In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By supermact
Words 12416
Pages 50
1.1. Общие понятия о информационно-вычислительных системах
В основе любой научно-технической, биологической и социальной системы управления и функционирования, а тем более в основе систем вычислительной техники, лежат информационные процессы, связанные со сбором и обработкой информации, ее передачей, хранением, распределением, отображением, регистрацией, считыванием и т.д. Информация - понятие очень емкое и трудно поддающееся четкому определению. Не останавливаясь на сложной проблеме строгого формализованного и полного определения понятия информации, примем, что информация есть сведения о тех или иных явлениях или объектах (сущностях), точнее - сведения об определенных свойствах или параметрах этих явлений или объектов и зависимостях между этими свойствами. Информация воплощенная и зафиксированная в некоторой материальной форме, называется сообщением, а физическое средство передачи сообщения - сигналом. Или иначе: сигнал - это процесс изменения во времени физического параметра какого-либо объекта, служащий для отображения, регистрации и передачи сообщения. Информационная система - это любая система (установка, совокупность устройств, отдельное устройство, прибор, блок и т.д.), предназначенная для любого типа обработки информации: приема, генерации, запоминания, преобразования и т.д. В информационных системах (ИС) обычно осуществляется и преобразование типа сигналов, включая их физическую природу. Очевидно, что физическая природа сигнала в общем случае может быть любой, но в ИС, в основном, используются электрические сигналы. Поэтому в ИС чаще всего входная информация, т.е. входной сигнал, если он не электрический, преобразуется таким образом, чтобы в качестве переносчика сообщения в дальнейшем в системе использовался электрический сигнал (ЭС). В последнее время…...

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