Lead (Chemical Properties and Defenition

In: Science

Submitted By mhungers
Words 561
Pages 3
Element: Lead
Symbol: Pb
Latin Name: Plumbum
Atomic Number: 82
Group: 14
Period: 6
Electronic Configuration: * 1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d10f14 5s2p6d10 6s2p2
Electrons per Energy Level: 2,8,18,32,18,4
Shell model:

Properties Of Lead (Pb)

Chemical Properties of Lead * Electrochemical Equivalent: 3.865g/amp-hr * Electron Work Function: 4.25eV * Electronegativity: 2.33 (Pauling); 1.55 (Allrod Rochow) * Heat of Fusion: 4.799kJ/mol * Incompatibilities:
Strong oxidizers, hydrogen peroxide, acids * Ionization Potential * First: 7.416 * Second: 15.028 * Third: 31.943 * Valence Electron Potential (-eV): 24.2
Physical Properties of Lead * Atomic Mass Average: 207.2 * Boiling Point: 2013K 1740°C 3164°F * Coefficient of lineal thermal expansion/K-1: 29.1E-6 * Conductivity
Electrical: 0.0481 106/cm Ω
Thermal: 0.353 W/cmK * Density: 11.35g/cc @ 300K * Description:
A very soft bluish-white metal that tarnishes in moist air. * Elastic Modulus: * Bulk: 46/GPa * Rigidity: 5.6/GPa * Youngs: 16/GPa * Enthalpy of Atomization: 194.6 kJ/mole @ 25°C * Enthalpy of Fusion: 4.77 kJ/mole * Enthalpy of Vaporization: 179.4 kJ/mole * Flammablity Class: Non-combustible solid (except as dust) * Freezing Point: see melting point * Hardness Scale * Brinell: 38.3 MN m-2 * Mohs: 1.5 * Heat of Vaporization: 177.7kJ/mol * Melting Point: 600.75K 327.6°C 621.7°F * Molar Volume: 18.27 cm3/mole * Physical State (at 20°C & 1atm): Solid * Specific Heat: 0.13J/gK * Vapor Pressure = 4.21E-07Pa@327.6°C

Crystal Structure: Cubic face centered

Uses of lead
Used in solder, shielding against radiation, in batteries and ammunition. Still used in gasoline in some areas of the world, but this use is being phased out.


Similar Documents


...SUMMARY REPORT OF MARKS AND GRADES Session & Year: III Sem.B. Tech. Chemical- DEC 2011 Course No: CY 205 Course Title: Organic Chemistry Credits: 3-0-0(3) Department: Chemistry Name of the Instructor: Dr. Darshak R. Trivedi CLASS PERFORMANCE DISTRIBUTION STATISTICS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Class Size (No. of students) = 50 Class – Max. Marks (Xmax) = 85 Class – Min. Marks (Xmin) = 20 Class – Mean Marks (µ) = 59 Standard – Deviation (σ) = 18 Grades AA AB BB BC CC CD DD FF FA Cutoff Marks % 80 73 61 50 40 30 20 19 Attendance less than 75 % Number of Students 06 07 15 09 04 05 04 00 00 ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≤ ------ Signature of Instructor(s) (with date) Date: 7h Dec 2011 Signature of Secretary DUGC Signature of Chairman DUGC REPORTS OF MARKS and GRADES Session & Year: III Sem.B. Tech. Chemical- DEC 2011 Course No: CY 205 Course Title: Organic Chemistry Credits: 3-0-0(3) Name of the Instructor: Dr. Darshak R. Trivedi Course Category: BSc Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Reg. No. 10CH01 10CH02 10CH03 10CH04 10CH06 10CH07 10CH08 10CH09 10CH10 10CH11 10CH13 10CH14 10CH15 10CH16 10CH17 10CH18 10CH19 10CH20 10CH21 10CH22 10CH23 10CH24 10CH25 10CH26 10CH27 10CH28 10CH29 1OCH30 10CH32 10CH33 10CH34 10CH35 10CH36 10CH37 NAME AAQIB H AZAAM ACHINT SANGHI ADITYA BATTU ADITYA NAIR AMIT ABRAHAM MATHAI ANANYA RAVI ANINDITA RAVIKUMAR...

Words: 534 - Pages: 3


...introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollution also has different components call Pollutants. (Wikipedia 2012) A pollutant is substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource. A pollutant may cause long- or short-term damage by changing the growth rate of plant or animal species, or by interfering with human amenities, comfort, health, or property values. (Wikipedia 2012) There are also different kinds of pollutants like greenhouse gases, pesticides, endocrine disruptors, petroleum and heavy metals. Carbon dioxide and methane are two of the most important of these gases, called greenhouse gases because they trap heat in the earth's atmosphere. This is already causing severe problems around the world and the situation will only get worse. The rising temperatures will likely lead to more severe weather events, which cause shifts in natural communities, and probably lead to greater species extinction rates, among numerous other effects. Pesticides are a broad group of chemicals that enable us to live more comfortable lives by and large, but whose main purpose underlies the central problem with pesticide pollution. They are all poisons. A lot of these chemicals will wash into our rivers and streams and cause direct toxicity to fishes, and may work their way up......

Words: 1315 - Pages: 6


...Ford’s United States market share plummeted from 25% to 15%. In 2006, Alan Mulally was hired as CEO and took over a company at the precipice of failure. Mulally announced a new restructuring plan in 2006 entitled ‘The Way Forward’, designed to “better align capacity to demand”. At its core, this plan involved the closure of seven assembly plants and strategic reorientation towards ‘One Ford’. Championed by Mulally, this strategy focuses on creating a standard Ford personality which is seen and felt within every automobile produced by the company. In addition, the plan entails standardizing chassis worldwide and a greater focus on the core Ford nameplate. As a part of this plan, Ford mortgaged all of its assets—both physical and intellectual property—in December 2006 for a $23.4 billion line of credit. While originally seen as a risky and potentially desperate move, this timely acquisition of capital has made Ford the most stable of the Big Three carmakers. The company also divested some of its non-Ford brands during this time, selling Jaguar and Land Rover to Tata Motors for $2.3 billion in 2008. Ford is also currently attempting to sell Volvo, which it purchased in 1999 for $6.5 billion. Business Model and Market Overview Ford Motor Company currently employs approximately 213,000 workers worldwide and markets vehicles under four primary brands: Ford, Lincoln, Mercury, and Volvo. The firm is divided into two departments, Automotive and Financial Services. Ford Credit......

Words: 7639 - Pages: 31


...LEADS 1. Consider how NUMMI became a learning organization – what changes in structure, labor practices and especially management philosophy made NUMMI more competitive that the GM plant that it replaced? How do the different parts of the system support each other? 207 words NUMMI became a consummately adaptive enterprise. The leadership at NUMMI realized the importance of “Creative Tension”. They were true in their assessment in judging the current reality as well as very clear in the vision of where they wanted to be in the future. The managers at NUMMI took on the roles of designers, teachers as well as stewards thus creating an ambiance of shared responsibility and mutual respect. The corporate philosophy of the company changed to be customer centric. Service to its customers was considered as of paramount importance followed by service to its employees. The labors at the plant felt a sense of ownership and pride not only in the work they performed but also in the overall growth of the company. The hierarchical structure in the company was changed to be more flatter organization in which the opinions of the lowest members of the organization were also recognized for the benefit of the company. There was a culture of discipline and long term visibility of the firm shared among the employees of the firm. The management at NUMMI realized that the long term sustainability of the company could only be achieved by the process of continued learning, or something referred to...

Words: 614 - Pages: 3

Lead Lead

...Leaders Lead There are leaders and there are followers. Leaders are people who lead a group, organization, or a community. Followers seek guidance from leaders and complete the task at hand. Leaders are advocates in our world. They are innovators and creators. In order for anything in the world to succeed there must be leaders to lead and followers to follow. For example, when working on a group project in order for the project to succeed someone must step up and be a leader. Someone must delegate the responsibilities that each person in the group will need to complete. If this is not completed the project may have no direction and will fail. The most effective leaders must understand their audience and determine their leadership styles. Some employees need more development then others, while some employees are able to work with no assistance or guidance. In order for one to be an effective leader one must have the appropriate leadership style. Sir Richard Branson (Branson) accurately discusses his leadership styles in his case study “Sir Richard Branson, Chairman, Virgin Group, Ltd”. Throughout this paper, we will discuss the leadership stylings of Branson and the effectiveness of that style in United States today. How using different leadership stylings could make Branson a more effective leader. Also, how Branson will lead a global team while working on a major project, and how one can incorporate some of Branson’s leadership qualities into a role at a workplace.......

Words: 1099 - Pages: 5

Chemical Hazards

...Industrial poisons These are mainly due to various chemical substances from industry, which get into public water supply. Usually they contain solvents, detergents, heavy metals, dyes, pigments, sulphides, organic substances etc. These chemicals may affect directly, by contact, to produce severe skin diseases, allergies or eczemoid reaction or chemical burns. Some toxins produce acute effects while others produce chronic effects. Sometimes, the chemicals are ingested by workers if they do not wash their hands before taking food various toxic chemicals, and their effects on health. One may come in contact with them through other means besides water. Consequences of a negative impact of poisons on the human body depend on many factors: gender, age and individual sensitivity of the body, the chemical structure and physical properties of the poison. Its concentration in the air, the amount of substance taken into the body, the duration and continuity of its revenue, as well as a number of related factors of production environment, such as temperature and humidity, noise, vibration. Industrial poisons enter the human body in two main ways: through the respiratory system and skin. Through airways fall poisons which are in air, preferably as a vapor, gas and dust. Through skin penetrate oily liquid substances which highly soluble in lipids (fats and fat-like substances). Delivery of poisons through the gastrointestinal tract with contaminated hands when eating is also possible. ...

Words: 414 - Pages: 2


...in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property LEG 500 August 26, 2014 Legal and Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property Ethical dilemma may be defined as a situation where one has to make a decision but the decision to be made has some impact on either of the choices taken. In different organizations, there are times where a manager may be faced by ethical dilemmas that he or she is supposed to look into. The process may be difficult since the manager has to deal with such situations without discriminating on any individual. Any activity that relate to business management in relation to the society, consumers, and the business itself should consider all ethical issues relating to the environment. It is important for business owners to alight ethical issues to their business plans. Ethical issues may relate to advertising and marketing, regulation of product safety, and intellectual property. Marketing and advertising, relating to any industry in the market, may have different forms of ethical issues. For example, advertising may be unethical when the content in the advertisement has unethical issues such as the use of harsh language or pictures that may not be pleasant to all age groups (Ashcroft, 2007). It is important for advertising agencies to consider all ethical factors while posting any advertisement to the public. In addition, marketing may lead to unethical issues such as pollution to the......

Words: 2863 - Pages: 12

American Chemical

...Introduction Dixon Corporation, a U.S.-based chemical company, is mulling on buying a plant from American Chemical Corp. American Chemical’s Collinsville plant makes sodium chlorate for the paper and pulp industry. Dixon will have to pay $12 million as purchase price for the plant. It may also pay $2.25 million to complete the laminate technology developed by the plant’s research and development staff, which is expected to improve the plant’s efficiency. Dixon already has transacted business with some of American Chemical’s major customers. Dixon, however, believes that the acquisition will enable it to widen product lines and penetrate the paper and pulp industry. Analysis To determine the economic feasibility of the acquisition, we can compute for the NPV of the acquisition, with or without the new technology. The NPV will show whether the Collinsville purchase will increase shareholder’s wealth or lead the company to insolvency. Under the net present value method, the weighted average cost of capital is used as the discount rate to calculate the present value of future cash inflows. Hence, for the case study, we will compute for the WACC, prepare projected cash flows then compute the NPV. Solution WACC The all-equity beta (β) of Dixon is 1.06. We assume that we could have a beta of 1.9 for the production of sodium chlorate, basing from the betas of other chemical firms. We could re-lever Dixon’s beta by using its 35% target......

Words: 1171 - Pages: 5


... TABLE OF CONTENTS 5 10 16 21 26 32 35 41 50 53 61 IN RETROSPECT: PROPERTY MARKET PERFORMANCE IN 2014 PRIVATE PROPERTY MARKET 2015: THE SQUEEZE TIGHTENS FURTHER HDB RESALE MARKET 2015: AN ANTICIPATION OF AN UPSWING? ALONG THE THOMSON LINE: BRINGING BENEFITS TO THE EAST SKIMMING THE SUBLETTING SITUATION HOW SINGAPOREANS FEEL ABOUT THE LOCAL PROPERTY MARKET COMMERCIAL PROPERTY: A MIXED OUTLOOK REFLECTING CHANGING LANDSCAPES PROPERTY OUTLOOK 2015: SEARCHING FOR INSIGHTS NEW YORK: A PROPERTY RISING STAR ON THE HORIZON LONDON RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY OUTLOOK: THE BEST JUST GOT BETTER FENG SHUI: USHERING IN THE YEAR OF THE GOAT PropertyGuru Outlook Report 2015 2 PREFACE It without a doubt property still remains a hot button issue for Singaporeans. From speculation about whether the cooling measures will be eased to predictions of just how much market prices will continue to fall, the topic has dominated conversations of many first-time buyers, upgraders and investors. In 2014, the decline in Singapore’s private residential and HDB resale market, showed no signs of abating. Restrictions on access to mortgage capital because of the Total Debt Servicing Ratio (TDSR) has, to a large degree, influenced the reinforcement of these behavioural patterns and will continue to so – at least for the majority for 2015. And with the government reiterating that they will not relax the existing policies, status quo looks set to place further pressures on the already subdued market.......

Words: 13881 - Pages: 56


...Lead (Pb) is a malleable, ductile, heavy metal that is resistant to corrosion and is bluish-white in color but turns gray and tarnishes when exposed to air. It is a moderately active metal, dissolves slowly in water, and does not burn. It is naturally occurring in the Earth’s crust. Its abundance is estimated to be between 13 and 20 parts per million. It rarely occurs as a pure element and its most commonly found in the form of lead sulfide (PbS). Children are the most vulnerable population susceptible to the health hazards of lead exposure. They are more sensitive to elevated blood led levels, are more likely to ingest toxins due to frequent hand-to-mouth activity, and are more likely to breathe lead-contaminated dust and soil as well as fumes close to the ground. Increased lead levels in pregnant women may pose risk to the developing fetus. Low lead levels that may harm the fetus and cause neurological problems in newborns may not present risk to the mother. Women may also store lead in their bones from prior lead exposure that can be released during times of calcium stress such as pregnancy and lactation. Elevated lead levels in pregnant women pose an increased risk of preterm labor, miscarriage, spontaneous abortion or still birth, and low birth weight. Other major at risk populations include adults whos occupations are in lead-related industries including lead smelting, refining, and manufacturing industries. People who participate in......

Words: 984 - Pages: 4


...hazard (flash point 25°C). Moderately toxic by inhalation or ingestion. Causes skin and eye irritation. HMIS Classification: Health hazard(2, Flammability(3, Physical hazard(0. Drierite®: Toxic by ingestion. May cause respiratory tract irritation. Skin and eye irritant. HMIS Classification: Health hazard(2, Flammability(0, Physical hazard–0. The hazard information reference is Sigma-Aldrich Co., 1-800-325-3010, www.sigmaaldrich.com/safety-center/msds-search.html. COMPOUND INFORMATION |COMPOUND |CHEMICAL FORMULA |MELTING TEMPERATURE RANGE ((C) |MOLAR MASS (G/MOL) | |ANTHRACENE |C14H10 |210–215 |178.23 | |MALEIC ANHYDRIDE |C4H2O3 |51–56 |98.06 | |Compound |Chemical formula |Boiling temperature |Molar mass (g/mol) |Density (g/mL) at 25°C | | | |range ((C) | | | |xylenes |C8H10 |137–140 |106.16 |0.86 | Sample results MELTING TEMPERATURE GRAPH OF 9,10-DIHYDROANTHRACENE-9,10-α,β-SUCCINIC......

Words: 1797 - Pages: 8

List of Chemicals

...------------------------------------------------- Reagent index[edit] A[edit] Chemical name | Chemical formula | Common name | Source and description | Acetic acid | CH3COOH + H2O | 5% Solution: White vinegar | Grocery store; "white vinegar"—5% or "cleaning vinegar"—10%Photography supply store; "Indicator Stop Bath"—89% (with Bromocresol Purple dye) or "Glacial Acetic Acid" 99.5–100% | Acetone | CH3COCH3 | Acetone | General; "nail polish remover"Discount store; Onyx, Cutex. Boating supply; "fiberglass cleaner" Hardware store; "Acetone"While composition varies from product to product, paint removers have more acetone per volume than regular nail polish remover, and industrial grade (rather than consumer grade) paint removers used by professionals + sold in bulk will contain more acetone still. Some stores sell pure acetone as well.[2] | Acetylene gas | C2H2 | Ethyne | Hardware store or Welding supply; "acetylene"By reaction of calcium carbide and water. | Acetylsalicylic acid | C9H8O4 | Aspirin | Pharmacy; "Aspirin" | Aluminium | Al | Aluminium | General; "aluminium foil"Fine art store; "metallic pigment"—powdered aluminiumFiberglass supply shop; powdered aluminium as a filler material.Refined from mined aluminum ore, or bauxite.Often coated with wax to reduce flammability. | Aluminium hydroxide | Al(OH)3 | alumina hydrate | General; "antacid tablets"—blended with magnesium hydroxideAntacid Tablets; Alu-cap, Amphojel, Dialume—100%Fine art supply: "thickening......

Words: 6510 - Pages: 27


...DUCOR CHEMICALS In the fall of 2000, Ducor Chemical received a research and development contract from one of their most important clients. The client had awarded Ducor with a twelve-month, sole-source contract for the R&D effort to create a new chemical that the client required for one of its future products. If Ducor could develop the product, the long-term production contract that would follow could generate significant profits over the next several years. In addition to various lab personnel who would be used as needed, the contract mandated that a senior chemist be assigned for the duration of the project. In the past, the senior chemists had been used mainly for internal rather than external customer projects. This would be the first time a senior chemist had been assigned to this client. With only four senior chemists on staff, the project manager expected the resource negotiation process with the lab manager to be an easy undertaking. Project manager: "I understand you've already looked over the technical requirements, so you should understand the necessity for assigning your best senior scientist." Lab manager: "All of my senior scientists are good. Any one of them can do the job. Based upon the timing of your project, I have decided to assign John Thornton." 238 DUCOR CHEMICAL Project manager: "Just my luck! You assigned the only one I cannot work with effectively. I have had the misfortune of working with him before. He's......

Words: 1101 - Pages: 5

Chemicals Note.Doc

...RFCC UNIT CHEMICAL USE AND PREPARATION 1. LIQUID PHOSPHATE (Water treatment) External treatment: Reduction and removal of impurities from water outside the boiler. In general, external treatment is used when the amount of one or more of the feedwater impurities is too high to be tolerated by the boiler system in question. (e.g. softening, deaeration, evaporation) Internal Treatment: Is the conditioning of impurities within the boiler system. Its purpose is to properly react with feed water hardness, condition sludge, scavenge oxygen and prevent boiler water foaming. Purpose of Internal Treatment: • React with any feed water hardness and prevent it from precipitating on the metal as scale. • Eliminate oxygen from the water and provide enough alkalinity to prevent boiler corrosion. Phosphate-dispersants / polyphate-dispersants (softening chemicals) - Reacting with the alkalinity of boiler water, these products neutralise the hardness of water by forming tricalcium phosphate and insoluble dispersant that can be disposed and blown down on a continuous basis or intermittently. - Phosphates react with Ca2+ and Mg2+ compounds in the feed water. Ca(CO3)2 (Calcium bicarbonate) entering the feed water reacts with NaOH to for CaCO3. Since CaCO3 is relatively insoluble, it tends to come out of the solution. Chemical formula: Phosphate, Sodium hydroxide, Water, Polymer Reasons for Phosphate injection • pH......

Words: 810 - Pages: 4


...Quaker Chemical Corporation is a leading global provider of process chemicals, chemical specialties, services, and technical expertise to a wide range of industries including steel, aluminum, automotive, mining, aerospace, tube and pipe, coatings and construction materials. Our products, technical solutions, and chemical management services enhance our customers' processes, improve their product quality, and lower their costs. Quaker's headquarters is located near Philadelphia in Conshohocken, Pennsylvania. Since 1918, we have been establishing and maintaining long-term relationships with leading enterprises in primary metals, metalworking, and other basic process industries all over the world. Today, we have business and production presence in every major manufacturing country in the world. Quaker is a $683.2 million dollar company headquartered in Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA, with regional headquarter locations in Uithoorn, The Netherlands, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and Shanghai, China. The company is publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange, and has a long track record of financial consistency and strength. While the use of business intelligence was beneficial to an extent for these three companies, it is important to remember that Hillman, Avnet and Quaker Chemical are relatively large companies who are publicly traded, have over a thousand employees, or a global presence. Do you think that Business Intelligence is a realistic application for small to medium......

Words: 256 - Pages: 2

Vedi Prodotto | Bubble Guppies | Mizuta Masahide