Kidney Stones

In: Science

Submitted By esalazar0903
Words 1556
Pages 7
Esteban Salazar
Professor Lucker
April 11, 2016

Kidney stones
Kidney stones have plagued men throughout recorded history; the problem has even been “diagnosed” in Egyptian mummies that date back some 7,000 years1. At present, kidney stones have sent most three million Americans to the doctor each year, including 500,000 trips to emergency rooms1. Men are more likely to form stones than women at the ages of 20-50, with a peak of 30, but the ones that are in higher risk are those who already suffered from a stone and have a 50 % chance of forming more stones later in life1. Caucasian males are affected more commonly than African-American males, although African-American males have a higher incidence of associated infection with kidney stones whereas females of all races have been noted to have a higher incidence of hydronephrosis2. There are causes, signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures and treatments, and preventions strategies for kidney stones. Causes of Kidney stones
Kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, are commonly composed of calcium (75%), struvite (15%), uric acid (6%) and cysteine (2%)2. Kidney stones are prevalent in hot climates, and it effects about 10% of people over their lifetime3. Kidney stones arise in the kidney when urine becomes supersaturated with a salt that is capable of forming solid crystals2. Although the urine may look like a simple fluid, it’s actually a complex liquid that contains hundreds of chemicals and minerals1. But if the minerals become supersaturated, the minerals precipitate into crystals that bind with protein and grow into gravel, then stones1. The formation of supersaturation and stone come from the excessive amounts of minerals are excreted into the urine or if the volume of fluid is decrease by dehydration1. About 80% of time, the principal mineral in a kidney stone is calcium, usually…...

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