDRip.XviD-Republic | Hot Sale Solid Blink Fitted Ladies Black Dress | The Young Victoria