Kyoto Protocol

In: Social Issues

Submitted By kate1978
Words 934
Pages 4
Global climate change has been a concern for everyone since scientists first discovered that our actions from polluting can have drastic effects on our environment. Many scientists began to note the changes in the atmosphere and temperature, global warming, in the mid 1800’s. Many people believe that the Earth’s climate cycles and changes periodically over time. Many believe that the changes occur as a result of human activity. The big questions is what effect is our activity having on the environment.
The costs benefits of global climate change
The costs of climate change for a developed country is easy, because there is money to spend there. These countries are the richer more developed areas of the world who have the money to spend of such things. The developing countries are still spending their money to catch up, and trying to balance their population increase with their economic needs. Smaller developing countries do not have the money needed to combat climate change, so, they are reaching out to the developed countries for help. They will need support during the next few decades if they are expected to participate in the efforts to beat global warming. The costs to the developing countries is far more than the developed ones because they are still growing as a industrial nation.
Benefits of the Kyoto Protocol
The most obvious benefit of the Kyoto Protocol is the reduction of green house gases (GHG) worldwide. The idea of the protocol is to reduce or reverse the course of global warming. The idea behind this is to set a standard for the nations involved to reduce their carbon emissions by six, seven or eight percent depending on the counties needs.
Another benefits is that it is one of the few things that globally all the countries can agree upon as a needed change. It gets everyone working together on the same page and unites our countries under one…...

Similar Documents

Kyoto Protocol and Global Warming Evaluation

...Kyoto Protocol and Global Warming Evaluation Lisa Kyser University of Phoenix Environmental Economics ECO/370 Neal Johnson August 15, 2011 Abstract Global climate change and global warming are subjects that people either believe is happening or believe is a hoax. The fact that the Earth’s average temperature has risen, suggests that humans have influenced the environment enough to cause changes in the temperature. Global climate change and global warming are being affected by people and their disregard or ignorance of their effects on the planet and others. The Kyoto Protocol was established to help fight global warming. It was designed to cut greenhouse gases by 5.2% from industrialized countries compared to the year 1990. Global warming and global climate change is a subject that people debate all over the World. Some people believe that it is the human factor that is the cause for global warming or global climate change and others believe that the climate change and warming is the result of a normal phenomenon that occurs naturally in nature at various times in the planet’s history. Whether it is human involvement or natural phenomena, the temperature of the planet is rising. Global warming is the rise in the average temperature of the planet. Since the 1880’s, the average temperature has risen 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit around the World ("National Geographic," 2007, para. 2) and regardless of who or what is to blame, it is up to the human population to do......

Words: 759 - Pages: 4

Kyoto Protocol and Global Warming Evaluation

...Edwards Plateau Aquifer Kathryn Matthews University of Phoenix Through time and the history of the Earth, many events have shaped the land and regions we all, as humans, know so well. One thing is certain, without the resources of our planet home, we would not survive. The natural resources of, air, plants and animal life for food, water, Sunshine, and the Earth and land, we are able to live and breed to continue onward. In this presentation, the element of water resources will be explored and given a voice and praise. We will look at one water source, in particular, the Edwards Plateau Aquifer. This Aquifer developed over millions of years’ time, to be the faithful water supplier we all know in Texas. The water is naturally cycled through limestone and still needs some treatment after it has been in the ground in this matrix of limestone rock beneath. This water supplies many towns and cities in the region and spans thirteen counties. It is fed by rivers, creeks, and tributaries along the distance (Eckhardt, 2011). Because of the cracks, faults, fractures, sinkholes, and caves, the rivers and streams too, can be contaminated carrying the pollutants to the recharge zone, therefore it must be checked often for quality control. The Edwards Aquifer Authority, along with other groups, like the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, and the U.S.......

Words: 1119 - Pages: 5


...China and the Kyoto Protocols China did indeed sign the Kyoto Protocols on May 29th in 1998. It then ratified the protocol in its government on August 30th in 2002. On February 16th of 2005, China entered into the force. In 2005, China was the world’s number one emitter of Greenhouse Gases, clocking in at seventeen percent of all the world’s emissions, although, per capita, out of the top ten positions, they are second to last. (China) During their five years as a member, China has only reported in once, although China is a Non Annex party due to its still growing economy and classification as a low income state. During these five years, China’s per capita greenhouse gas emissions have increased from 5.8 tons to 6.2 tons. (Kanter) I find China’s ratification of the Kyoto Protocols to be motivated on political and cultural premises. Ever since the end of Maoism, China has always been trying to appear as an eager participant in all of the world’s affairs by proving its worth to the world through political and economic prowess. The intense modernization, the friendliness towards companies willing to do work there, and fervent attempts to host the Olympics, World Expo, and other events have all been ways that China have used to attempt to dazzle the world. The Kyoto Protocols, something that China had no way of properly enforcing in light of their massive expansion, is just another way that China is showing the world that it is a great country. The reason that China could......

Words: 661 - Pages: 3

Kyoto Protocol

...Table of Contents Introduction to Copenhagen Conference and Kyoto Protocol 2 ASEAN and Copenhagen Conference 3 Climate Change as an Issue 4 Sustainable Development 5 Impact of Kyoto Protocol on ASEAN 7 Challenges faced by ASEAN under Kyoto Protocol 9 Conclusion 11 Referencing 12 Introduction to Copenhagen Conference and Kyoto Protocol In 1992, countries coupled together for an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. However, by 1995, countries realized that provisions of emission reductions in the Convention were insufficient. Due to this reason, they launched negotiations to reinforce the global response to climate change. These negotiations lead to the adoption of an agreement known as Kyoto Protocol (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2013). The Copenhagen Climate Change Conference held in Denmark raised climate change policy to the highest political level. 115 world leaders attended this high-level segment, building it one of the major gatherings of world leaders ever outside UN headquarters in New York. More than 40,000 people that represent governments, nongovernmental organizations, intergovernmental organizations, media, faith-based organizations UN agencies applied for accreditation (UNFCCC, 2013) The Copenhagen Accord enclosed numerous key elements on which there was strong union of the views of governments. This incorporated the long-term goal of limiting the maximum global average......

Words: 2412 - Pages: 10

Kyoto Protocol Research

...HIST1050-07 Kyoto Protocol Research Kyoto Agreement Environmental Issues Burdens on the atmosphere and on Earth's natural environment in general have been increasing at a steady rate over the years. Since the Industrial Revolution in the 1800s, humans have been slowly but steadily polluting the environment through the means of emission of greenhouse gases. After realizing this issue at hand, the United Nations set out to find where the majority of these emissions came from and ways to limit the damage to the environment. The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which sets international binding emission reduction targets. It was adopted in Kyoto, Japan (hence its name) on December 11, 1997 and began to be enforced on February 16, 2005. Some actions that are required by the binding of the Protocol are improving energy efficiency, reducing deforestation, and supporting renewable energy. It has been recognized that developed countries, such as the United States, and various European countries, are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the atmosphere. The Protocol places a heavier burden on these developed nations under the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities". All of the United Nation members are parties to the Protocol except Andorra, Canada, South Sudan and the United States. The United States signed the Protocol but......

Words: 742 - Pages: 3

Kyoto Protocol and Global Warming Evaluation

...Kyoto Protocol and Global Warming Evaluation Jennifer Marshall ECO/370 September 2, 2013 Ronda Jantz The Kyoto Protocol was an international treaty that was proposed to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions with legally binding signatures and expectation of ratification by industrialized countries especially. However, being an international treaty, compliance or ratification is not required but suggested in order to mitigate the global climate change that is occurring. Climate being the characteristic condition of the earth’s atmosphere over a specific area of the planet for a long period of time can be in fact altered by activities of man-kind that consist of burning fossil fuels and deforestation. Since the industrial revolution, fossil fuels and other greenhouse gas emissions such as methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone depleting substances have increased in the atmosphere to the point of altering the composition and increasing the global temperature by “about 1.1 degree F over just the last 30 years” (New England Aquarium, 2013). This is the concept of global climate change. The increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases need to be mitigated. “In 2007, the IPCC published a series of scenarios ranging from “business as usual/no actions taken” to “aggressive actions taken” to reduce climate change. Models based on these scenarios from the IPCC 2007 report predict that average global surface temperatures will......

Words: 914 - Pages: 4

Pros and Cons of Kyoto Protocol

...Pros and cons of the Kyoto Protocol. Why or why not it should be followed. Global warming, in line with other significant factors that influence the existence of human beings, has now became a major topic in modern press, politics, scientific researches and even simple chats of why the last summer was that hot. And this is not odd. The latest research on climate change has a shown a trend of incremental growth of Earth’s average surface temperature during last 100 years, with a particular increase since 1980. While the research considers several facts to cause a problem, the most obvious one is a concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere produced as a result of increased usage of natural resources. To stabilize the level of gases, in 1997 the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has issued a document known as Kyoto Protocol, aimed at fighting global warming by setting a certain emission limit per country and followed by an overall objective to reduce the number of greenhouse gases produced by them. By now, the document has gone through multiple stages of adoption and ratifications and is about to expire by the end of 2012. While the overall purpose of the protocol is clear and acceptable, the way it declares certain mechanisms and triggers polarized reactions across the world causes to analyze if it worth to be followed. First of all, the Protocol does not actually cover the key emitters of greenhouse gases, which are either not committed for......

Words: 984 - Pages: 4

After Kyoto

...After Kyoto What will happen after 2012? In 2012, the commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol will come to an end. The international climate community is currently working on finding its replacement, a new regime that will determine the future basis upon which global cooperation on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to climate change impacts will take place. While formal negotiations are taking place under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, numerous parallel initiatives lead by national governments and research institutes are shaping the nature of this discussion. Determining the future of the climate regime is a complex process—influenced by the need to: balance the diverse interests and national circumstances of developed and developing countries; enable continued economic development in all countries; and promote significant energy development in developing nations. Progress is critical, if the global community is to achieve the substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions needed to avoid significant, adverse climate change. It is time that we take meeting this challenge out of the hands of environment ministries and put it into the hands of those who truly make the critical development decisions, including finance ministries and central planners. IISD is providing assistance in informing and facilitating the emergence of a post-2012 climate regime and the integration of climate change...

Words: 590 - Pages: 3

Kyoto Treaty

...Kyoto Treaty Paper #2 The Kyoto Protocol was agreed to in December 1997 and entered into force in February 2005. It established an international treaty intended to bring countries together to reduce global warming and to cope with effects of temperature increases. 186 of 192 industrialized and developing countries have ratified the agreement to collectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 5% compared to a 1990 baseline. The provision of the Kyoto Protocol is that is sets specific, binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and European Union, but excludes developing countries. The gases regulated include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons. These targets include six major greenhouse gases, often referred to as the “Kyoto Six”. “Internationally, these emissions reductions are accomplished through three flexible mechanisms: International emissions trading, Clean development mechanism, and Joint implementation. Nationally, to meet their targets or to generate credits that can be traded, most ratifying nations would have to combine several strategies, some which include, placing restrictions on their biggest emitters, manage transportation to slow or reduce emissions from automobiles, trucks, airplanes, and vessels, and lastly make better use of renewable energy sources (solar power, wind power, and biodiesel in place of fossil fuels)” (International context and Emerging Initiatives). ...

Words: 626 - Pages: 3

Kyoto Protocol and Global Warming

... Kyoto Protocol and Global Warming Evaluation xxxxxx ECO-370 April 21, 2014 Xiaobing Shuai Kyoto Protocol and Global Warming Evaluation Surface temperature of the earth has been an indicator of threatening critical concern. The principle of a greenhouse is that the enclosing glass or plastic allows the passage of incoming sunlight, but traps a portion of the reflected infrared radiation, which warms the interior of the greenhouse above the outside temperature (Field & Field, 2009, p. 430). This reaction encloses greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere that cause an increase in temperature in earth’s surface, in which is known as global warming. Based on this chemical reaction, it creates a global climate change on planet earth that changes meteorological patterns in each region. Costs and benefits from industrialized countries Due to a higher economic standing in industrialized countries, such as the United States and Europe we have larger amounts of pollution discharges that contribute to global climate change. Major issues related to costs with the intent to reduce global climate change include: what methods to adopt in various countries to meet the performance required by the agreements and how to share the overall costs among the participating countries (Field & Field, 2009, p. 456). These are cost-effective measures that countries can substantially decrease of the overall program. In accordance with Field & Field (2009), “The benefits accruing to any......

Words: 962 - Pages: 4

Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

...KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE UNITED NATIONS 1998 KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE The Parties to this Protocol, Being Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, hereinafter referred to as “the Convention”, In pursuit of the ultimate objective of the Convention as stated in its Article 2, Recalling the provisions of the Convention, Being guided by Article 3 of the Convention, Pursuant to the Berlin Mandate adopted by decision 1/CP.1 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention at its first session, Have agreed as follows: Article 1 For the purposes of this Protocol, the definitions contained in Article 1 of the Convention shall apply. In addition: 1. “Conference of the Parties” means the Conference of the Parties to the Convention. 2. “Convention” means the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9 May 1992. 3. “Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” means the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change established in 1988 jointly by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme. 4. “Montreal Protocol” means the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, adopted in Montreal on 16 September 1987 and as subsequently adjusted and amended. 5. vote. 6. “Parties present and voting” means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative “Party” means,......

Words: 8709 - Pages: 35


...A protocol is a set of invisible compute rules that govern how an Internet document will be transmitted onto the screen. For two computers to communicate with one another, they must be able to understand one another through the same language. In order for computers to exchange information there must be a preexisting agreement as to how the information will be structured and how the sides will send and be received. The most important that defines the common networking protocols is the OSI known as Open Systems Interconnection. Introducing the TCP and the IP are two different protocols that are often linked together. The linking of several protocols is fairly common since the functions of different protocols may be complementary so that together they carry out particular tasks that are bases of operation layers. These suits of protocols are often used with many local area networks and carries out the basic operations of the Internet. Emailing also has its own set of protocols that has a variety of both for sending and receiving mail. The most common protocol for sending mail is the SMTP that is known for as Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Then for receiving emails, the protocol being most commonly used is the Post Office Protocol, POP for short. Both the SMTP and the POP is used for managing the transmission for delivery of mail across the Internet. Web pages that are constructed to a standard method are called Hypertext Markup Language known as HTMO. The HTMP......

Words: 413 - Pages: 2

Kyoto Protocol and International Construction

...A study by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) Sustainable Building and Construction Initiative (SBCI) have shown that the building and construction industry worldwide is responsible for a third of total energy use and in most parts of the world, the greatest contributor of greenhouse gas (GHG) (UNEP-SBCI, 2009). One would therefore think that the efforts resulting from the Kyoto protocol which sets binding targets to reduce GHG emissions would focus on the Building and Construction industry, and this is an opinion which may be true. The effect of the protocol have seen a paradigm shift in the industry towards a ‘Sustainable Development’ movement, being more conscious to the effects the industry has on the environment. The building and construction industry in Singapore has also recognised the need to protect the environment and there have been various efforts to encourage construction activities which may reduce GHG emissions such as the use of alternative energy, recycling construction materials, alternative materials and various government-led initiatives. Singapore however is a small city-state which the UNFCC recognises as an alternative energy-disadvantaged state, facing difficulties in using alternative energy given its small size and compact area (NEA, 2014). Nevertheless, Singapore continues to moderate its GHG emissions by exploring the use of alternative energy sources, particularly natural gas and solar energy. The switch to natural gas has......

Words: 1247 - Pages: 5

Kyoto Global Warming

...possibily that the models could be wrong. Montreal Protocol The Montreal Protocol was signed on September 16, 1987 by member nations to decrease the total number of greenhouse gas emmissions, specifically CFCs. The protocol agreed to in Montreal, Quebec, was the summation of a short hisory of environmental safety and preservation. Starting approximately in the mid-seventies, the first event to lead to the protocol was the theory of ozone depletion. Several organizations tried to come up with the best next step to cure the problem of ozone depletion, finally to end up a little over ten years later in Montreal. The protocol layed the groundwork for a global "phasing out" of CFCs and halons. Both CFCs and halons are considered significant ontributors to the new ozone depletion problem; their exisatance is marked by a twelve year count down as of today. The (official Montreal Protocol) is a successful tool being used to phase out the grenhouse gases that it specifically lists, and so those original 24 member nations have signed an additional 137 nations, making the total number 161 in the most recent count. It has been tweaked and ammended only twice, once in 1990, and again in 1992. The need for the ammendments was not to work out any flaws in the protocol, rather the 1990 and 1992 ammendments were used to create a new Multilateral Fund. This is a fund fuel by developed nations to help developing nations abide by the protocol and upgrade their technology so that......

Words: 1566 - Pages: 7

Kyoto Protocol

...considering the fact that it is not about the industrial strategies or further space exploration but about safety and confidence in future of the human beings. Kyoto protocol, presenting definite steps in fighting the threat for the people, at the same time became an international phenomenon which showed how all spheres of human life are connected with each other in the era of global information. First of all, its main benefit justified itself in the next few days after its adoption. The authorities at last tackle the problems of globalization or at least admit the existence of such. This cooperation became of public awareness and it is quite vivid now to everyone that problems of global climate change are not someone's smart myth but a real fact that has drawn attention of the mighty of this world. Another advantage of the Kyoto protocol is that it really works. According to the official statistics nearly half of the countries that are fully or partially obligated to it have really reduced emissions of carbon dioxide by some percent. Cutting the amount of pollution in the atmosphere will certainly have a positive effect even if human activity has nothing to do with climate change. It will certainly reduce the number of diseases caught due to bad ecology. Alongside with definite advantages of the adoption of the protocol it has significant disadvantages. To start with, it created an opportunity for the countries that produce less than it is established as the limit to......

Words: 692 - Pages: 3

Watch movie | The Venture Brothers (86) | $0 Shipping