Knowledge Management Chapter 09

In: Other Topics

Submitted By noel7days
Words 3692
Pages 15
Chapter 9

Using Past History Explicitly as Knowledge: Case-Based Reasoning Systems
Becerra-Fernandez, et al. -- Knowledge Management 1/e -- © 2004 Prentice Hall Additional material © 2008 Dekai Wu

Chapter Objectives
• Introduce the student to the concept of using explicit historical occurrences to solve current problems.
 Explained in the context of rule-based systems that also use past experience to solve current problems

• Introduce case-based reasoning. • Introduce how case-based systems can learn from their own experience

Becerra-Fernandez, et al. -- Knowledge Management 1/e -- © 2004 Prentice Hall / Additional material © 2008 Dekai Wu

Weaknesses of rule-based systems
• Weaknesses of rule-based systems that inspired the rise of case-based reasoning:
 Experts may not be able to externalize their experience into clean bits of knowledge that can be encoded into rules
 Their knowledge is an accumulation and a combination of years of being exposed to many instances of similar problems (and their subsequent solutions)

Becerra-Fernandez, et al. -- Knowledge Management 1/e -- © 2004 Prentice Hall / Additional material © 2008 Dekai Wu

Weaknesses of rule-based systems
• To manage the knowledge of experts, we must:
 Elicit it from the expert  Represent or formalize it in a form suitable for computing  Validate and verify the knowledge

• All these contain pitfalls for the rule-based systems approach

Becerra-Fernandez, et al. -- Knowledge Management 1/e -- © 2004 Prentice Hall / Additional material © 2008 Dekai Wu

Weaknesses of rule-based systems
• Q. Why may rule-based systems have difficulty with eliciting, representing, and validating knowledge from the expert? • A1. Results vary depending on which expert
 It is the experts’ personal interpretation of the domain  Some experts are very knowledgeable, others only minimally…...

Similar Documents

Knowledge Management

...CERTIFICATE IN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Intake 52 – 14th January 2008 to 18th January 2008 JT FRANK ACADEMY SDN. BHD A STRUCTURED APPROACH TO INIATE THE PRACTICE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND TO NURTURE ILHAM MARA INTO A K-BASED ORGANISATION AZLINA BINTI MOHAMAD CIKM-52KL0629 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the name of Allah, The Compassionate, The Merciful… It is difficult to execute the Practice of Knowledge Management given by MARA without the collective commitment of MARA staff members. It requires a high level of positive mindset and pro-active approach in managing to the target groups. I would like to express my utmost gratitude to the MARA Human Resource Director, Encik Ibrahim bin Ahmad for the trust given by him and of course to make this project in the line of successful. To MARA Staff Training Institute, Encik Nor Hashimi bin Mahat for given me the chance for attending this course and to execute this project. I would also like to thank the members of JT Frank Academy Sdn Bhd for their hospitality and helpful in making my project successful. My special thanks would definitely goes to the Chief Knowledge Architect, Dr Frankie Ow for the most best guidance and as well to Mr Moi Kok Wah for the patience and great journey to the knowledge management. I am indeed grateful to the members of CIKM and colleagues of ILHAM for their continuous dedication, help and commitment to grant the successful of POKM...

Words: 2198 - Pages: 9

Knowledge Management

...Applying Corporate Knowledge Management Practices in Higher Education by Jillinda J. Kidwell, Karen M. Vander Linde, and Sandra L. Johnson We believe there is tremendous value to higher education institutions that develop initiatives to share knowledge to achieve business objectives. This article outlines the basic concepts of knowledge management as it is applied in the corporate sector, considers trends, and explores how it might be applied in higher education and whether higher education is ready to embrace it. Colleges and universities have significant opportunities to apply knowledge management practices to support every part of their mission A re the concepts of knowledge management (KM) applicable to colleges and universities? Some would argue that sharing knowledge is their raison d’être. If that is the case, then the higher education sector should be replete with examples of institutions that leverage knowledge to spur innovation, improve customer service, or achieve operational excellence. However, although some examples exist, they are the exception rather than the rule. Knowledge management is a new field, and experiments are just beginning in higher education. E D U C A U S E Q U A R T E R LY • Number 4 2000 Knowledge Basics Knowledge management is the process of transforming information and intellec- tual assets into enduring value. It connects people with the knowledge that they need to take action, when they need it. In the corporate......

Words: 3787 - Pages: 16

Knowledge Management

...RUNNING HEAD: THE CONCEPT OF KNOWLEDGE IN KM The concept of knowledge in KM: A dimensional model Forthcoming in the Journal of Knowledge Management, Volume 10, No 6, 2006 Bertolt Meyer1 and Kozo Sugiyama2 1 Department of Organizational and Social Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Humboldt University Berlin Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany 2 School of Knowledge Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292, Japan Abstract Purpose: To sharpen the concepts of tacit, implicit and explicit knowledge by linking them to findings from cognitive psychology and memory science and thus finding a possibility for measuring non-explicit knowledge. Methodology/Approach: A review of KM and cognitive science literature leads to a dimensional model of knowledge types that links the concepts from KM to more specific concepts from psychology. One central assumption of the model was empirically tested and put into practice in one small-scale KM project. Findings: The concepts in KM can be linked to concepts from psychology and thus receive theoretical support. The developed model enables psychometric access to a part of non-explicit knowledge through structural assessment techniques. Furthermore, the model has proven to be of value in a practical application in KM. Research limitations: The experiment and the practical application are too small in scope to provide full...

Words: 9610 - Pages: 39

Knowledge Management

...            Knowledge  Management  &  Information  Systems   Wordcount:  1,971   As ‘by virtue of its tacitness, inimitability and immobility’ (Scarbrough & Shan, 1999, p.359) knowledge is increasingly considered to give a competitive advantage. We can identify two types of knowledge: explicit and tacit knowledge. Explicit knowledge refers to the ‘know what’ that can be codified hence, that can be communicated and diffused (Scarbrough, 2011). Tacit knowledge, on the other hand is ‘The know-how’s’. They are ‘hard to verbalize because they are expressed through action-based skills and cannot be reduced to rules and recipes.’ (Scarbrough, 2012). Due to it’s context specific and personal nature, tacit knowledge, is perceived as more useful but harder to manage than explicit knowledge (Boddy et al., 2008). It is widely believed that tacit knowledge can only be fully shared and understood by live contact and by contrast that technology and information systems are useful to communicate explicit knowledge as they can be codified and can then be regrouped on a database. But lately, firms have been attempting to develop IT solutions to capture tacit knowledge notably through Communities of Practice (CoP), online networks or video communication (Marwick, 2001). This essay will attempt to define the role played by information systems in capturing knowledge before taking an insight into how information systems have developed in different......

Words: 2352 - Pages: 10

Knowledge Management

...CHAPTER 3 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS LIFE CYCLE TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING 1. Why is it helpful to view the building of a KM system as a life cycle? It is important to have a life cycle in building knowledge management systems, because the life cycle provides structure and order to the process. Additionally, the life cycle provides a breakdown of the activities into manageable steps, good documentation for possible changes in the future, coordination of the project for a timely completion, and regular management review at each phase of the cycle. 2. In what ways do conventional and KM systems’ development life cycles differ? How are they similar? There are many differences between the conventional and knowledge management systems’ development life cycle: a. A conventional system is sequential (certain steps are carried out in sequence), while the knowledge management system life cycle is incremental and interactive. b. In the conventional system, testing generally occurs at the end of programming, while the knowledge management development life cycle provides for testing throughout various phases of system development as the system evolves. c. The conventional system is process-driven and documentation-oriented, with emphasis on the flow of data, while the knowledge management development life cycle is result-oriented. d. The conventional system does not support rapid prototyping or advanced......

Words: 4057 - Pages: 17

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management System

...Table of Contents 1. Introduction 1.1 Why Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management System Matter …………3 1.1.1 Definition of Knowledge, Knowledge Assets, Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management System ……………………………………………………………………………….3-6- 1.1.2 Evolution of Knowledge Management and milestone …………………………………………6 2. Contents 2.1 Managing Knowledge in the Digital World and organization is a vital task ………………… …7 2.1.1 Benefits and motivations of leading organizations under-taking of KMS ……………… 7-9 2.1.2 Challenges of organizations under-taking KMS …………………………………………….9-10- 2.2 Strategies of Utilizing Knowledge Management …………………………………………………10-14 2.3 Management Systems 2.3.1 Management System Structures ……………………. ………………………………………. 14-17 3. Real Case Study ……………………………………………………………. 18-22 4. Conclusion ..……………………………………………………………………23 5. Reference ………………………………………………………………………24 1. Introduction 1.1 Why Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management System Matter ______________________________________________________________________________ To open KM topic, we have a few questions want to ask you: (1) Do you have a KM system? What is Knowledge Management (2) How to start a sharing culture? (3) Is the KM system aligned with the business strategy? (4) Is there a KM solution for my organization? From the following, we will try to find out the answers for your reference. __________________________...

Words: 3580 - Pages: 15

Knowledge Management

...asset is knowledge, the intellectual capital of the organization. The high potential return of leveraging the knowledge capital of an organization has led to company valuations that far exceed what used to be accepted as standard. This new capital is walking around your company, is hidden in file drawers, and surfaces in conversations with clients and suppliers. There’re three kinds of knowledge capital in every organization, namely human, structural, and relationship. Sveiby (2001) believes that people can use their competence to create value in two directions: by transferring and converting knowledge externally or internally to the organization they belong to. When the managers of a firm direct the efforts of their employees internally, they create tangible goods and intangible structures such as better processes and new designs for products. When they direct their attention outwards, in addition to delivery of goods and money they also create intangible structures, such as customer relationships, brand awareness, reputation and new experiences for the customers. (Papoutsakis, 2006) 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW This study expose to the impacts of knowledge management to an organization, on how it benefits and result to a positive revenue to the organization in term of (Return On Investment) ROI as well as the challenges on implementing knowledge management in an organization. 3.0 THE KNOWLEDGE CYCLE Source from:

Words: 2435 - Pages: 10

Knowledge Management

...Introduction to Knowledge Management A light bulb in the socket is worth two in the pocket. —Bill Wolf (1950–2001) This chapter provides an introduction to the study of knowledge management (KM). A brief history of knowledge management concepts is outlined, noting that much of KM existed before the actual term came into popular use. The lack of consensus over what constitutes a good definition of KM is addressed and the concept analysis technique is described as a means of clarifying the conceptual confusion that still persists over what KM is or is not. The multidisciplinary roots of KM are enumerated together with their contributions to the discipline. The two major forms of knowledge, tacit and explicit, are compared and contrasted. The importance of KM today for individuals, for communities of practice, and for organizations are described together with the emerging KM roles and responsibilities needed to ensure successful KM implementations. Learning Objectives 1. Use a framework and a clear language for knowledge management concepts. 2. Define key knowledge management concepts such as intellectual capital, organizational learning and memory, knowledge taxonomy, and communities of practice using concept analysis. 3. Provide an overview of the history of knowledge management and identify key milestones. 4. Describe the key roles and responsibilities required for knowledge management applications. 2 Chapter 1 Introduction The ability to manage knowledge is crucial in......

Words: 10806 - Pages: 44

Knowledge Management

...Hot Chile Surfwear has its head office in Cancun and retail offices are spread at 23 locations within Mexico at present. Knowledge Management System would require as a first step to invest in data acquisition mechanism. Currently the practice is that each store sends some data either in spreadsheets or hard papers to be collated at the head office. In order that this data becomes important information can be translated into knowledge, it is essential that some vital statistics and information be captured periodically. Depending upon the source of the information, we would be classifying this into two categories – internal and external. Internal Source: This would refer to all the information which exists within the stores and the head office and can be pulled out without any dependence on an external agency (Christopher, J. 1994). Some of the examples are -  Sales figures at each store  Customer foot fall at each store  Merchandise wise sales  Enquiries for product line unavailable  Customer Segmentation at each store – by age, gender, personality types  Salesperson wise sales or units sold  Productivity rate i.e. Number of people who bought something vs. total foot fall  Advertising Campaigns/ POS used at each store  Sales increase post advertising , in-store marketing External Source: In addition to the above, it would be essential that the company also gathers data from outside agencies, from secondary sources like research firms, market, Television,...

Words: 883 - Pages: 4

Knowledge Management

...OF CONTENT BIL CONTENT PAGES INTRODUCTION 3 1. EVALUATE EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE 4 2. FORM THE KM TEAM 5 3. KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE 6 4. DESIGN KM BLUEPRINT (master plan) 8 5. TEST THE KM SYSTEM 11 6. IMPELEMENT THE KM SYSTEM 12 7. MANAGE CHANGE AND REWARD STRUCTURE 13 8. POST SYSTEM EVALUATION 14 2 INTRODUCTION 1 Knowledge management is the methodology, tools and techniques to gather, integrate and disseminate knowledge. It involves processes involving management of knowledge creation, acquisition, storage, organization, distribution, sharing and application. The technology component consists of tools and techniques to implement effective knowledge management practice which provides values to its business, employees, customers and partners. The tools can further be classified into evaluate existing infrastructure, form the KM team, knowledge capture, design KM blueprint (master plan), test the KM system, implement the KM system, manage change and reward structure and post-system evaluation. There is also integration of Aqli and Naqli for each of the knowledge management lifecycle steps. 2Aqli means reason. It refers to proofs that something is deduced by reasoning. Naqli 1 2 3 means by revelation. It refers to proof......

Words: 3111 - Pages: 13

Knowledge Management

...graduate student, you are not only a consumer of knowledge, but a producer of ideas. Your fellow students, professors, and mentors in the field will expect you to approach ideas, data, and readings with critical rigour as well as to respect the process by which research in your field is conducted. Communicate. Be open and clear in your communication. Respond to email in a timely manner. Discuss changes in your course of action or timeline with your supervisor or committee. Ask questions for clarity. If you aren’t sure about why it is necessary to complete a lab procedure in a certain way or what exactly is expected for a literature review, ask. Rather than fumble or mumble about lack of direction, be active and ask your supervisor or another experienced student. In short, communicate. Be Accountable. Meet deadlines and course requirements. Know and follow the policies laid out by the Graduate Studies office or your program of study. Demonstrate your commitment to and respect for the profession by adhering to its conventions. Time Management for Graduate Students Without a plan, it is difficult to balance the multiple roles (student, researcher, teacher, and writer) of a grad student. Rarely can tasks be accomplished without discipline, thoughtful goals, and productive routines. Below, we outline some general advice for time management, but you can find more specific strategies in the ASC publication, Time Management for Grad Students. 1. Set......

Words: 3573 - Pages: 15

Knowledge Management

...importance of knowledge management (KM) and are gradually directing their efforts on practices to nurture the creation, sharing and integration of knowledge management and economic development as a solution to the world`s social problems. King (2009:p4), defines Knowledge management as the planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling of people, processes and systems in any organisation (private and public) to ensure that assets that are associated with knowledge are improved and effectively employed. King (2009; p4) further explains that an effective Knowledge management process must at least encompass knowledge acquisition, creation, refinement, storage, transfer, sharing, and application. Economic development strategy is defined as a cooperative effort of businesses, civic organisations and the public or government to map out economic projects and goals that will strengthen the economic growth of a country. Economic development strategy analyses the local and regional economy and serves as a guide for establishing local and regional plan of action and identifying investment priorities and funding sources. South Africa is a constitutional democracy with a three-tier system of government and a liberated judiciary. The national, provincial and local levels of government all requires legislative and executive authorities in their own spheres, and are defined in the Constitution as distinctive, interdependent and interrelated. However, in terms of information and......

Words: 3004 - Pages: 13

Knowledge Management

...Knowledge Management John C. Davis 50044480 Final Manuscript TMGT 513.01W Knowledge Management in Engineering and Technology Abstract Knowledge management is the study of how knowledge is captured/collected, stored and shared/disseminated. This knowledge is important to companies in order to grow and stay competitive. Knowledge management started with cavemen telling stories to pass down information. Later with the creation of written language and the internet knowledge storage and dissemination became much more effective. The internet has made it possible for people to get information from all over the world from the comfort of their home. With this increase in knowledge is more important than ever for companies to have a strong knowledge management strategy in place to deal with the sheer amount of data available and how to make that data useful in their business. Companies that employee R&D have a strong need for knowledge capture and storage tools. They rely on the creation of new knowledge and without access to that knowledge they cannot learn and create new knowledge. This paper discusses the different types of tools available in each cycle and discusses the importance of knowledge management in business. Knowledge Management Knowledge management is an important topic in business. The study of how to capture, maintain, and deploy knowledge can have wide reaching impacts on the outcome of a business. A business that finds itself......

Words: 2763 - Pages: 12

Knowledge Management

...except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Editor-in-Chief: Joe Sabatino Senior Acquisition Editor: Steven Scoble Developmental Editor: Ted Knight For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706. Editorial Assistant: Elizabeth Beiting-Lipps For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at Further permissions questions can be emailed to Brand Manager: Robin Lefevre Brand Management Director: Jason Sakos Marketing Development Manager: John Carey Marketing Development Director: Lisa Lysne Art and Cover Direction, Production Management, and Composition: PreMediaGlobal Media Editor: Anita Verma Rights Acquisition Director: Audrey Pettengill Rights Acquisition Specialist, Text and Image: John Hill Senior Manufacturing Planner: Kevin Kluck Cover Image(s): Airplane: © iStockphoto/Maciej Noskowski GEnx Jet Engine (Turbofan): © Olga Besnard/ Equipment, Cables and Piping as Found Inside of Industrial Power Plant: © nostal6ie/Shutterstock New Gas Pipelines: © CDuschinger/Shutterstock Three Legged Oil and Gas Production Platform: © James Jones Jr/ Oil Rig: © Dariush M./ Car Production Line: © iStockphoto/Rainer Plendl Lexus......

Words: 384459 - Pages: 1538

Knowledge Management

...1. Introduction ‘Knowledge is power’, an old saying from Francis Bacon, which is considered as a true statement that has been recognised for a long time (Greco, 1993; Nielsen and Rasmussen, 2011). Especially, in recent 20 years, the interest and importance of knowledge in organisations has been increased remarkably in both theoretically and practically (Cheema, 2010; Knight and Howes, 2003; Rasmussen and Nielsen, 2011). The reason is revealed by Migdadi (2009) and Politis (2005), in the new economy, the intangible resource, knowledge has become the foundation of organisational competitiveness compared to tangible assets. In other words, the traditional driving factors of production, including, land, labour and capital have turned into the secondary resources as knowledge become the primary source of power in production within the contemporary economy. The work of Rasmussen and Nielsen (2011) reveal that intangible resource is regarded as a typical feature of knowledge, which can build capabilities for both organisations and individuals, consequently, in this new economy, also can be called knowledge-based economy made knowledge become strategically important to provide sustain competitive advantage for enterprises, especially in high technology and bioengineering sectors (Niu, 2010). Knowledge therefore has emerged as a main source of power as well as core competency in today’s emerging economies. However, new possibilities and threads are constantly taken place to......

Words: 5327 - Pages: 22

Good Girls Revolt | をトルク | Social groups