Ispitni Rad

In: Business and Management

Submitted By RattleSnake31
Words 1964
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Hemijsko vezivanje: Hemijske reakcije i valentnost

Osnovna premise hemijskih jedinjenja jeste da atomi u kojima su omotači ili podomotači popunjeni ili potpuno prazni su stabilni I nereaktivni, priroda preferira situacije maksimalne stabilnosti. Otuda, inertni elementi su nereaktivni jer oni imaju potpuno popunjene kvante omotače. Atomi koji imaju delimično popunjene podomotače, su hemijski reaktivni. Osim toga, atomi mogu postati stabilni ili nereaktivni gubeći elektrone kako bi ispraznili njihove podomotače, ili dobili elektrone da bi ih popunili. Na primer, Natrijum (Na) ima konfiguraciju elektrona 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 (2.8.1). Treća kvantni omotač sadrži samo jedan electron (na njenoj trećoj orbiti) I, gubeći ovaj electron, dobila bi se stabilna konfiguracija kompletno popunjene prve I druge ljuske.
11Na -1e- 11 Na+
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 1s2 2s2
(2.8.1) (2.8 = Ne)
Imajte na umu da dobijene vrste Na+ I dalje imaju atomski broj 11 koji prestavlja nuklearno punjenje i koji nije jos postao Ne. Međutim, gubeći jedan negativno napunjen electron on prisvaja jedno pozitivno naelektrisanje koje definišemo kao Na+. Ove vrste vise nisu neutralni atomi, ali su postali pozivno naelektrisani joni koji su nazvani katjoni, I imaju drugačije karakteristike od neutralnih atoma. Sada ćemo razmotriti Fluor u grupi VII, koji ima elektronsku kofiguraciju od 1 s2 2s2 2p5. Ako Flor može da dobije jedan electron u njegovom poslednjem omotaču, omotač će postati potpuno popunjen I dobiće inertnu kofiguraciju od Ne.
9F+ + 1e- 9F-
1s2 2s2 2p5 1s2 2s2 2p6 (2.8=Ne)
U ovom slučaju, atom je dobio jedan negativno naelektrisan electron I postao je negativno naelektrisan jon koji ima naziv anjon. Ako mi uzmemo Natrijum koji lako može da izgubi elektron u prisustvu flora, koji će spremnije prihvatiti novi I zameniti mesta.
Činjenica da će zamena biti vise entuzijastička nego…...

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