Internal Air System Gas Turbine

In: Science

Submitted By supershakir
Words 2704
Pages 11
Drive Cone Cavity

INTRODUCTION

The drive cone cavity is one of the hottest un-cooled components in the engine. Operating around 900k at 10,000 rpm, the material used in making the drive cone is operating at edge of its safe working temperature changes at these high temperatures. A 10 K rise in shaft temperature can reduce the life of the shaft. The temperature must therefore be predicted to within 10 K or better to guarantee accurate stress predictions. It the thermal model cannot guarantee the 10 K accuracy required, a much shorter component life would have to be declared or alternative materials must be found. This report contains the different type of the materials which can be used to enhance the performance of the drive cone cavity and in order to do so the criteria is sub-divided into four group as shown in figure 1

Key drivers for the selection of the material Fig 1
(Ref: http://www.mtu.de/en/technologies/engineering_news/others/Smarsly_Materials_komp.pdf)

Trends in aero-engine materials use

As shown in Fig 2 the trends in increase of high temperature materials for gas turbine part. Although there are many monolithic ceramics materials show evidence of fundamental properties, but the main issue is relative to their application in aero engines has been their flaw sensitivity and brittle fracture modes. In addition fibre CMCs are very appealing materials due to (i) their high temperature performance as compared with other super alloys and (ii) their higher fracture toughness relate with monolithic ceramics in aero engines, in which structural reliability is most required. For that reason, CMCs are potential materials to meet these requirements in drive cone cavity.

[pic]
Trends in aero-engine materials use Fig 2
(http://www.azom.com)

Nickel-based super alloys

Most of the improvement in material for gas turbine component has been…...

Similar Documents

Justification for an Internal Control System

...Internal controls, controls the risk of companies financial loss or misstatements. Insurance and portfolio theory are the combined methods of internal controls. This paper will justify the need of internal control systems, insurance, and portfolio approaches, and why an internal control system is more beneficial. An internal Control system is responsibility of the Controller to analyze company performance in operations, compliance, and reporting as well as aid management in the development of budgets and goals (McCarthy & Flynn, 2004). Internal Control system is also responsibility to analyze and manage risks the company may encounter. An internal control system is composed of five interrelated components (AICPA, 2013): • Control Environment – the company’s fundamental values and directives. • Risk Assessment – the identification and analysis of possible material misstatements. • Control Activities – the policies and procedures used to identify and manage risk. • Information and Communication – the processing and distribution information needed to meet company objectives. • Monitoring- assesses the quality of the system’s performance over time. Insurance approach is a risk-financing tool for companies providing protection when a loss occurs. Most companies have insurance because not many organizations will be able to pay expenses following a loss. Even though insurance compensate losses it does not prevent any fraud in the company. Certain companies have a......

Words: 464 - Pages: 2

Gas Turbine Lab

...better understanding of how gas turbines operates, and the parameters which influence their efficiency. Theory Apparatus The Gunt ET972 Small Gas Turbine Demonstration Unit is an educational instrument, designed with ergonomics in mind, and is equipped with a number of displays to convey performance information. Propane is used as the fuel. As small size and a range of options are required in an educational setting, efficiency is not a priority and hence suffers as the unit is optimised for practicality rather than power output. Gas turbines are effectively vibration free as there is no reciprocal motion as in a piston engine, have a very high power to weight ratio, and when coupled to an electrical generator, are used to account for unexpected rises in power electricity demand. Schematic diagram on the front side of the Gunt ET972 Small Gas Turbine Demonstration Unit, outlining the main controls and information displays to the user. Table of Results   | | | | | | | Experiment No. | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   | Gas TG °C | 22.8 | 25.3 | 26.8 | 27.6 | 27.7 | | Gas Nozzle Pressure, PD [Barrel] | 0.64 | 0.78 | 0.89 | 0.98 | 1.1 | | Compressor Inlet, T1 [°C] | 32.3 | 33.4 | 32.8 | 33.2 | 34 | | Compressor Inlet, T2 [°C] | 79.2 | 88.4 | 97.7 | 103.2 | 111.1 | | Comb. Chamber Differential Pressure, ΔP [P2-P3] | 0.012 | 0.0136 | 0.0146 | 0.0154 | 0.0166 | | Turbine Inlet, T3 [°C] | 769 | 793 | 808 | 820 | 840 | | Turbine Inlet, P3 [Bar] |......

Words: 601 - Pages: 3

Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Systems

...Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Systems Clinton Ward COM155 February 17, 2013 Joyce Keeling Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Systems Air conditioners and heat pump systems are used by most people in the world today. They are used to cool in the summer time and to heat in the winter time. These machines are bought and used when most people do not even understand the principle on which they work. The machines are expected do what they are designed to do, and when they cease to do this, they can be costly to repair. Air conditioners and heat pumps are similar in appearance and operation, but while using the same components they can perform completely different tasks. Knowing the difference between the two and the principle in which they perform their tasks will enable each person to make an informed decision when the time comes to repair or replace a piece of equipment. Air conditioners and heat pumps have several components that work in the same way. The compressor is the heart of the system. It is present in both an air conditioner and a heat pump. The compressor pumps the refrigerant throughout the system and enables the system to heat and cool. A few other components in an air conditioner and a heat pump are the metering device, the indoor coil, and the outdoor coil. These four basic components must be present for the cooling process to take place. There are a few components in heat pumps that do not show up in air conditioners. These devices are what make......

Words: 1495 - Pages: 6

System Air Conditioning

...Air conditioning systems can be categorized according to the means by which the controllable cooling is accomplished in the conditioned space. They are further segregated to accomplish specific purposes by special equipment arrangement. In selecting a suitable air conditioning system for a particular application, consideration should also vent to the following like system constraints such as cooling load, zoning requirements, heating and ventilation. Architectural Constraints depended on size and appearance of terminal devices, acceptable noise level, Space available to house equipment and its location relative to the conditioned space, and acceptability of components obtruding into the conditioned space. Financial constraints including capital cost, operating cost, and maintenance cost. There are four basic system categories of air conditioning namely central chilled water air conditioning system. An all-air system provides complete sensible and latent cooling capacity in the cold air supplied by the system. Heating can be accomplished by the same air stream, either in the central system or at a particular zone. All-air systems can be classified into 2 categories namely single duct systems and dual duct systems. The single duct system as shown in figure 1 is used for a large room such as an atrium, a banking hall, a swimming pool, or a lecture, entertainment or operating theatre. It can be applied to groups of rooms with a similar demand for air conditioning, such......

Words: 1888 - Pages: 8

Nextgen Air Transportation System

...NextGen Air Transportation System Christopher Pratt Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Author Note This paper was prepared for ASCI 202 - Introduction to Aeronautical Science, taught by Michael Prince Abstract The Next Generation Air Transportation System, or commonly known as NextGen, will significantly update the national air transportation system. The NextGen system when fully brought online will help better manage the increasingly crowded skies, reduce operating costs, and more importantly, enhance safety. The enhancements to the national air transportations system will consist of 4 elements in addition to GPS. These are ADS-B, NextGen Enabled Weather, NextGen Data Communications, National Airspace Voice Switch. The overall goal of NextGen is to manage our increasingly crowded national airspace with more efficiency, safety, and provide a positive environmental impact while reducing costs. NextGen Air Transportation System The demand for air travel has increase significantly over the last few of decades since deregulation. That demand shows no sign of slowing down despite rising fuel costs and economic uncertainty in the U.S. and Europe (Karp, 2012). Gregory Karp (2012) of the Chicago Tribune stated that the airline industry, which traditionally has run in boom-and-bust cycles, has a good chance to be profitable over the next 20 years as demand for air travel grows worldwide. Price (2007) reports......

Words: 1144 - Pages: 5

Internal Control System

...INTERNAL CONTROLS AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: A CASE OF MEDIPONT INDUSTRIES LIMITED BY OCHOGE JOHN 05/U/9462/EXT SUPERVISOR MR. NZIBONERA ERIC A RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF COMMERCE OF MAKERERE UNIVERSITY JUNE 2011 DECLARATION I, Ochoge John, declare that this research report is my original work. It has not been submitted to any other university or higher institution for any award and where it is indebted to work of others, due acknowledgement has been made. Signature………………………… Date:……………………….. OCHOGE JOHN 05/U/9462/EXT APPROVAL I hereby certify that this work entitled “Internal controls and organizational performance: a case of Medipont Industries Limited” has been submitted with my approval for examination as a university supervisor. Signature……………………………………. Date …………………….. MR. NZIBONERA ERIC UNIVERSITY SUPERVISOR DEDICATION This piece of work is dedicated to my father, mother, wife and children. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I truly thank God for the gift of good health and friends. My sincere heart appreciation goes to my supervisor Mr. Nzibonera Eric for the guidance and encouragement up to this stage of submission. My lecturers for academic encouragement and guidance. Fellow students for moral, academic support and......

Words: 9967 - Pages: 40

Justification for an Internal Control System

...Justification for an Internal Control System Christine Griffin ACC 544 July 28, 2014 Richard Cornett Justification for an Internal Control System As the controller for my company, I monitor all financial activities, conduct audits as needed, create high-level financial reports, and implement accounting methodologies to make the company run efficiently (PayScale, n.d.). The leadership of the company has asked me why there is a need for an internal control system when controls are in place with insurance and portfolio approaches. Insurance Approach A company will purchase insurance to protect their assets. The owner of a company will purchase liability insurance to protect his income, home, and other personal items of worth. The company will do a risk analysis to determine the most significant risks of the company. Then the company will purchase insurance to mitigate these risks. Not all risks require insurance as they can be eliminated by changing procedures. Some of the risks that should be covered by insurance are • Property damage • Inventory loss or damage • Employee theft • Various liabilities – injuries to customers, et cetera • Errors and omissions liabilities • Business interruption • Death of an owner or disability of owner The techniques to deal with risk is to find ways to avoid it by eliminating dangerous products or procedures, reduce the frequency and severity of risks, and transfer the risk to an insurance company. The transfer will......

Words: 629 - Pages: 3

Justification for an Internal Control System

...Justification for an Internal Control System It is the responsibility of the Controller to analyze company performance in operations, compliance and reporting, as well as aid management in the development of budgets and goals (McCarthy & Flynn, 2004, p. 265). It is also their responsibility to analyze and manage risks the company may encounter. To perform these tasks controllers and company financial officers establish internal controls. A system of internal controls ensures preparation reliable financial statements, compliance with financial regulations, reduce risks, and identify and achieve short and long-term goals. Management uses internal controls to adapt to economic changes (AICPA, 2011, p. 2). Insurance and portfolio theory are approaches to managing and analyzing risk and play an important part in an internal control system. Internal Control Systems An internal control system is composed of five inter-related components, 1) Control Environment, 2) Risk Assessment, 3) Control Activities, 4) Information and Communication, and 5) Monitoring. The control environment is the company’s fundamental values and directives, risk assessment is the identification and analysis of possible material misstatements, control activities are the policies and procedures used to identify and manage risks, information and communication involves the processing and distribution of information needed to meet company objectives, and monitoring “assesses the quality of the system’s......

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

History of Gas Turbines

...Early Gas Turbine History 1791 First patent for a gas turbine (John Barber, United Kingdom) 1904 Unsuccessful gas turbine project by Franz Stolze in Berlin (first axial compressor) 1906 GT by Armengaud Lemale in France (centrifugal compressor, no useful power) 1910 First GT featuring intermittent combustion (Holzwarth, 150 kW, constant volume combustion) 1923 First exhaust-gas turbocharger to increase the power of diesel engines 1939 World’s first gas turbine for power generation (Brown Boveri Company), Neuchâtel, Switzerland (velox burner, aerodynamics by Stodola) The man behind the early steam and gas turbine Prof. Aurel Stodola (1859-1942) Final Grade report at ETH Zurich: GPA = 6 (A+) [courtesy ETH Zurich] back to top Seminal work by Stodola English Translation of “Die Dampfturbinen” 1906 One-dimensional treatment – Velocity Triangles back to top World’s first industrial gas turbine – 1939 From the paper collection of Eddie Taylor, the first director of MIT GTL (1947–1969) back to top Commissioning of world’s first industrial gas turbine, Neuchatel, 1939 (Stodola at age 80) [picture courtesy ETH Zurich] Drawing of first gas turbine [from Eddie Taylor’s paper collection] back to top World’s first industrial gas turbine “Neuchatel”, 2007 ASME Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark in Birr, Switzerland (ALSTOM Headquarters) GT Neuchatel operated for 63 years (generator failure in 2002)......

Words: 371 - Pages: 2

Mammalian Gas Exchange Systems

...The Mammalian Circulatory and Gas Exchange Systems Radwa Abdallah Professor Yan Xu Fundamentals of Biology II Lab February 20, 2014 Objectives The objectives of the Circulatory System laboratory experiment included observing and learning to identify the structural characteristics, mostly arteries and veins, in the chest cavity of the fetal pig, which would further the understanding of the heart and lungs in most other mammals; another objective was to understand blood pressure and heart rate and the factors that affect it. The objectives of the Gas Exchange laboratory experiment was to observe the respiratory system in the fetal pigs, thus gaining an understanding of the respiratory system in most other mammals; another objective from the portion of the experiment that included measuring the respiratory volumes of humans and understanding the capacity of the human lung. Introduction There are two kinds of circulatory systems, an opened circulatory system and a closed circulatory system. The circulatory system is made up of an internal body fluid that is either hemolymph or blood, a pump system, and a vascular system that is made up of tubular vessels that move fluid from one location to another quickly(Dolphin 377). Hemolymph is the fluid found in the open circulatory system and blood is the fluid found in closed systems. In open circulatory systems the fluid leaves the heart through the arteries and returns through open sinuses rather than veins (379)...

Words: 1300 - Pages: 6

Air Traffic Control System

...because it causes a huge loss and impact on the society. There are many control systems in an airport, and the report only focus on air traffic control system (ATC). The risks, mitigations strategies, risk management plan is analysis the technology problem and solution to the computer system of ATC. In this report, the hazard, financial and operational risks that cause by information technology vulnerability is assess in the first session. The second session discusses the risk management techniques for the risks that identify in first session. Lastly, the risk mitigation plan is discussed the critical business function and plans to deal with computer outage, power outage when the issues happen. RISK ASSESSMENT Activity, Asset, Data information, risk The Air Traffic Control (ATC) is responsible for several activities in the airport. It involves separation assurance, landing services operating, navigation and ground control. Separation assurance is one of the main ATC components. It maintains the separation of aircraft from each other to avoid collision (Dwyer & Landry, 2013). The separation assurance tracks the position of each aircraft, and air traffic controller collects the information and provides it to the pilot. Both of automated tasks and manual tasks are involved in this function. The flights information such as identification, location and situation is recorded and used in the system. The separation assurance involves different facility such as radar and......

Words: 6286 - Pages: 26

Internal Control System

...The Internal Control System Accounting is the process of identifying, analyzing, recording, summarizing, interpreting and reporting financial information to decision makers. Accounting information should be presented to society in a form that represents a true and fair view of operation. To accomplish this, accountants should have a clear understanding of accounting principles and concepts that govern the preparation of accounting statements and develop systems such as internal controls that assure the entity’s operations are properly and effectively recorded. Internal control systems help to ensure that the employees within an organisation carry out their duty and responsibility and act for the good of the business. There are certain key ingredients of a control system such as: environment control, risk assessment, control of flow of activities and monitoring. There are five main internal control procedures – proper authorization, segregation of duties, adequate documentation and records, physical safeguards over assets and records, and independent checks.  Proper authorization of transactions and activities helps ensure that all company activities adhere to established guide lines unless responsible managers authorize another course of action.  Segregation of duties requires that different individuals be assigned responsibility for different elements of related activities, particularly those involving authorization, custody, or recordkeeping.  Adequate documents......

Words: 1149 - Pages: 5

Air Traffic Control System

...Air Traffic Control System Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/air-traffic-control-system/ Impact of air traffic control system in the United States "Air Traffic Control System" Command Center, controllers arrangement air traffic for the whole nation, contemplating how climate and different occasions, for example, military moves, will influence air traffic designs. War room controllers converse with controllers in different offices and to carrier traffic administrators to think of "ground breaking strategies." The general population is most acquainted with air traffic towers at airplane terminals. Controllers in these offices guide flying machine as they take off or land and taxi from or to the door. Their essential capacity is to discrete air ship on the air terminal surface. However, numerous air terminals in the United States don't have towers so controllers at remote methodology control offices guide air ship into and out of those airplane terminals. As FAA travels through the move of "air traffic" from radar-based to satellite-based, controllers and pilots will have the benefit of progressively modern innovation. While radars oblige air ship to fly over their physical areas on the ground, satellite-innovation will permit controllers to guide airplane in more straightforward courses through the country's airspace. Basically, every controller in the United States will have the capacity to see the careful position of each air ship flying in our......

Words: 1077 - Pages: 5

Internal Control System

...The intent of this report is to justify the need for the internal control system when controls are in place with insurance and portfolio approaches. An internal control system is described as a way to better regulate an organization, to minimize the risks, to reduce the losses, and to achieve the organizational goals. Many organizations rely on insurance and/or portfolio approach to manage a business risk, while some organizations rely on the benefits of an internal control system. The two types of approaches that are used in the organizations are insurance and portfolio approaches. The insurance approach is mainly used where the insurance is acquired to transfer certain risks that could affect employees, business property, or other business assets. This type of approach becomes more like a tool to prevent business losses. Also, this approach is more a financial risk tool than a risk management tool. The insurance approach mitigates the impact of the losses, rather than protecting the business assets from the potential losses. Thus, making this approach more reactive, than proactive. Portfolio risk management is more complex and structured approach, which provides processes and procedures during decision making time. The main goal of this approach is to minimize risk while maximizing the return on investment. Portfolio risk management approach should help the organization to assess its risk tolerance while optimizing business operations. The organizations that use this...

Words: 469 - Pages: 2

Justification for an Internal Control System

...Justification for an Internal Control System Crystal Spencer University of Phoenix ACC/544 Internal Control Systems Christina Yang May 14, 2012 The purpose of this brief report is to justify the need for the internal control system in any organization, when controls are in place with an insurance and portfolio approach. An internal control system in any organization is a way to regulate, to reduce lost, to minimize risks, and to accomplish the organizational goals and success (McCarthy, 2004). The majority of organizations depend on the insurance approach and the portfolio risk management approach. These approaches are used to manage a business risk, whereas some businesses depend on the benefits of an internal control system. I will now explain the two types of approaches insurance and portfolio used in an organization. Insurance approach The insurance approach is generally used to ensure the acquirement to transfer certain types of risks that could affect the business property, the business assets, and affect the employees (McCarthy, 2004). The insurance approach used as a tool to prevent business losses; in addition, it is more like a financial risk tool than management risk tool. This approach will diminishes the impact of the losses, protecting the business assets from potential losses, therefore, making the insurance approach more reactive, than proactive (McCarthy, 2004). Portfolio risk management The......

Words: 882 - Pages: 4

Sharknado: Que la 4ª te acompañe (2016) 5/10 | one muse template | 单机游戏下载大全中文版下载