Linguistics

In: English and Literature

Submitted By daijie0309
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网络流行新词“X姐”和“X哥”语义演变的隐喻认知研究

摘要:近几年来,“X姐”、“X哥”作为新兴的网络新词得到广泛推广。“姐”、“哥”的语义也发生了变化:由最初表示一种亲属关系的身份,到如今人们对社会当中的某些比较特殊的或是比较突出的个人冠以的一种或调侃或戏谑的称呼。隐喻作为语言使用过程中的一种重要的认知模式,与语义演变密切相关。本文从隐喻认知的角度,就“姐”、“哥”在“X姐”、“X哥”中产生的新义,加以阐释。
关键词:网络新词,语义演变,隐喻认知

Abstract: In recent years, “X Jie” and “X Ge”, as new forms of internet expressions, have been widely used. “Jie” and “Ge” have developed from the original meanings, elder sister and elder brother into many new meanings, such as a person of special personality in a given filed. Metaphor, as an important cognitive model, has a close relationship with the language evolution. From the view of cognitive metaphor, the new meanings of “Jie” and “Ge” can be scientifically explained.
Key Words:New Forms of Internet Expressions,Language Evolution,Cognitive Metaphor

一、引言 随着信息时代的高速发展,网络时代的到来促使了新的交流方式的产生,即以网络为媒介而实现的人际交流的方式。在这个交流的过程中出现了一种新的语言——网络语言。网络语言基于网络的开放性和自由性形成了其独具特色的新语体,许多新词扑面而来,并经过网络传播而得以推广流行。网络流行词“X姐”、“X哥”在近几年频频出现,并以强大的构词能力迅速风靡网络、电视、报刊等新闻媒体。例如新词“凤姐”、“犀利哥”已经成为人们热议的话题。“X姐”、“X哥”作为网络新词,具有其能产性、定位性、和类化性的特点。“姐”、“哥”由最初表示一种亲属关系的身份,到如今人们对社会当中的某些比较特殊的或是比较突出的个人冠以的一种或调侃或戏谑的称呼。在这种词义的变化中,隐喻思维的影响不容置疑。据统计,语言中70%的词义是隐喻或源于隐喻。随着社会的发展,人们不断认知和创造这新事物,事物范畴也不断扩大。当人的思维发展到一定阶段,最初的概念范畴已不能满足对具体事物的认识和表达。这时,人们并不是无止境的创造新词语,而是将新认识的抽象概念与已知的事物相联系,找到它们的相似性,从而用对已知的事物的认识来处理,即隐喻认知过程。可见,隐喻对认知和词语意义的发展有重要意义。本文从认知语言学的视角出发,对“姐”、“哥”的语义转化进行隐喻认知方面的考察,以揭示“姐”、“哥”语义转化的隐喻认知过程,为新词语流行推广的原因提供借鉴。

二、隐喻 对隐喻的研究可追溯到两千年前,亚里士多德的传统隐喻论把隐喻看作是一种修辞格,是一种语言常规的违反和偏离。在新近的二十几年崛起的认知语言学研究中,隐喻不再被看作是语言的一种修辞手段或美化手段,也不在被看作是一种简单的语言产物,而是被看作人类的一种认知现象,是人类基本的一种思维方式和行为方式。Lakoff和Johnson合著的《我们赖以生存的隐喻》中这样描述隐喻的认知作用,“隐喻在日常生活中无处不再,不仅在语言中,而在我们的思维和行动中都是这样的”(朱红雷,2008)。Lakoff认为隐喻不是语言的表面现象,他是深层的认知机制,组织我们的思想,形成我们的判断,是语言结构化,从而有巨大的语言生成力。例如,“爱情是旅行”这一概念隐喻,爱情和旅程是两个完全不同的概念域,人们在认识二者的过程中发现一次爱情经历就像走完一段旅行一样。因此,通过提供经验的框架,隐喻有助于我们思维,处理新获得的抽象概念。 Lakoff认为隐喻是一种基于抽象意象的映射,以人们相对熟悉的,比较具体的易懂的源域向另一比较陌生的,抽象的难以理解的目标域映射,通过源域(source…...

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